All India Services

? All India Services The Design of the Civil Service at Independence While designing a successor civil service, the Indian political leaders chose to retain elements of the British structure of a unified administrative system such as an open-entry system based on academic achievements, elaborate training arrangements, permanency of tenure, important posts at Union, … Read more

Uniform Civil Code

? Uniform civil code A uniform civil code administers the same set of secular civil laws to govern all people irrespective of their religion, caste and tribe. The need for such a code takes in to account the constitutional mandate of securing justice and equality for all citizens. A uniform criminal code is applicable … Read more

Regulatory Governance

? REGULATORY GOVERNANCE       Regulation refers to “controlling human or societal behaviour by rules or regulations or alternatively a rule or order issued by an executive authority or regulatory agency of a government and having the force of law”. Regulation covers all activities of private or public behaviour that may be detrimental … Read more

Provisions For Scheduled Castes, Tribes And Minorities (1)

? Provisions for scheduled castes, Tribes and Minorities CONSITITONAL PROVISIONS FOR SC & ST Constitutional History In the original Constitution, Article 338 provided for a special officer (the Commissioner for SCs and STs) responsible for monitoring the implementation of constitutional and legislative safeguards for SCs and STs and reporting to the president. Seventeen regional … Read more

Human Rights Commission

? Human Rights Commission Establishment of Human Right Commission The National Human Rights Commission is a statutory (and not a constitutional) body. It was established in 1993 under a legislation enacted by the Parliament, namely, the Protection of Human Rights Act, 1993. This Act was amended in 2006. The commission is the watchdog of … Read more

Union Public Service Commissions

? Union Public Service Commissions Public Service Commissions for the Union as per Article-315 Subject to the provisions of this article, there shall be a Public Service Commission for the Union Any such law as aforesaid may contain such incidental and consequential provisions as may be necessary or desirable for giving effect to the … Read more

LABOUR LAW REFORMS

?     Definition: Industrial legalizations are the laws enacted by the Government to provide economic and social justice to the workers in industries. Generally these laws provide guidelines to the employers/industrialists in dealing with the matters of wages, wage incentives, facilitates for workers and the working conditions of labour. Necessity: … Read more

CAG

? The Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG) promotes accountability, transparency and good governance through high quality auditing and accounting.The Comptroller and auditor general (CAG) of India is empower to audit all expenses from the combine Fund of the union or state governments, whether incurred within India or outside. The Comptroller and Auditor General of … Read more

The Protection Of Human Rights Act

? The Protection of Human Rights Act, 1993 The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) mooted the idea 01 the creation of an impartial institution for the protection of human rigfits in the States as early as 1946. In pursuance of the resolution of the General Assembly adopted in 1966,’ the Economic … Read more

Ethics In Administration (1)

? Ethics in administration: Status and problem The Historical Context India has witnessed a long history of unethical practices in the governance system. Kautilya’s Arthashastra mentions a variety of corrupt practices in which the administrators of those times indulged themselves. The Mughal Empire and the Indian princely rule were also afflicted with the corrupt … Read more

Educational For Marginalised Section

? Measures Adopted for Educational Development of socio-economic disadvantaged groups: Our Constitution has directed the states to promote the educational interests of the weaker sections of the people, particularly of SCs and STs in terms of establishment of and admission to educational institutions and grant from state funds for scholarships, etc. It has thus … Read more

Govt Employment

? Govt. employment policy Analysing and Improving Labour Market Data      Availability of detailed, reliable, and comprehensive information on the labour market is critical to meet the employment challenge through well-targeted policies and programmes. At present, the dearth of statistical data on the labour market in India poses serious constraints to employment planning and … Read more

Development Of Hindi And Urdu Language

?     Development of Hindi and Urdu Language   Hindi and Urdu are two Hindustani Languages; spoken mostly in the northern and Central India and in Pakistan. Hindi and Urdu are two different languages but these languages have many common things. Both Hindi and Urdu are developed in a similar phase and adopted … Read more

Salient Features Of The Representation Of Peoples Act 1951

? Salient features of the Representation of Peoples Act 1951 People are the supreme power in the democratic country. Accordingly the People of India solemnly resolved that India is a democratic country. As we know that the India is a largest democracy in the world. The term Democracy mentioned in the Preamble of the … Read more

Panchayat Financing And Devolution

? Panchayat: Financing, Resource mobilization and devolution Sources of Funds The Amendments left important matters such as implementation, service delivery (including local capacity building) and transfer of responsibilities and powers to rural local bodies at the discretion of the state legislatures. Consequently, while expenditure responsibilities of local bodies are extensively enhanced, there is no … Read more

The Protection Of Civil Rights Act

? The Protection of Civil Rights Act, 1955 (No. 22 of 1955) The practice of untouchability in Indian society is an attribute of the hierarchical stratification of society into castes. On the one hand, the Vedic use the term “varna” (colour) to denote caste seems to indicate that the caste system began as a … Read more

