Population growth, distribution and density

 

India is the second most populous country in the world next only to China. On March 1, 2011 the total population of India was at 1.247 billion. This accounted for 17.5% of the world’s total population. In other words, about every sixth person in the world there is an Indian. China, the most populous country of the world, is a step ahead of us as every fifth person in the world there is a Chinese. While India possesses only 2.42% of the world’s total land area, she is required to sustain almost 17.5% of the world’s population.

Two components of population growth are: Natural growth: It is analysed by assessing the crude birth and death rates. Induced growth: It is assessed by the volume of inward and outward movement of people in any given area. There are four phases of population growth in India. The period from 1901-1921 is referred to as a period of stagnant growth of India’s population. The high birth rate was counterbalanced by high death rate. The decades 1921-1951 are referred to as the period of steady population growth. The mortality rate started showing downward trend as a result of improvement in general health and sanitation conditions after 1921.

The density of population is expressed as the number of persons per square kilometre. According to 2011 census, the density of population in India is 382 persons per square kilometre. Over the last 100 years density has increased more than four times.

Density and its variation across states can be accessed by the following table:-

StateArea Sq. KmDensity 2011Density 2001Density

2011

India (Average)3,287,240382324
1Delhi1,48311,3209,340
2Chandigarh1149,2587,900
3Puducherry4902,5472,034
4Daman and Diu1112,1911,413
5Lakshadweep302,1491,895
6Bihar94,1631,106881
7West Bengal88,7521,028903
8Kerala38,852860819
9Uttar Pradesh240,928829690
10Dadra and Nagar Haveli491700449
11Haryana44,212573478
12Tamil Nadu130,060555480
13Punjab50,362551484
14Jharkhand79,716414338
15Assam78,438398340
16Goa3,702394364
17Maharashtra307,713365315
18Tripura10,486350305
19Karnataka191,791319276
20Gujarat196,244308258
21Andhra Pradesh275,045308277
22Orissa155,707270236
23Madhya Pradesh308,252236196
24Rajasthan342,239200165
25Uttarakhand53,483189159
26Chhattisgarh135,192189154
27Meghalaya22,429132103
28Manipur22,327128103
29Himachal Pradesh55,673123109
30Nagaland16,579119120
31Sikkim7,0968676
32Jammu and Kashmir222,2365646
33Mizoram21,0815242
34Andaman and Nicobar Islands8,2494643
35Arunachal Pradesh83,7431713

 

 

 

 

 

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