Constitutional provisions related to Environment and its Protection

Constitutional provisions related to Environment and its Protection The protection and improvement of environment is a constitutional mandate. It is a commitment for a country wedded to the ideas of a welfare State. The Indian Constitution contains specific provisions for environment protection under the chapters of Directive Principles of State Policy and Fundamental Duties. The … Read more

Biogas- principle and process

Biogas- principle and process Principle of biogas production Biogas is generated when bacteria degrade biological material in the absence of oxygen, in a process known as anaerobic digestion. Since biogas is a mixture of methane (also known as marsh gas or natural gas, CH4) and carbon dioxide it is a renewable fuel produced from waste … Read more

Energy Efficiency

Energy Efficiency Energy efficiency, means using less energy to provide the same level of energy. It is therefore one method to reduce human greenhouse gas emissions.  For example if a house is insulated, less energy is used in heating and cooling to achieve a satisfactory temperature. Another example is installing fluorescent lights or skylights, instead … Read more

Climate Change and Its Effects

Climate Change and Its Effects The term climate refers to the general weather conditions of a place over many years. In the United States, for example, Maine’s climate is cold and snowy in winter while South Florida’s is tropical year-round. Climate change is a significant variation of average weather conditions—say, conditions becoming warmer, wetter, or … Read more

Impact of mining on forest and environment

Impact of mining on forest and environment Mining activities, including prospecting, exploration, construction, operation, maintenance, expansion, abandonment, decommissioning and re-purposing of a mine can impact social and environmental systems in a range of positive and negative, and direct and indirect ways. Mining can yield a range of benefits to societies, but it may also cause … Read more

Role of information technology in environment and human health

Role of information technology in environment and human health Information technology has tremendous potential in the field of environment education and health as in any other field like business, economics, politics or culture. Development of internet facilities, Geographic Information System (GIS) and information through satellites has generated a wealth of up-to- date information on various … Read more

The role of public servants in disaster management

The role of public servants in disaster management Role of state administration At the state level, disaster response, relief and rehabilitation are handled by Department of Relief and Rehabilitation. The focus of this department has generally been provision of post-calamity relief, The Chief Secretary is responsible for relief operations in the state and the Relief … Read more

Water supply and sanitation

Water supply and sanitation Issues related to water supply in India Variability in water availability India faces large temporal variability in water availability, leading to, among other issues, disasters such as floods and droughts. Due to monsoon climate in India, more than 70% of the annual precipitation takes place in a limited period of about … Read more

Eco friendly Technologies

Eco friendly Technologies Rainwater harvesting technology Harvested rainwater can provide a source of alternative water to federal facilities. Alternative waters are sustainable sources of water, not supplied from fresh surface water or groundwater, that offset the demand for freshwater. Rainwater harvesting captures, diverts, and stores rainwater from rooftops for later use. Typical uses of rainwater … Read more

Environmental Education

Environmental Education Environmental education is a process that allows individuals to explore environmental issues, engage in problem solving, and take action to improve the environment. As a result, individuals develop a deeper understanding of environmental issues and have the skills to make informed and responsible decisions. Benefits of Environmental Education By studying environmental studies, it … Read more

Soil Conservation Planning On Watershed Basis

? Soil conservation planning on watershed basis Watershed development activity was taken up in the country prior to independence in the state of Maharashtra (then Bombay state) as a scarcity relief work during drought years in which contour binding programme for conservation of moisture and control of soil erosion was mostly undertaken, After independence, … Read more

Depletion Of Natural Resources

? Depletion of Natural Resources- Metals, Minerals — Conservation Policy All the materials and energy essential for the survival and welfare of living beings including humans-are provided by nature. They are called natural resources. A thing becomes resource only when it is used by humans to perform a function. Man lives in nature and … Read more

Agrarian Distress And Mitigation

? Agrarian Distress and Mitigation More than 35,000 farmers marched to Mumbai from Nashik last week demanding loan waivers as well as the implementation of the Forest Rights Act (FRA). The FRA allows for land up to four hectares to be granted to families who have traditionally cultivated those plots. Having the land in … Read more

Impact Of Solid Waste; Recycling And Reuse

? Impact of Solid Waste; Recycling and Reuse HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS An effective solid waste management system is necessary to avoid public health disasters, spread of disease by insects and vectors and adverse effect on water and air. Solid waste workers are the most exposed to the risks of parasitic infections and accidents, … Read more

Land Resources Management

? Land Resources Management Land and water have been the basic elements of life support system on our planet since the dawn of civilization. All great civilizations, flourished where these resources were available in plenty and they declined or perished with the depletion of these resources. In recent years, the land resource has been … Read more

Natural Hazards And Natural Disasters

? Natural Hazards and Natural Disasters A natural hazard is a threat of a naturally occurring event will have a negative effect on humans. This negative effect is what we call a natural disaster.  In other words when the hazardous threat actually happens and harms humans, we call the event a natural disaster. Natural … Read more

