Wildlife of India

  Wildlife means all the flora and fauna, which are not domesticated by humans. It includes animals, birds,plants,insects and microorganisms. With large regional variations in physiographic,climate,and edaphic types, indian forests offer a large variety of wild life in india.India bosts of more than 90,000species of animals which is about 6.5% of the world’s total species.Indian … Read more

Water Resources

  Rainfall: With an average annual rainfall of 1,170 mm, India is one of the wettest countries in the world. At one extreme are areas like Cherrapunji, in the northeast, which is drenched each year with 11,000 mm of rainfall, and at the other extreme are places like Jaisalmer, in the west, which receives barely … Read more


Settlement can be defined as any form of human habitation which ranges from a single dwelling to large city. The word settlement has another connotation as well as this is a process of opening up and settling of a previously uninhabited area by the people. In geography this process is also known as occupancy. Settlements … Read more


  Nuclear policy of india Important points of india’s nuclear policy are as follows: Building and maintaining a credible minimum deterrent. nuclear weapons will only be used in retaliation against a nuclear attack on Indian Territory or on Indian forces elsewhere. Nuclear retaliation to a first strike will be massive and designed to inflict unacceptable … Read more

The thrust of the Scientific Policy Resolution

The thrust of the Scientific Policy Resolution, 1958 was on capacity-building in advancement of science as the foundation for making a strong nation, which had just freed itself from the shackles of colonial domination . The focus of the Technology Policy Statement, 1983 was attainment of technological self-reliance and building of national strength by reducing … Read more

The Supreme Court

The Supreme Court is the highest court of The Indian Republic.  Judiciary, the third organ of the government, has an important role to play in the governance. It settles the disputes, interprets laws, protects fundamental rights and acts as guardian of the Constitution. India has a single unified and integrated judicial system and that the … Read more

Space Technology- Indian space programs.

  Application of Satellites for different purposes   Despite being a developing economy with its attendant problems, India has effectively developed space technology and has applied it successfully for its rapid development and today is offering a variety of space services globally. Indian Space Program: During the formative decade of 1960s, space research was conducted … Read more

Social Reforms Movements in Muslim Community: Wahabi Movement & Aligarh Movement

Social Reforms Movements in Muslim Community: Wahabi Movement & Aligarh Movement   The Muslims reformers in India launched many religious movements. Some tried to revive the religion and other tried to reform the religion. During the 19th century religion reforms movement were on the peak. Movements like Deoband Movement, Ahamadiya movement, Aligarh Movement;Wahabi Movement has … Read more

Rise of Maratha Empire

Rise of Maratha Empire Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj (Shivaji Shahaji Bhosale) was the founder of strong Maratha Empire in the west part of India in 17th Century. Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj (Shivaji Shahaji Bhosale) was born in the fort of Shivneri, near from city Junner (Pune District), in the year 1630 (19th February’ 1630). His mother Jijabai … Read more

Rise of Maratha Empire

  Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj (Shivaji Shahaji Bhosale) was the founder of strong Maratha Empire in the west part of India in 17th Century. Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj (Shivaji Shahaji Bhosale) was born in the fort of Shivneri, near from city Junner (Pune District), in the year 1630 (19th February’ 1630). His mother Jijabai Bhosale named him … Read more

Remote sensing- GIS and its application

    Remote Sensing Remote sensing is the acquisition of information about an object or phenomenon without making physical contact with the object and thus in contrast to on-site observation. In current usage, the term “remote sensing” generally refers to the use of satellite- or aircraft-based sensor technologies to detect and classify objects on Earth, … Read more

Regional imbalances and income inequalitiies in India: Steps taken by the Government to reduce it.

Regional imbalances and income inequalitiies in India: Steps taken by the Government to reduce it. Regional imbalance is the disparity in economic and social development of two regions. One region/city/area is stronger than another region/city/area. Regions develop when investments are made to set up industries, service sectors, educational institutions, health care facilities etc. Income inequality is the unequal distribution of … Read more

Origin of the Monsoon:

  Classcial Theories: Halley’s Thermal concept: Indian monsoon is because of contrast between Indian Subcontinent and adjoining Indian Ocean. Halley’s theory, suggested in 1686, considers the summer monsoon to be a regional phenomenon. Aerological concept: This was suggested by R. Scherhag in 1948. According to this theory, monsoon circulation develops due to changes in air … Read more

Nuclear Energy

  Introduction Global energy demand continues to climb as the industrialized world’s energy use rises, millions pull themselves out of poverty in developing countries, and the world population expands. Thus, the debate over the energy supply of the future intensifies. This debate is complicated by ongoing global climate destabilization as a result of green house … Read more

Non Alignment Movement

  One of the basic tenets of our foreign policy has been non-alignment. As an element of foreign policy non-alignment m e a n s i n d e p e n d e n t o f b l o c s , peaceful coexistence, global peace, disarmament, struggle against all manifestations of injustices … Read more


  What are natural resources ? Natural resources are useful raw materials that we get from the Earth. They occur naturally, which means that humans cannot make natural resources. Instead, we use and modify natural resources in ways that are beneficial to us. The materials used in human-made objects are natural resources. Some examples of natural … Read more


National Income The study of National Income is important because of the following reasons: To see the economic development of the country. To assess the developmental objectives. To know the contribution of the various sectors to National Income. Internationally some countries are wealthy, some countries are not wealthy and some countries are in-between. Under such … Read more

Mughal Empire

Mughal Empire (1526 A.D.-1857 A.D.) Babur- His actual name was Zahiruddin Mohammed, son of Omar Sheikh Mirza, the king of Ferghana in Afghanistan. His ambition was to conquer Samarkand, the seat of Timur. In 1527 A.D., Babur defeated ranasanga in the battle of Kanwa. In the battle of Chanderi (1528 A.D.), Babur defeated Mediniroy. In … Read more


