Environment And Environmentalism

? Environment and environmentalism Environment ‘Environment‘, as the term itself indicates, is anything immediately surrounding an object and exerting a direct influence on it”. In our surround there is living and nonliving things which are together form life. Hydrosphere, atmosphere, and geosphere are the component of the environment that surrounds us. Hydrosphere, the wet … Read more

Environmental Security

? Environmental security The protection of environment is needed for sustainable development. The Industrial pollution, degradation of forests, depletion of ozone layer, the green house gases results in global warming and climate which will have an adverse impact on environment and human health. There is a need for conservation of Biodiversity, protection of wetlands … Read more

Scientific Water Harvasting

? Scientific Water Harvesting What is Water Harvesting It means capturing rain where it falls or capturing the run off in your own village or town. And taking measures to keep that water clean by not allowing polluting activities to take place in the catchment. Therefore, water harvesting can be undertaken through a variety … Read more

Control Of Pests And Disease

? Control of Pests and crop Disease Agriculture is the single largest sector of India that provides the principal means of livelihood for over 58.4% of country’s population. It contributes approximately one-fifth of the total gross domestic product (GDP). Agriculture accounts for about 10% of the total export earnings and provides raw material to … Read more

Afforestation And Deforestation

? Afforestation and deforestation Afforestation Afforestation is the process of planting trees, or sowing seeds, in a barren land devoid of any trees to create a forest. The term should not be confused with reforestation, which is the process of specifically planting native trees into a forest that has decreasing numbers of trees. While reforestation … Read more

Environmental Policy Of India

? Environmental policy of india Environmental Policies are the sum total of the values to which a person or a group of persons or institutions social, legal and governmental – consider as important in their relationships with one another. Environmental policies have to be formulated in the credible of social morals and values. Let … Read more

Pursuit Of Sustainable Development Goals (SDG’s)

? Pursuit of Sustainable Development Goals (SDG’s) The Sustainable Development Goals are the blueprint to achieve a better and more sustainable future for all. They address the global challenges we face, including those related to poverty, inequality, climate, environmental degradation, prosperity, and peace and justice. The Goals interconnect and in order to leave no … Read more

Forest Types And Conservation Of Forest And Forest Resources

? Forest- Types and Conservation of Forest and Forest Resources A forest is a complex ecosystem which is predominantly composed of trees, shrubs and is usually a closed canopy. Forests are storehouses of a large variety of life forms such as plants, mammals, birds, insects and reptiles etc. Also the forests have abundant microorganisms … Read more

Environmental Concerns Of Tourism Industry

? Environmental concerns of tourism industry, both positive and negative effects including climate change with reference to Himachal Pradesh Environmental concerns of tourism  All too often, the environment is the ultimate victim of development and expansion. Growth pressures have seen Dharamshala’s boundaries encroach on previously untouched land as the local population and tourist demands … Read more

Disaster Management

? Disaster Management History shows that India is exposed to national disasters. Cyclones, floods, earthquakes, droughts and floods are major threats. About 60 percent of the landmass is prone to earthquakes of various intensities, over 40 million hectares is prone to floods and 68 percent of the area is susceptible to drought. This not … Read more

Social Forestry

? Social Forestry The National Commission on Agriculture, Government of India, first used the term ‘social forestry’ in 1976. It was then that India embarked upon a social forestry project with the aim of taking the pressure off the forests and making use of all unused and fallow land. Government forest areas that are … Read more

Water Resources

? Water Resources  Rainfall: With an average annual rainfall of 1,170 mm, India is one of the wettest countries in the world. At one extreme are areas like Cherrapunji, in the northeast, which is drenched each year with 11,000 mm of rainfall, and at the other extreme are places like Jaisalmer, in the west, … Read more

Solid Waste Management; Types Of Solid Waste Management; Factors Affecting Solid Waste Generation

? Solid Waste Management; Types of Solid waste Management; Factors affecting Solid Waste Generation Solid Waste Management Solid waste management is basic public services which every citizen should have access to, both for health and hygiene, and for ensuring a good quality of living. Sanitation here refers to toilet facilities, whereas solid waste management … Read more

