Polity Booster- Linkages of organized crime with terrorism

Linkages of organized crime with terrorism As organized crime and terrorist groups have globalized and diversified their operations in the past decade, they have based their activities in countries offering conditions most favorable to survival and expansion. Mobility, an important new characteristic of most such groups, has given groups a wider selection of operational bases … Read more

Polity Booster- State and non-State actors in creating challenges to internal security

State and non-State actors in creating challenges to internal security India was partitioned in the backdrop of large-scale communal riots, but the partition of the country on religious lines, without taking into consideration its multiple identities, instead of bringing the communal tensions down, in fact, worsened the situation. The two-nation theory created Pakistan, and it … Read more

Polity Booster- Linkages between development and spread of extremism

Linkages between development and spread of extremism In the Indian scenario, extremism activities(e.g. Naxalism, Radicalisation) are increasing rapidly. The scale of the extremists’ operations is massive and consequently, these activities have a perilous impact on the nation’s social, economic, and political development. Improvement in standard of living is something that everyone craves and deserves it … Read more

State Civil Services

State Civil Services The phrase ‘State Services’ refers to the civil service at state level. Civil service refers to the civilians employed by a government and distinguishes civilian pursuits in government from military. Civil service is a career service. Elective officials and employees of semi-government bodies do not form part of the civil service. An … Read more

Land Acquisition and Rehabilitation in India

Land Acquisition and Rehabilitation in India India is an agrarian economy with more than half of the population living in rural areas and depending on agriculture for their income. However, since the economic liberalization in the year 1991, India’s focus has mostly driven to the development of other sectors which has paved way for the … Read more

Adult Franchise

Adult Franchise Right to express one’s choice by vote is called Franchise. When the right to vote or franchise is given to every adult in a state, it is known as the Universal Adult Franchise. In its original 19th-century usage by reformers in Britain, universal suffrage was understood to mean only universal manhood suffrage; the … Read more

Important Amendments of Indian Constitution

Important Amendments of Indian Constitution 24th amendment of Indian constitution Article 368 in Part XX of the Constitution deals with the powers of the Parliament to amend the Constitution and its procedure. The Parliament may in the exercise of its constituent power amend by way of addition, variation or repeal any provision of the Constitution in … Read more

Personal,Financial and Administrative Laws

Personnel Law Human resource managers in the twenty-first century are faced with an unprecedented intrusion of law into the workplace. The recent rise in employment litigation and heightened awareness of employee rights in the last decade should signal to management that now more than ever, educating personnel executives in the trends and developments of employment … Read more

Speaker of the Lok Sabha

Speaker of the Lok Sabha The Office of the Speaker occupies a pivotal position in our parliamentary democracy. It has been said of the Office of the Speaker that while the members of Parliament represent the individual constituencies, the Speaker represents the full authority of the House itself. He symbolises the dignity and power of … Read more

Family Court

Family Court It is not unknown that a gaping loophole in the Indian Judiciary is the backlog of cases. The number of cases being filed in the Supreme Court is consistently on the rise. There are cases dealing with a broad spectrum of issues such as family matters and property which continue for generations. Such … Read more

State Human Rights Commission

State Human Rights Commission A State Commission is to be composed of a chairman and some members appointed by the Governor in consultation with the Chief Minister, Home Minister, Speaker and Leader of the Opposition in State Assembly. The chairman is to be a retired judge of the High Court; one of the members should … Read more

New dimensions of public management

New dimensions of public management NPM is a label that captures a range of reforms inspired by the idea that private sector management techniques and market mechanisms increase public sector efficiency. NPM type reforms include, for example, quantification, the introduction of performance management systems, the increase in the responsibility of public administrators, the introduction of … Read more

Federalism

Federalism Federalism, mode of political organization that unites separate states or other polities within an overarching political system in a way that allows each to maintain its own integrity. Federal systems do this by requiring that basic policies be made and implemented through negotiation in some form, so that all the members can share in … Read more

Constitution of India: Foundation, characteristics

Constitution of India: Foundation, characteristics Foundation of constitution Constitution is a legal document having a special legal sanctity, which sets out the framework and the principal functions of the organs of the government of a state, and declares the principles governing the operation of those organs. The Indian Constitution is based on the philosophy of … Read more

