Delhi Sultanate

? The Delhi Sultanate basically refers to the Muslim rulers who ruled India through Delhi. This basically came into existence after Mohammed Ghori captured Delhi after defeating Prithviraj. After Prithviraj was captured, the Delhi Sultanate went into the hands of one of Ghori's generals known as Qutub-ud-din Aibak. During the end of the 12th century, … Read more

Yadavas

? The Seuna, Sevuna or of Devagiri (c. 850–1334) was an Indian dynasty, which at its peak ruled a kingdom stretching from the Tungabhadra to the Narmada rivers, including present-day Maharashtra, north Karnataka and parts of Madhya Pradesh, from its capital at Devagiri (present-day Daulatabad in modern Maharashtra). The initially ruled as feudatories of the … Read more

The Bahmani Sultanate

?                                                                     The Bahmani kingdom came into existence in 1347AD. Alauddin Hasan, an Afghan, founded the Sultanate after revolted against the  Bin Tuglaq, sultan of Delhi. He ruled it under the title of Bahaman Shah. He was also known as Hasan Gangu, as he had risen in the servise of a Brahmin, named Gangu. … Read more

The Kanauj And Their Contribution

? Kannauj is one among the most ancient place of India having rich archeological and cultural heritage, The ancient name of this place is Kanyakubja or Mahodya (as per Balmiki Ramayana, Mahabharat and Puran) later name kanyakubja was changed as Kannauj the present name of the District.   The early history of the region now … Read more

Tana Bhagat Movement

Tana Bhagat Movement Oraon Tana bhagat Movement (1914-1919) a tribal uprising of a section of the Oraons under the leadership of Jatra Oraon, a twenty-five year old youth of Gumla, Ranchi, occurring during the late colonial period in the Chhotanagpur region. In April 1914 Jatra proclaimed that he had received a message from Dharmesh, the … Read more

Birsa Movement

Birsa Movement Birsa Munda (1875–1900) was an Indian tribal freedom fighter, religious leader, and folk hero who belonged to the Munda tribe. He spearheaded an Indian tribal religious Millenarian movement that arose in the tribal belt of modern-day Bihar and Jharkhand in the late 19th century, during the British Raj, thereby making him an important … Read more

Quit India Movement

SECOND WORLD WAR AND INDIAN NATIONALISTS In September 1939, the Second World War broke out. Indian opinion was not sought but the British government dragged India in the war as a party. Britain which claimed to be fighting for freedom had destroyed the freedom of the Indian people and had dragged India into the war. … Read more

The partition of India and its consequences

Direct Action Day (1946) Direct Action Day hartal called by the Muslim League on August 16, 1946 to get rid of ‘British slavery and contemplated future caste-Hindu domination’. The  backdrop of the Direct Action Day was not only the Muslim League’s acceptance of the cabinet mission plan, but also the loss of face it had … Read more

Moderates and Extremists in Indian Independence Struggle

Early phase of Indian National Congress was that of Moderators,They expected that if the problems of’ the nation were brought to light through proper propaganda, the colonial government would take steps to improve matters. Thus in the initial years through lectures, writings in newspapers the nationalists put forward the main problems of the nation and … Read more

Struggle for Raising Women’s status : Abolition of Sati System, Widow Marriage Act, Consent Bill,Stress on Female education

Struggle for Raising Women’s status Patriarchy remains deeply entrenched in Indian social structure, influencing the structure of its political and social institutions and determining the opportunities open to women and men. The negotiation and conflict between patriarchy and the women’s movement are central to the Struggle for Raising Women’s status in Indian Society. Ignorance and … Read more

Indo Islamic Architecture

The Ghurid occupation of India at the close of the 12 century A.D has shown the seeds of Indo-Islamic architecture in the Indian Subcontinent . The Muslims having inherited a wealth of varied designs from Sassanian and Byzantine empires and being naturally endowed with good taste for buildings, never failed to adapt to their own … Read more

Social Reforms Movements in Hindu Community : Brahma Samaj, Arya Samaj, Ram Krishna Mission, Prarthann Samaj and Theosophical Society of India.

Reformers like Raja Rammohan Roy, Ishwarchandra Vidyasagar, Swami Dayanand Saraswati, Jyotiba Phule, Sir Syed Ahmed Khan and Pandita Ramabai understood that ignorance and backwardness in the society was responsible for hindering its progress and development. They studied the religious scriptures and criticized the prevalent religious and social practices. According to them, society should be based … Read more

Development of Hindi and Urdu Language

Hindi and Urdu are two Hindustani Languages; spoken mostly in the northern and Central India and in Pakistan. Hindi and Urdu are two different languages but these languages have many common things. Both Hindi and Urdu are developed in a similar phase and adopted many changes. We will discuss about the development of both the … Read more

Religious Movements: Sufism

‘Sufism’ is a term used to refer to mystical religious ideas in Islam. It had evolved into a well developed movement by the 11 century. Sufis, stress on the importance of traversing the path of the Sufi pir enabling one to establish a direct communion with the divine. Sufism or mysticism emerged in the 8 … Read more