Science And Economics Of Climate Change

? Science and economics of climate change Science of climate change The atmosphere functions as a ‘greenhouse’ and insulates the earth from extremes of temperature. The greenhouse effect works in the following manner. Of the incoming short-wave radiation from the sun, one-third is reflected, and the atmosphere, ocean, ice, land, and biota absorb the … Read more

Environmental Problems Related To Infrastructure Developmen1

? Environmental problems related to infrastructure development Infrastructure is essential for increasing economic progress and reducing poverty. The choices made in the type and scale of infrastructure investment also have major implications for environmental sustainability. Land New infrastructure typically involves land use change and the selection of the site and its proximity to human … Read more

Soil Reclamation

? Soil reclamation (Land reclamation) Soil reclamation is the process of improving lands to make them suitable for a more intensive use. Reclamation efforts may be concerned with the improvement of rainfall-deficient areas by irrigation, the removal of detrimental constituents from salty or alkali lands, the diking and draining of tidal marshes, the smoothing … Read more

Flood And Drought Occurance

? Flood and Drought Occurrence Drought Drought is a complex, slow-onset phenomenon of ecological challenge that affects people more than any other natural hazards by causing serious economic, social and environmental losses in both developing and developed countries. The period of unusual dryness (i.e. drought) is a normal feature of the climate and weather … Read more

Green Pharmacy

? Green pharmacy Green pharmacy is the design of pharmaceutical products and processes that eliminate or reduce significantly the use and generation of hazardous substances and the prevention/reduction of environmental/safety and health impacts at the source. Herbal medicine also called botanical medicine or phyto medicine. Herbalism is a traditional medicinal or folk medicine practice based on … Read more

Biosphere Reserves Of India

? Biosphere reserves What is a Biosphere Reserve? A Biosphere Reserve is a special ecosystem or a specialized environment with a flora and fauna that require protection and nurturing. These reserves are managed and studied for the conservation of various life forms found here. They are subjects of scientific and … Read more

Sustainable Management Of Natural Resources

? Sustainable management of natural resources Natural resources are not unlimited and with the human population increasing at a tremendous rate due to improvement in health-care, the demand for all resources is increasing at an exponential rate. The management of natural resources requires a long-term perspective so that these will last for the generations … Read more

Management Of Land And Water Resources (2)

? Management of land and water resources LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN INDIA Land and water have been the basic elements of life support system on our planet since the dawn of civilization. All great civilizations, flourished where these resources were available in plenty and they declined or perished with the depletion of these resources. … Read more

Rain Water Harvesting

? Rain Water Harvesting Water forms the lifeline of any society. Water is essential for the environment, food security and sustainable development. All the known civilizations have flourished with water source as the base and it is true in the present context too. Availability of drinking water and provision of sanitation facilities are the … Read more

Wildlife Of India

? Wildlife of India Wildlife means all the flora and fauna, which are not domesticated by humans. It includes animals, birds,plants,insects and microorganisms.  With large regional variations in physiographic,climate,and edaphic types, indian forests offer a large variety of wild life in india.India bosts of more than 90,000species of animals which is about … Read more

Economic Botany

? Economic Botany The land and waters of the earth sustain a vast assemblage of plants upon which all other living forms are directly or indirectly dependent. These autotrophs have the remarkable property of capturing the inexhaustible energy of the sun to synthesise organic compounds which are vital for the existence of all life … Read more

Topological And Nontopological Conservation

? Topological & Non-Topological Conservation    Conservation – shape and structure of networks of interacting organisms in ecological systems In-Situ Conservation    Protect whole ecosystem at all levels to protect threatened species (save entire forest to save tiger)  Hot Spots – High endemism & high species richness (in India – Western Ghats (Agasthyamalai hills, … Read more

Disaster Manangement

? Disaster manangement: some case studies Aspects of Disaster Management Disaster Prevention Disaster Prevention is the concept of engaging in activities which intend to prevent or avoid potential adverse impacts through action taken in advance, activities designed to provide protection from the occurance of disasters. Disaster Preparedness Disaster preparedness activities embedded with risk reduction … Read more