Transgenic Animals

? Transgenic animals Transgenic animals are animals that have been cloned. The medical and biotechnological uses of animal cloning are almost innumerable, as many diseases have been eradicated thanks to the production of these transgenic animals. Transgenic animals development Since the discovery of the molecular structure of DNA by Watson and Crick in 1953, … Read more

Climate Justice

? Climate justice : a global phenomenon The heart of climate justice is the understanding that the urgent action needed to prevent climate change must be based on community-led solutions and the well-being of local communities, Indigenous Peoples and the global poor, as well as biodiversity and intact ecosystems. Climate justice is the understanding … Read more

Nuclear Energy

? Nuclear Energy Introduction Global energy demand continues to climb as the industrialized world’s energy use rises, millions pull themselves out of poverty in developing countries, and the world population expands. Thus, the debate over the energy supply of the future intensifies. This debate is complicated by ongoing global climate destabilization as a result … Read more

Environment And Environmentalism

? Environment and environmentalism Environment ‘Environment‘, as the term itself indicates, is anything immediately surrounding an object and exerting a direct influence on it”. In our surround there is living and nonliving things which are together form life. Hydrosphere, atmosphere, and geosphere are the component of the environment that surrounds us. Hydrosphere, the wet … Read more

Environmental Security

? Environmental security The protection of environment is needed for sustainable development. The Industrial pollution, degradation of forests, depletion of ozone layer, the green house gases results in global warming and climate which will have an adverse impact on environment and human health. There is a need for conservation of Biodiversity, protection of wetlands … Read more

Scientific Water Harvasting

? Scientific Water Harvesting What is Water Harvesting It means capturing rain where it falls or capturing the run off in your own village or town. And taking measures to keep that water clean by not allowing polluting activities to take place in the catchment. Therefore, water harvesting can be undertaken through a variety … Read more

Control Of Pests And Disease

? Control of Pests and crop Disease Agriculture is the single largest sector of India that provides the principal means of livelihood for over 58.4% of country’s population. It contributes approximately one-fifth of the total gross domestic product (GDP). Agriculture accounts for about 10% of the total export earnings and provides raw material to … Read more

Afforestation And Deforestation

? Afforestation and deforestation Afforestation Afforestation is the process of planting trees, or sowing seeds, in a barren land devoid of any trees to create a forest. The term should not be confused with reforestation, which is the process of specifically planting native trees into a forest that has decreasing numbers of trees. While reforestation … Read more

Environmental Policy Of India

? Environmental policy of india Environmental Policies are the sum total of the values to which a person or a group of persons or institutions social, legal and governmental – consider as important in their relationships with one another. Environmental policies have to be formulated in the credible of social morals and values. Let … Read more

Pursuit Of Sustainable Development Goals (SDG’s)

? Pursuit of Sustainable Development Goals (SDG’s) The Sustainable Development Goals are the blueprint to achieve a better and more sustainable future for all. They address the global challenges we face, including those related to poverty, inequality, climate, environmental degradation, prosperity, and peace and justice. The Goals interconnect and in order to leave no … Read more

Forest Types And Conservation Of Forest And Forest Resources

? Forest- Types and Conservation of Forest and Forest Resources A forest is a complex ecosystem which is predominantly composed of trees, shrubs and is usually a closed canopy. Forests are storehouses of a large variety of life forms such as plants, mammals, birds, insects and reptiles etc. Also the forests have abundant microorganisms … Read more

Environmental Concerns Of Tourism Industry

? Environmental concerns of tourism industry, both positive and negative effects including climate change with reference to Himachal Pradesh Environmental concerns of tourism  All too often, the environment is the ultimate victim of development and expansion. Growth pressures have seen Dharamshala’s boundaries encroach on previously untouched land as the local population and tourist demands … Read more

Disaster Management

? Disaster Management History shows that India is exposed to national disasters. Cyclones, floods, earthquakes, droughts and floods are major threats. About 60 percent of the landmass is prone to earthquakes of various intensities, over 40 million hectares is prone to floods and 68 percent of the area is susceptible to drought. This not … Read more

Social Forestry

? Social Forestry The National Commission on Agriculture, Government of India, first used the term ‘social forestry’ in 1976. It was then that India embarked upon a social forestry project with the aim of taking the pressure off the forests and making use of all unused and fallow land. Government forest areas that are … Read more

Water Resources

? Water Resources  Rainfall: With an average annual rainfall of 1,170 mm, India is one of the wettest countries in the world. At one extreme are areas like Cherrapunji, in the northeast, which is drenched each year with 11,000 mm of rainfall, and at the other extreme are places like Jaisalmer, in the west, … Read more

Solid Waste Management; Types Of Solid Waste Management; Factors Affecting Solid Waste Generation

? Solid Waste Management; Types of Solid waste Management; Factors affecting Solid Waste Generation Solid Waste Management Solid waste management is basic public services which every citizen should have access to, both for health and hygiene, and for ensuring a good quality of living. Sanitation here refers to toilet facilities, whereas solid waste management … Read more

Science And Economics Of Climate Change

? Science and economics of climate change Science of climate change The atmosphere functions as a ‘greenhouse’ and insulates the earth from extremes of temperature. The greenhouse effect works in the following manner. Of the incoming short-wave radiation from the sun, one-third is reflected, and the atmosphere, ocean, ice, land, and biota absorb the … Read more