Rise of Maratha Empire Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj (Shivaji Shahaji Bhosale) was the founder of strong Maratha Empire in the west part of India in 17th Century. Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj (Shivaji Shahaji Bhosale) was born in the fort of Shivneri, near from city Junner (Pune District), in the year 1630 (19th February’ 1630). His mother Jijabai … Read more

Liberation War of Bangladesh

  The Liberation War of Bangladesh in 1971 was the culmination of a 25-year tumultuous relationship between East and West Pakistan. The British failed to keep a united India as riots started between the Hindus, Sikhs and Muslims in 1946. The riots were so widespread that on August 14, 1947 India was portioned into two … Read more


  Each landform has its unique physical shape, size, materials and is a result of the action of certain geomorphic processes and agent(s). Every landform has a beginning. Landforms once formed may change in their shape, size and nature slowly or fast due to continued action of geomorphic processes and agents. Due to changes in … Read more

Land Revenue System under British Rule

  Since the grant of diwani for Bengal, Bihar and Orissa in 1765, the major concern of the East India Company’s administration in India was to collect as much revenue as possible. Agriculture was the main basis of economy and the main source of income and hence, although the nawabi administration was retained with Muhammad … Read more

Integration of Princely States

  Under the plan of 3 June, more than 562 princely states were given the option of joining either India or Pakistan, or choosing independence. Indian nationalists and large segments of the public feared that if these states did not accede, most of the people and territory would be fragmented. The Congress as well as … Read more

India’s Missile program

    Introduction India’s missile programme took a shot from space programme, beginning 1967. In 1972, Rohini- a 560 two-stage, solid propulsion sounding rocket was developed and test fired India first launched its small 17-tonne SLV-3 space booster in 1979 India successfully injected the 35 kg Rohini I satellite into near-earth orbit in 1980. In … Read more


FUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATION OF TOWN AND PROBLEM OF HUMAN SETTLEMENT The definition of function varies across the disciplines. In political science it refers to duties, in mathematics it means the relationship between two variables and in geography it is synonymous to occupation. Geographers have classified towns on the basis of their site, situation, size, rank, location … Read more

Formation of Linguistic States:–

Formation of Linguistic States:– India is a land of many languages, each with its distinct script, grammar, vocabulary and literary tradition. In 1917, the Congress Party had committed itself to the creation of linguistic provinces in a Free India. After Congress’s Nagpur Session in 1920, the principle was extended and formalized with the creation of … Read more

Forests – Natural Vegetation of India

Forests – Natural Vegetation of India   Table of Contents 1Forests – Natural Vegetation of India 2Classification of Natural Vegetation of India 3Moist Tropical Forests 1Tropical Wet Evergreen Forests or Rain Forests 2Tropical Semi-Evergreen Forests 3Tropical Moist Deciduous Forests 4Littoral and Swamp Forests 4Dry Tropical Forests 1Tropical Dry Evergreen Forests 1.1Casuarina plantation 2Tropical Dry Deciduous … Read more

Sources of Energy

Sources of Energy: Conventional and Nonconventional Sources – Energy is one of the most important component of economic infrastructure. It is the basic input required to sustain economic growth. There is direct relation between the level of economic development and per capita energy consumption. Simply speaking more developed a country, higher is the per capita … Read more

Development of Hindi and Urdu Language

    Development of Hindi and Urdu Language   Hindi and Urdu are two Hindustani Languages; spoken mostly in the northern and Central India and in Pakistan. Hindi and Urdu are two different languages but these languages have many common things.Both Hindi and Urdu are developed in a similar phase and adopted many changes. We … Read more

Conventional and Non Conventional Sources of Energy

Conventional and Non Conventional Sources of Energy Main Sources of Energy: The sources of energy are of following types: Conventional Sources of Energy: These sources of energy are also called non renewable sources. These sources of energy are in limited quantity except hydro-electric power. (a) Coal and Lignite: Coal is the major source of energy. Coal … Read more

Climatic Regions of India

Climatic Regions of India : Koeppen’s Classification Climate Type Climatic Region Annual Rainfall in the Region Amw (Monsoon type with shorter dry winter season) Western coastal region, south of Mumbai over 300 cm As (Monsoon type with dry season in high sun period) Coromandel coast = Coastal Tamil Nadu and adjoining areas of Andhra Pradesh 75 … Read more

Biosphere reserves

  What is a Biosphere Reserve? A Biosphere Reserve is a special ecosystem or a specialized environment with a flora and fauna that require protection and nurturing. These reserves are managed and studied for the conservation of various life forms found here. They are subjects of scientific and natural interest. According to UNESCO, “Biosphere reserves … Read more


  Rajrishitulyakul Rajrishitulyakul dynasty ruled over the south Kaushal. They ruled from 5th to 6th century AD. From the bronze inscription it is known that they followed Guptsamvata. This shows that accepted the supremacy of the Gupta Dynasty. There are six known rulers of the Rajrishikulya Dynasty. They are all follows: Sur Dayit I Vibhishan … Read more

Age structure, sex ratio and Rural-Urban composition of India

Rural-Urban Composition: For the first time since Independence, the absolute increase in population is more in urban areas that in rural areas Rural Population in India: 68.84% Urban Population in India:31.16% Level of urbanization increased from 27.81% in 2001 Census to 31.16% in 2011 Census The proportion of rural population declined from 72.19% to 68.84% … Read more


  Historical context The emergence of agricultural Price Policy in India was in the backdrop of food scarcity and price fluctuations provoked by drought, floods and international prices for exports and imports. This policy in general was directed towards ensuring reasonable food prices for consumers by providing food grains through Public Distribution System (PDS) and … Read more

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