Climatic changes

    It is the long term change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns over periods of time Though it has been happening naturally for millions of years, in recent years it has accelerated due to anthropogenic causes and has been causing global warming. UNFCCC defines climate change as – “a change of climate … Read more

 Global warming

An increase in the average temperature of Earth’s near surface air and oceans since the mid-20th century 4th assessment report of IPCC: global temperature increased 74+0.18 degree C during the 20th century. Caused by greenhouse gases Water vapour, Co2, Methane, Nitrous Oxide, Ozone, CFCs (in order of abundance) Since the industrial revolution, the burning of fossil fuels has increased the … Read more

Greenhouse effect

  The greenhouse effect is a natural process that warms the Earth’s surface. When the Sun’s energy reaches the Earth’s atmosphere, some of it is reflected back to space and the rest is absorbed and re-radiated by greenhouse gases. It is the process by which radiation from a planet’s atmosphere warms the planet’s surface to a … Read more

Tropical and temperate cyclones

    The atmospheric disturbances which involve a closed circulation about a low pressure centre, anticlockwise in the northern atmosphere and clockwise in the southern hemisphere are called cyclones. They fall into the following two broad categories: (a) Extra-tropical or Temperate and (b) tropical cyclones. (a) Temperate Cyclones Temperate cyclones are formed along a front … Read more

 Air masses and fronts

  Airmasses   An airmass is a large body of air with relatively uniform thermal and moisture characteristics. Airmasses cover large regions of the earth, typically several hundred thousand square kilometers. Airmasses can be as deep as the depth of the troposphere or as shallow as 1 to 2 km. Airmasses form when air remains … Read more

 Geomorphic processes; Weathering, mass wasting, erosion and deposition,soil formation,Landscape cycles, ideas of Davis and Penck

  Table of content Weathering Mass Wasting Erosion and Deposition Soil Formation Landscape (Geological) Cycles Davis Cycle Penck Cycle Weathering   Weathering is the general term applied to the combined action of all processes that cause rock to disintegrate physically and decompose chemically because of ex- posure near the Earth’s surface through the elements of … Read more

Evolution and characteristics of landforms in the Fluvial, Glacial, Arid and Karst regions  

  Landform Each landform has its unique physical shape, size, materials and is a result of the action of certain geomorphic processes and agent(s). Every landform has a beginning. Landforms once formed may change in their shape, size and nature slowly or fast due to continued action of geomorphic processes and agents. Due to changes … Read more

Tsunamis

      A tsunami is a very long-wavelength wave of water that is generated by sudden displacement of the seafloor or disruption of any body of standing water. Tsunami are sometimes called “seismic sea waves”, although they can be generated by mechanisms other than earthquakes. Tsunami have also been called “tidal waves”, but this … Read more

Earthquakes

  Earthquakes occur when energy stored in elastically strained rocks is suddenly released. This release of energy causes intense ground shaking in the area near the source of the earthquake and sends waves of elastic energy, called seismic waves, throughout the Earth. Earthquakes can be generated by bomb blasts, volcanic eruptions, sudden volume changes in … Read more

Plate tectonics

  The uppermost outer solid and rigid layer of the earth is called crust. Its thickness varies considerably. It is as little as 5 km thick beneath the oceans at some places but under some mountain ranges it extends upto a depth of 700km. Below the crust denser rocks are found, known as mantle crust. … Read more

Wegner’s Continental Drift Theory

    Alfred Wegner was a German Meteorologist in the early 1900s who studied ancient climates. Like most people, the jigsaw puzzle appearance of the Atlantic continental margins caught his attention. He put together the evidence of ancient glaciations and the distribution of fossil to formulate a theory that the continents have moved over the … Read more

Interior of earth,

  Most of the knowledge we have about Earth’s deep interior comes from the fact that seismic waves penetrate the Earth and are recorded on the other side.  Earthquake ray paths and arrival times are more complex than illustrated in the animations, because velocity in the Earth does not simply increase with depth. Velocities generally … Read more

Origin and evolution of earth

    Beginning of the Universe started about 13.6 billion years ago,when the Big Bang created the universe from a point source. During this process, light elements, like H, He, Li, B, and Be formed. From this point in time, the universe began to expand and has been expanding ever since. Concentrations of gas and … Read more

JPSC Mains Paper 3:SOCIAL SCIENCES (History and Geography) Notes

Detailed Notes for JPSC Mains Paper III Notes- Detailed topicwise Jharkhand Mains GK Notes for JPSC Mains Exam are provided for free browsing. Jharkhand (JPSC) Mains Notes are designed by JPSC Toppers and other civil servants. Detail Notes can be browsed at the following links. Section (A) – History: 100 Marks Section (B) – Geography: … Read more

Various National Missions and Programmes:-

MNREGA Jan Dhan Yojna Atal Pension Yojna Skill India Mission Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Gram Jyoti Yojana Pradhan Mantri Suraksha Bima Yojana Pradhan Mantri Jeevan Jyoti Bima Yojana Sukanya Samridhi Yojana Pradhan Mantri  Garib Kalyan Yojana Jan Aushadhi Yojana (JAY) Nai Manzil Scheme for minority students The Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana (PMAY) or Housing for all … Read more