Revolt of 1857

Introduction During the Governor-General Lord Canning May 11, 1857. The Meerut incident. Capture of Delhi. Proclaiming B S Jazar as the emperor. Almost half the Company’s sepoy strength of 232224 opted out of their loyalty to their regimental colours. Kanpur: Nana Saheb; Lucknow: Begum Hazrat Mahal; Bareilly: Khan Bahadur; Jagdishpur (Ara): Kunwar Singh; Jhansi: Rani … Read more

Resistance to Colonial Rule; Peasant; Tribal and Cultural Renaissance

Civil Rebellions and Tribal Uprisings The backbone of the rebellions, their mass base and striking power came from the rack-rented peasants, ruined artisans and demobilized soldiers CAUSES The major cause of the civil rebellions was the rapid changes the British introduced in the economy, administration and land revenue system. The revenues were enhanced by increasing … Read more

Beginning of European settlements:Formation and growth of East India Company; Consolidation of British power in India : Battles of Plassey and Buxar; Control over Mysore; Subsidiary Alliance; Doctrine of Lapse; Doctrine of Escheat

Beginning of European settlements:Formation and growth of East India Company;  Luxury goods produced in east asian countries such as pepper, spices such as cloves, cinnamon and nutmeg, silks, cottons, tea and coffee were in great demand in Europe.These luxury goods from the East Indies came to Europe in small quantities via complex trade routes. Several … Read more

Religious Movements: The Bhakti movement

The Bhakti movement in Indian history represents a movement that popularized devotional surrender to a personally conceived supreme God. Its origins are traced to the Brahamanical and Buddhist traditions of ancient India. It was in south India that it grew from a religious tradition into a popular movement based on religious equality and broad based … Read more

The Mongol invasion of India

During Sultan Qutb-ud-din Aibak’s time, the Mongols, appeared in the East of India and emerged as a great power under the leadership of Genghiz Khan (1165-1227). He was born in 1165 to Yesugei and Hoelun. He was brought up by his ablest mother Hoelun after his father was poisoned to death by Tatars. In his … Read more

The Delhi Sultanate : Market and Military Reforms of Allauddin Khilji;Utopian policies of Muhainmad-bin-Tughlaq.

Muhammad Ghori returned to Ghori, leaving his Indian territories in the charge of his trusted general Qutub-ud –din Aibak. After Ghori’s death in 1206, Qutub-ud-din Aibak proclaimed himself as the ruler of the Turkish territories in India. He took the title of Sultan and made Delhi his capital. This marked the beginning of The Delhi … Read more

The Ghaznavid Invasion of India.

The Ghaznavid Dynasty was founded after the Turk slaves reached higher posts, such as commander-in-chiefs, in the Samanid court; they then took over the state of Khorasan. The real founder of the Ghaznavid Dynasty is, in fact, Sabuktigin. It was in his time that the Ghaznavid sovereignty expanded. Mahmud Ghazni was Son of Sabuktigin, the … Read more

The Arab Invasion of India

The first incursion by the new Muslim successor states of the Persian Empire occurred around 664 CE during the Umayyad Caliphate, led by Mohalib towards Multan in Southern Punjab, in modern day Pakistan. Mohalib’s expeditions were not aimed at conquest, though they penetrated only as far as the capital of the Maili, he returned with … Read more

Sadan Of Jharkhand

Sadani / Sadri is a lingua franca used for inter-tribal group communication in eastern-central India. The term “Sadani” can be used in two senses. In the first, more general meaning, “Sadani” refers to the closely related linguistic varieties in Jharkhand, including forms such as Panch Parganiya, Khortha and Kurmali, which are generally considered independent languages. … Read more

Rise of Maratha Empire

Rise of Maratha Empire Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj (Shivaji Shahaji Bhosale) was the founder of strong Maratha Empire in the west part of India in 17th Century. Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj (Shivaji Shahaji Bhosale) was born in the fort of Shivneri, near from city Junner (Pune District), in the year 1630 (19th February’ 1630). His mother Jijabai … Read more

Non Alignment Movement

  One of the basic tenets of our foreign policy has been non-alignment. As an element of foreign policy non-alignment m e a n s i n d e p e n d e n t o f b l o c s , peaceful coexistence, global peace, disarmament, struggle against all manifestations of injustices … Read more

Mughal Empire

Mughal Empire (1526 A.D.-1857 A.D.) Babur- His actual name was Zahiruddin Mohammed, son of Omar Sheikh Mirza, the king of Ferghana in Afghanistan. His ambition was to conquer Samarkand, the seat of Timur. In 1527 A.D., Babur defeated ranasanga in the battle of Kanwa. In the battle of Chanderi (1528 A.D.), Babur defeated Mediniroy. In … Read more

Liberation War of Bangladesh

  The Liberation War of Bangladesh in 1971 was the culmination of a 25-year tumultuous relationship between East and West Pakistan. The British failed to keep a united India as riots started between the Hindus, Sikhs and Muslims in 1946. The riots were so widespread that on August 14, 1947 India was portioned into two … Read more