Role Of Non Government Organizations (NGOs)

? Role of Non-Government Organizations (NGOs) NGOs are voluntary organization’s. These are popularly known as NGOs because they are free from governmental control in their functioning. They are democratic and open to all those wishing to become member of the organization voluntarily and serve the society. NGO have a long history in India. In … Read more

Advance Infrastructure In Rural Areas

? Advance Infrastructure in Rural Areas Good quality infrastructure is critical to sustainable growth, especially for rural areas. As over 60 per cent of the population lives in rural areas, with low levels of per capital income, there is need to impart greater attention in improving rural infrastructure. Currently the rural infrastructure is inadequate … Read more

Citizenship

? Citizenship Relationship between an individual and a state to which the individual owes allegiance and in turn is entitled to its protection. Citizenship implies the status of freedom with accompanying responsibilities. Citizens have certain rights, duties, and responsibilities that are denied or only partially extended to aliens and other noncitizens residing in a … Read more

Bodies Constituted

? Bodies constituted, Policies, Programmes and Schemes for welfare of Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment The Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment is the nodal Ministry to oversee the interests of the Scheduled Castes. Though the primary responsibility for promotion of interests of the Scheduled Castes rests with all … Read more

Role Of Non

? Role of Non-Government Organizations (NGOs) NGOs are voluntary organization’s. These are popularly known as NGOs because they are free from governmental control in their functioning. They are democratic and open to all those wishing to become member of the organization voluntarily and serve the society. NGO have a long history in India. In … Read more

Foundational Values For Civil Services (1)

? Foundational values for civil services Values are the standards on which, we evaluate things. For every situation we don’t have time to ‘test’ the case on ethics theories such as utilitarianism. Values provide time saving short-cut in such situation. Under New public management (NPM), the concept of public services is fast changing. Bureaucrat … Read more

Neutrality Of Civil Services

? Neutrality of Civil Services Sardar Patel had made the following observations in the Constituent Assembly to support the continuance of the pre-independence civil service structure:- “It needs hardly to be emphasized that an efficient, disciplined and contended civil service assured of its prospects as a result of diligent and honest work, is a … Read more

Growth And Distributive Justice

? Growth and distributive justice During the first three decades after Independence, the Indian economy stagnated around a trend rate of growth of 3.5 per cent, popularly known as the Hindu rate of growth. The scenario changed during the 1980s. The acceleration of growth during the 1980s to 5.6 per cent put the economy … Read more

Internal Security

? Role of external state and Non-state actor’s in creating challenges to internal security  Challenges to Internal security through communication networks  Role of media and Social networking sites in internal securityChallenges Basics of cyber security  Role of biometric devices in security IT Act (2000) Security challenges in border areas linkages of organized crime with … Read more

Types,causes And Effects Of Corruption

?  CORRUPTION: NATURE Like that of several other socio-economic offences, corruption stands out as an offence which affects the community as a whole. It is not just an offence between the perpetrator of a traditional crime like murder, theft or rape and an innocent victim. In fact and reality the bribe-giver and the bribe-taker … Read more

Scheduled Caste

? Scheduled Caste & Scheduled Tribe (Prevention of Atrocities) 1989 (No.33 of 1989) The Scheduled Castes and Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989 is an Act of the Parliament of India enacted to prevent atrocities against scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. The Act is popularly known as POA, the SC/ST Act, the Prevention of … Read more

Central Vigilance Commission

? Central Vigilance Commission   The Central Vigilance Commission (CVC) was established in 1964, as an apex body for exercising general superintendence and control over vigilance administration, through the Government of India Resolution of 11.2.1964. The main mandate of the Commission was based on the report of the Committee on Prevention of Corruption, popularly known as … Read more

Panchayats And Municipalities

? Panchayats and Municipalities Panchayats Village Panchayat In the structure of the Panchayati Raj, the Village Panchayat is the lowest unit. There is a Panchayat for each village or a group of villages in case the population of these villages happens to be too small. The Panchayat chiefly consists of representatives elected by the … Read more

Bifurcation Of Powers Between Centre And State

? Bifurcation of powers between centre and state (state list, union list and concurrent list) The main characteristic of a federal constitution is the distribution of powers between the union and the states. The Indian constitution provides for a new kind of federalism to meet India’s peculiar needs. In the matter of distribution of … Read more

E Governance

? E Governance     The “e” in e-Governance stands for ‘electronic’. Thus, e-Governance is basically associated with carrying out the functions and achieving the results of governance through the utilization of ICT (Information and Communications Technology), So it is the application of information and communication technology (ICT) for delivering government services, exchange of information, communication transactions, integration … Read more

Policy Alternatives

? Policy alternatives Public-Private Sector Partnership (PPP) Public-private partnerships between a government agency and private-sector company can be used to finance, build and operate projects, such as public transportation networks, parks and convention centers. Financing a project through a public-private partnership can allow a project to be completed sooner or make it a possibility … Read more