Environmental Problems Related To Infrastructure Developmen1

? Environmental problems related to infrastructure development Infrastructure is essential for increasing economic progress and reducing poverty. The choices made in the type and scale of infrastructure investment also have major implications for environmental sustainability. Land New infrastructure typically involves land use change and the selection of the site and its proximity to human … Read more

Soil Reclamation

? Soil reclamation (Land reclamation) Soil reclamation is the process of improving lands to make them suitable for a more intensive use. Reclamation efforts may be concerned with the improvement of rainfall-deficient areas by irrigation, the removal of detrimental constituents from salty or alkali lands, the diking and draining of tidal marshes, the smoothing … Read more

Flood And Drought Occurance

? Flood and Drought Occurrence Drought Drought is a complex, slow-onset phenomenon of ecological challenge that affects people more than any other natural hazards by causing serious economic, social and environmental losses in both developing and developed countries. The period of unusual dryness (i.e. drought) is a normal feature of the climate and weather … Read more

Green Pharmacy

? Green pharmacy Green pharmacy is the design of pharmaceutical products and processes that eliminate or reduce significantly the use and generation of hazardous substances and the prevention/reduction of environmental/safety and health impacts at the source. Herbal medicine also called botanical medicine or phyto medicine. Herbalism is a traditional medicinal or folk medicine practice based on … Read more

Biosphere Reserves Of India

? Biosphere reserves What is a Biosphere Reserve? A Biosphere Reserve is a special ecosystem or a specialized environment with a flora and fauna that require protection and nurturing. These reserves are managed and studied for the conservation of various life forms found here. They are subjects of scientific and … Read more

Sustainable Management Of Natural Resources

? Sustainable management of natural resources Natural resources are not unlimited and with the human population increasing at a tremendous rate due to improvement in health-care, the demand for all resources is increasing at an exponential rate. The management of natural resources requires a long-term perspective so that these will last for the generations … Read more

Management Of Land And Water Resources (2)

? Management of land and water resources LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN INDIA Land and water have been the basic elements of life support system on our planet since the dawn of civilization. All great civilizations, flourished where these resources were available in plenty and they declined or perished with the depletion of these resources. … Read more

Rain Water Harvesting

? Rain Water Harvesting Water forms the lifeline of any society. Water is essential for the environment, food security and sustainable development. All the known civilizations have flourished with water source as the base and it is true in the present context too. Availability of drinking water and provision of sanitation facilities are the … Read more

Wildlife Of India

? Wildlife of India Wildlife means all the flora and fauna, which are not domesticated by humans. It includes animals, birds,plants,insects and microorganisms.  With large regional variations in physiographic,climate,and edaphic types, indian forests offer a large variety of wild life in india.India bosts of more than 90,000species of animals which is about … Read more

Economic Botany

? Economic Botany The land and waters of the earth sustain a vast assemblage of plants upon which all other living forms are directly or indirectly dependent. These autotrophs have the remarkable property of capturing the inexhaustible energy of the sun to synthesise organic compounds which are vital for the existence of all life … Read more

Topological And Nontopological Conservation

? Topological & Non-Topological Conservation    Conservation – shape and structure of networks of interacting organisms in ecological systems In-Situ Conservation    Protect whole ecosystem at all levels to protect threatened species (save entire forest to save tiger)  Hot Spots – High endemism & high species richness (in India – Western Ghats (Agasthyamalai hills, … Read more

Disaster Manangement

? Disaster manangement: some case studies Aspects of Disaster Management Disaster Prevention Disaster Prevention is the concept of engaging in activities which intend to prevent or avoid potential adverse impacts through action taken in advance, activities designed to provide protection from the occurance of disasters. Disaster Preparedness Disaster preparedness activities embedded with risk reduction … Read more


? Biodiversity-Defination, types, importance, hotspots, threats and conservation The term biodiversity was coined as a contraction of biological diversity by E.O. Wilson in 1985. Biodiversity may be defined as the variety and variability of living organisms and the ecological complexes in which they exist. In other words, biodiversity is the occurrence of different types … Read more

Global Warming And Its Impact

? Global Warming and Its Impact Global warming is the slow increase in the average temperature of the earth’s atmosphere because an increased amount of the energy (heat) striking the earth from the sun is being trapped in the atmosphere and not radiated out into space. The earth’s atmosphere has always acted like a greenhouse to … Read more

Social Impact Assessment

? Social Impact Assessment Social Impact Assessment includes the processes of analysing, monitoring and managing the intended and unintended social consequences, both positive and negative, of planned interventions (policies, programs, plans, projects) and any social change processes invoked by those interventions. Its primary purpose is to bring about a more sustainable and equitable biophysical … Read more

Urban Environment

? Urban environment An urban environment is the region surrounding a city. Most inhabitants of urban areas have nonagricultural jobs. Urban areas are very developed, meaning there is a density of human structures such as houses, commercial buildings, roads, bridges, and railways. Natural urban environment The natural urban environment incorporates not only parks and … Read more

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