Land Revenue System under British Rule

  Since the grant of diwani for Bengal, Bihar and Orissa in 1765, the major concern of the East India Company’s administration in India was to collect as much revenue as possible. Agriculture was the main basis of economy and the main source of income and hence, although the nawabi administration was retained with Muhammad … Read more

Integration of Princely States

  Under the plan of 3 June, more than 562 princely states were given the option of joining either India or Pakistan, or choosing independence. Indian nationalists and large segments of the public feared that if these states did not accede, most of the people and territory would be fragmented. The Congress as well as … Read more

Formation of Linguistic States:–

Formation of Linguistic States:– India is a land of many languages, each with its distinct script, grammar, vocabulary and literary tradition. In 1917, the Congress Party had committed itself to the creation of linguistic provinces in a Free India. After Congress’s Nagpur Session in 1920, the principle was extended and formalized with the creation of … Read more

Climatic Regions of India

Climatic Regions of India : Koeppen’s Classification Climate Type Climatic Region Annual Rainfall in the Region Amw (Monsoon type with shorter dry winter season) Western coastal region, south of Mumbai over 300 cm As (Monsoon type with dry season in high sun period) Coromandel coast = Coastal Tamil Nadu and adjoining areas of Andhra Pradesh 75 … Read more

Development of Industries : Types of Industries;factors of industrial location, distribution and changing pattern of selected industries [iron and steel, cotton textile, sugar and petro- chemicals); Weber’s theory of industrial location-lts relevance in the modern world.

  Based on the value addition and tangibility broadly we can have three types of industries – primary industries,secondary industries and tertiary industries. Primary industries are usually very simple industries involving processing of raw materials to give input goods for secondary industries. Here value addition is usually minimal and they are usually material oriented.Scale of … Read more

Non- metallic and conventional minerals [coal,petroleum and natural gas), (c) hydro electricity and non conventional sources of energy (Solar, Wind, bio-gas),(d) energy sources Their distribution and conservation.

  Petroleum, natural gas, coal, nitrogen, uranium and water power are examples of conventional sources of energy. They’re also called non-renewable sources of energy and are mainly fossil fuels, except water power. Rising growth of population has created a tremendous pressure on the conventional resources of energy and thus the concept of sustainable development get prominent … Read more

Minerals and Energy Resources : Distribution and utility of [a] metallic minerals (ion ore, copper, bauxite, manganese)

  Mineral is a naturally occurring, homogeneous inorganic solid substance having a definite chemical composition and characteristic crystalline structure, color, and hardness Minerals are valuable natural resources that are finite and non-renewable. The history of mineral extraction in India dates back to the days of the Harappan civilization. The wide availability of minerals in the … Read more

Scarcity of water, methods of conservation-rain water harvesting and watershed management, ground water management

  Scarcity of water   Water scarcity is possibly to pose the greatest challenge on account of its increased demand coupled with shrinking supplies due to over utilisation and pollution. Water is a cyclic resource with abundant supplies on the globe. Approximately, 71 per cent of the earth’s surface is covered with it but fresh … Read more

Water Resources : Availability

  Water is a prime natural resource, a basic human need and a precious national asset. Planning, development and management of water resources need to be governed by national perspectives. India accounts for about 2.45 per cent of world’s surface area, 4 per cent of the world’s water resources and about 16 per cent of … Read more

Geographical condition and distribution of major crops, like,Rice, Wheat,Cotton, Jute, Sugarcane, Rubber, Tea and Coffee

  Rice The rice is cultivated on the largest areas in India. Historians believe that while the indica variety of rice was first domesticated in the area covering the foothills of the Eastern Himalayas (i.e. north-eastern India).Rice is a nutritional staple food which provides instant energy as its most important component is carbohydrate (starch). Rice … Read more

Development and Utilization Land Resources ie General land use, agricultural land use

  Land is a finite resource. Land availability is only about 20% of the earth’s surface. Land is crucial for all developmental activities, for natural resources, ecosystem services and for agriculture. Growing population, growing needs and demands for economic development, clean water, food and other products from natural resources, as well as degradation of land … Read more

Natural Resources of India

  What are natural resources ? Natural resources are useful raw materials that we get from the Earth. They occur naturally, which means that humans cannot make natural resources. Instead, we use and modify natural resources in ways that are beneficial to us. The materials used in human-made objects are natural resources. Some examples of natural … Read more

functional classification of urban settlements Problems of human settlement in India

The definition of function varies across the disciplines. In political science it refers to duties, in mathematics it means the relationship between two variables and in geography it is synonymous to occupation. Geographers have classified towns on the basis of their site, situation, size, rank, location and relative elevation. Functional classification of towns attempts to categorize towns … Read more

Urban morphology

  Urban morphology is the study of the form of human settlements and the process of their formation and transformation.Morphological studies often deal with development of forms and pattern of the present city or other urban areas through time. Urban morphology is the study of the physical form of a city, which consists of street … Read more

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