Sustainable and Inclusive Growth

The term Sustainable growth became prominent after the World Conservation Strategy Presented in 1980 by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Brundland Report(1987) define sustainable development as the a process which seek to meet the needs and aspirations of the present generation without compromising the ability of the future generation … Read more

JPSC Prelims Notes for Geography of World and India

Physical Geography (General Principles) : (i) Origin and evolution ol earth, interior of earth, Wegner’s Continental Drift Theory; Plate tectonics.Volcanoes, Earthquakes and Tsunamis (ii)Major types of rocks and their characteristics, evolution and characteristics of landformsin the Fluvial, Glacial, Arid and Karst regions (iii) Geomorphic processes; Weathering, mass wasting, erosion and deposition,soil formation,Landscape cycles, ideas of … Read more

Jharkhand Geography- for Jharkhand PCS Exam of JPSC

Detailed Notes for Jharkhand Geography Specifically designed Notes for Jharkhand Geography can be Bought at minimum price in PDF or Printed format Geography of Jharkhand plays a crucial role in not only Jharkhand PSC Prelims Exam but even JPSC Mains Exam. Jharkhand Geography Notes are designed by JPSC Toppers and other civil servants. Detail Notes … Read more

INDIAN AGRICULTURE—CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTS

INDIAN AGRICULTURE—CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTS Some of the important challenges Indian agriculture is facing at present are given below: Stunted Yield: Dry Farming: Inadequate Marketing Facilities: Inadequate Formal Sources of Credit: Mismanagement of Public Distribution System: Sustainability of Agriculture: Soil Erosion:

DRY FARMING IN INDIA

DRY FARMING IN INDIA The spread in the regions where the average annual rainfall is less than 75 cm. rainfall is scanty and uncertain, where hot and dry conditions prevail. It is not only that the average annual rainfall is low, the variability of rainfall in these areas varies between 25 to 60 per cent. … Read more

POULTRY FARMING and SILVER REVOLUTION IN INDIA

POULTRY FARMING (SILVER REVOLUTION) IN INDIA practice of raising poultry, such as chickens, turkeys, ducks, geese, as a subcategory of animal husbandry, for the purpose of farming meat or eggs for food. requires small capital and provides additional income and job opportunities to a large number of rural population in the shortest possible time. The … Read more

SERICULTURE IN INDIA

SERICULTURE IN INDIA Production Silkworm larvae are fed on mulberry leaves and after the fourth molt, they climb a twig placed near them and spin their silken cocoons. The silk is a continuous-filament fibre consisting of fibroin protein, secreted from two salivary glands in the head of each larva, and a gum called sericin, which … Read more

SECOND GREEN REVOLUTION

SECOND GREEN REVOLUTION The main objectives of the second Green Revolution are: (i) To raise agricultural productivity to promote food security (ii) More emphasis on bio-technology (iii) To promote sustainable agriculture (iv) To become self-sufficient in staple food, pulses, oil seeds, and industrial raw material (v) To increase the per capita income of the farmers … Read more

AQUA CULTURE

AQUA CULTURE the cultivation of aquatic organisms. aquaculture, also known as aquafarming, implies the cultivation of aquatic populations under controlled conditions. Mariculture refers to aquaculture practiced in marine environments. Particular kinds of aquaculture include agriculture (the production of kelp, seaweed, and other algae), fish farming, shrimp farming, shellfish farming, and growing of cultured pearls. Growth … Read more

WHITE REVOLUTION IN INDIA

WHITE REVOLUTION IN INDIA   The package programme adopted to increase the production of milk is known as White Revolution in India. The White Revolution in India occurred in 1970, when the National Dairy Development Board (NDDB) was established to organize the dairy development through the co-operative societies. Varghese Kuerin was the father of White … Read more

Green Revolution in India

Green Revolution in India A term coined to describe the emergence and diffusion of new seeds of cereals. Norman-e-Borlaug is the Father of Green Revolution in the world, while Dr. M.S. Swami Nathan is known as the Father of Green Revolution in India. The new cereals were the product of research work and concentrated plant … Read more

CHARACTERISTICS AND PROBLEMS OF INDIAN AGRICULTURE

CHARACTERISTICS AND PROBLEMS OF INDIAN AGRICULTURE Subsistent in Character Heavy Pressure of Population Predominance of Food Grains Mixed Cropping High Percentage of the Reporting Area under Cultivation Small Size of Holdings and Fragmentation of Fields Limited Intensive Agriculture Primitive Technology Indian Agriculture is Labour Intensive Rain-fed Agriculture Less Area under Leguminous and Fodder Crops Tradition … Read more

Physical factors: Terrain, topography, climate, and soil. which determine agriculture

Physical Factors: (a) Terrain, Topography, and Altitude dependent on the geo-ecological conditions; terrain, topography, slope and altitude. paddy cultivation requires leveled fields, tea plantations perform well in the undulating topography in which water does not remain standing. Orchards of coconut are found at low altitudes, preferably closer to the sea level, while the apple orchards … Read more

agriculture

the syllabus states that -mazor crops,cropping patterns in various parts of the country,different types of irrigation system,storage,transport and marketing of agricultural product,and issues related to constraints,e-tec hnology in the aid of farmers….the link for yojna January  2011 for agriculture is for dowloading dere would be a link as  download pdf also ncert geography land use … Read more

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