Biodiversity

? Biodiversity-Defination, types, importance, hotspots, threats and conservation The term biodiversity was coined as a contraction of biological diversity by E.O. Wilson in 1985. Biodiversity may be defined as the variety and variability of living organisms and the ecological complexes in which they exist. In other words, biodiversity is the occurrence of different types … Read more

Global Warming And Its Impact

? Global Warming and Its Impact Global warming is the slow increase in the average temperature of the earth’s atmosphere because an increased amount of the energy (heat) striking the earth from the sun is being trapped in the atmosphere and not radiated out into space. The earth’s atmosphere has always acted like a greenhouse to … Read more

Social Impact Assessment

? Social Impact Assessment Social Impact Assessment includes the processes of analysing, monitoring and managing the intended and unintended social consequences, both positive and negative, of planned interventions (policies, programs, plans, projects) and any social change processes invoked by those interventions. Its primary purpose is to bring about a more sustainable and equitable biophysical … Read more

Urban Environment

? Urban environment An urban environment is the region surrounding a city. Most inhabitants of urban areas have nonagricultural jobs. Urban areas are very developed, meaning there is a density of human structures such as houses, commercial buildings, roads, bridges, and railways. Natural urban environment The natural urban environment incorporates not only parks and … Read more

Environmental Legislation

? Environmental legislation The awareness and consideration for environment covers several environmental issues such as pollution of water, air and soil, land degradation, industrialization, urbanization, depletion of natural resources etc. Environmental Law plays a very crucial and important role in regulating the use of natural resources and in protecting the environment. The success of … Read more

Transgenic Plants

? Transgenic Plants Transgenic plants are plants that have been genetically modified by inserting genes directly into a single plant cell. Transgenic crop plants modified for improved flavor, pest resistance, or some other useful property are being used increasingly.   Transgenic plants are unique in that they develop from only one plant cell. In … Read more

Wild Life Management System

? wild life management system Limitations to Hunting Legal issues related to hunting are addressed in other parts, such as those on regulation of hunting, on licences and on ownership of wildlife. This section is limited to aspects which are not addressed elsewhere. Among the most common protection rules are those which … Read more

Ecology And Ecosystem

? Ecology and Ecosystem Ecology The scientific study of the processes influencing the distribution and abundance of organisms, the interactions among organisms, and the interactions between organisms and the transformation and flux of energy and matter. Ecosystem Ecosystem, the complex of living organisms, their physical environment, and all their interrelationships in a particular unit … Read more

Chipko Movement

? Chipko movement Chipko movement, also called Chipko andolan, nonviolent social and ecological movement by rural villagers, particularly women, in India in the 1970s, aimed at protecting trees and forests slated for government-backed logging. The movement originated in the Himalayan region of Uttar Pradesh (later Uttarakhand) in 1973 and quickly spread throughout the Indian … Read more

Waste Water Management

? Waste Water Management Water, food and energy securities are emerging as increasingly important and vital issues for India and the world. Most of the river basins in India and elsewhere are closing or closed and experiencing moderate to severe water shortages, brought on by the simultaneous effects of agricultural growth, industrialization and urbanization. … Read more

Conventional And Non Conventional Sources Of Energy

? Conventional and Non Conventional Sources of Energy Main Sources of Energy: The sources of energy are of following types: 1. Conventional Sources of Energy: These sources of energy are also called non renewable sources. These sources of energy are in limited quantity except hydro-electric power.  (a) Coal and … Read more

Water Resources Management

? Water Resources Management Water Resources in India India accounts for about 2.45 per cent of world’s surface area, 4 per cent of the world’s water resources and about 16 per cent of world’s population. The total water available from precipitation in the country in a year is about 4,000 cubic km. The availability … Read more

Mains Booster-Environmental problems related to infrastructure development

Environmental problems related to infrastructure development Infrastructure is essential for increasing economic progress and reducing poverty. The choices made in the type and scale of infrastructure investment also have major implications for environmental sustainability. Land New infrastructure typically involves land use change and the selection of the site and its proximity to human settlement will … Read more

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