Civil Society And Political Movement

? Civil Society and Political Movement   Civil society, Faced to the centralised power of the State, first has a role of enabling the hitherto voiceless and unorganised communities interests to be represented. In other term, the sphere of civil society has a goal of empowerment for local communities. In that specific function, civil … Read more

Concept Of State And Sovereignty

? Concept of State and Sovereignty The State is a social contract, a guarantee of social order in exchange for which the citizens agree to reduce their freedom.According to Carré de Malberg, one of France’s leading constitutional scholars, « the state is a community of men attached to a territory with an organization, from … Read more

Expanding Horizons Of Fundamental Rights

? Expanding horizons of Fundamental Rights; Enforceability against State and others Founding fathers influenced by Bill of Rights of American Constitution, Declaration of Rights of Man of France, The Irish Constitution of 1935, the post war Constitution of Japan & Burma, the Universal Human Rights’ Chapter & Nehru Report of 1928 engrafted fundamental rights … Read more

Consumer Protection And Remedies

? Consumer Protection and Remedies In regulatory jurisdictions that provide for it (comprising most or all developed countries with free market economies), consumer protection is a group of laws and organizations designed to ensure the rights of consumers as well as fair trade, competition and accurate information in the marketplace. The laws are designed … Read more

Challenges Of Corruption

? Challenges of corruption Corruption is an age old phenomenon and can be seen everywhere now a days. It is like a cancer in public life, which has not become to rampant and perpetuated overnight, but is course of time. The word corruption means destruction, ruining or spoiling a society or nation. A corrupt … Read more

National Cyber Crime Policy

? National Cyber Crime Policy Cyberspace is a complex environment consisting of interactions between people, software and services, supported by worldwide distribution of information and communication technology (ICT) devices and networks. In the light of the growth of IT sector in the country, ambitious plans for rapid social transformation & inclusive growth and India’s … Read more

Samadhan

? SAMADHAN Scheme     On 26 January 2013, the Uttarakhand government had launched a portal for online registration of people’s complaints and their quick redressal. Launching the portal called “Samadhan” (solution), the thenUttarakhand Chief Minister Vijay Bahuguna described it as a step towards transparency. The CM assured the people that he will personally … Read more

Central Bureau Of Investigation

? Central Bureau of Investigation At an early stage of World War-II, the Government of India realised that vast increase in expenditure for war efforts had provided opportunities to unscrupulous and anti-social persons, both officials and non-officials, for indulging in bribery and corruption at the cost of public and the Government. It was felt … Read more

Legislative And Judicial Control Over The Delegated Legislation (1)

? Legislative and Judicial control over the delegated legislation The Indian Constitution has established a Welfare State which mandates that the State shall legislate on innumerable activities touching human lives in order to promote the ‘maximum happiness of the maximum number of people’. Consequently the State has to undertake legislation on a variety of … Read more

Right To Information

? Right To Information     Right to information is a fundamental right of any citizen of India to know what is happening with the government. Every individual has the freedom to seek any government related information through this RTI act 2005. The Right to Information Act (2005) is one of the key legislation … Read more

Ethical Dilemmas In Government And Private Institutes (1)

? Ethical dilemmas in government and private institutes The reputation and success of governance depends upon the conduct of public functionaries and what the public believe about their conduct. It is therefore of fundamental importance that public functionaries act justly and fairly to all, not only paying lip service to ethical conduct but also … Read more

Labour Welfare Policies

? Labour welfare: Government policies, Schemes and programmes Objectives of Labour Welfare In the beginning humanitarianism and social awareness motivated labour welfare activities. Driven by the desire for greater efficiency and out put from workers and with a view to attract better workers, employers lured them into their Organisation through labour welfare measures. Further, … Read more

Concept Of Public Service

? Concept of public service Public service is a service which is provided by government to people living within its jurisdiction, either directly (through the public sector) or by financing provision of services. The term is associated with a social consensus (usually expressed through democratic elections) that certain services should be available to all, … Read more

Rule Of Law

? Rule of law The concept of Rule of Law is that the state is governed, not by the ruler or the nominated representatives of the people but by the law. A county that enshrines the rule of law would be one wherein the Grundnorm[i] of the country, or the basic and core law … Read more

Niti Ayog

? Niti Ayog – National Institution for Transforming India   The National Institution for Transforming India, also called NITI Aayog, was formed via a resolution of the Union Cabinet on January 1, 2015. NITI Aayog is the premier policy ‘Think Tank’ of the Government of India, providing both directional and policy inputs. While designing … Read more

Coalition Governments In States

? Coalition Governments in States The term coalition is derived from the Latin word ‘coalition’ meaning to go or grow together. Thus it means an act of coalescing or uniting into one body or alliance. It indicates the combination of a number of bodies or parts into one body or whole. In the political … Read more

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