Objectives of Indian Constitution

Objectives of Indian Constitution Sovereignty By declaring us as a sovereign entity, Preamble emphasizes complete political freedom. It implies that our state is internally powerful and externally free. She is free to determine for herself without any external interference. There is none within her to challenge her authority. Only this attribute of sovereignty has made … Read more

Principles of Public Administration

Principles of Public Administration Throughout the 20th century the study and practice of public administration has been essentially pragmatic and normative rather than theoretical and value free. This may explain why public administration, unlike some social sciences, developed without much concern about an encompassing theory. Not until the mid-20th century and the dissemination of the … Read more

National Commission for Backward Classes

National Commission for Backward Classes The NCBC is a body set up under the National Commission for Backward Classes Act, 1993. It has the power to examine complaints regarding inclusion or exclusion of groups within the list of backward classes, and advise the central government in this regard. Composition of the commission Commission will consist … Read more

Old Age Acts

Old Age Acts Hindus Laws Amongst the Hindus, the obligation of sons to maintain their aged parents, who were not able to maintain themselves out of their own earning and property, was recognized even in early texts. And this obligation was not dependent upon, or in any way qualified, by a reference to the possession … Read more

Law And Rule

? Law and Rule related Administration   Administrative Law Administrative law is the body of law created by the agencies and departments of the government, which carry out the laws passed by Center or a state legislature. When Center passes a law on a complicated issue, Center  often needs help determining all … Read more

General Defences

?   General Defences Vis Major or Act of God When something occurs over which you have no control and it is effected of accentuated by the forces of nature then you are not liable in tort law for such inadvertent damage that may arise out of such. However if you were well aware … Read more

Education

? Education Role of Education especially in Human Resource Development and Social Change. Education System in India : Problems and Issues (Including Universalization and Vocationalization). Education for Girls, other Socially and Economically and other disadvantaged sections of people and Minorities, etc. Right to Education, Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan, Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan in Uttarakhand. Status … Read more

Civil And Criminal Laws

? Civil and Criminal laws: hierarchy of civil and criminal courts in India Courts and Justice system in India The courts are divided into three categories with top court, middle court and lower court. The top court is named as the Supreme Court, while the middle court is named as High Court, and the … Read more

Free And Compulsory Primary Education

? Free and Compulsory primary education The Indian Constitution is a social document and the supreme law of the land. The founding fathers of the Constitution have incorporated a well designed constitutional manifesto under Part-IV of the Constitution to achieve socio-economic Justice. The Directive Principles of State Policy are principles of good governance. Education … Read more

Nepotism

? Nepotism Nepotism describes a variety of practices related to favoritism; it can mean simply hiring one’s own family members, or it can mean hiring and advancing unqualified or under-qualified family members based simply on the familial relationship. The word nepotism stems from the Latin word for “nephew,” especially the nephews of the prelates … Read more

Budgetry Reforms

? BUDGETARY REFORMS     Government bodies raise money by imposing taxes on citizens and then use those funds to pursue various programs such as education, defence, infrastructure and research and development. A government’s budget describes all of its sources of income and where it spends that income, and budget reform is the process … Read more

Changes In Administrative Structure During British Period (1)

? Changes in Administrative structure during British period In the beginning, the Company left the administration of its possessions in India in Indian hands, confining its activities to supervision. But soon found `that British aims were not adequately served by following old methods of administration. Consequently, the Company took all aspects of administration in … Read more

National And State SCST Commission

? National and state SC/ST commission National SC commission National Commission for Scheduled Castes (NCSC) is an Indian constitutional body established with a view to provide safeguards against the exploitation of Scheduled Castes to promote and protect their social, educational, economic and cultural interests, special provisions were made in the Constitution.   Functions To … Read more

Right To Service

? Right To Service     Delivering public services in a time bound, decentralised and citizen friendly manner has been one of the major challenges facing the administration wing of the government.   Right to Public Services legislation in India comprises statutory laws which guarantee time-bound delivery of various public services rendered to citizens … Read more

Basics Of Recruitment

? Basics of recruitment, selection, induction, training & development Recruitment (hiring) refers to the overall process of attracting, shortlisting, selecting and appointing suitable candidates for jobs (either permanent or temporary) within an organization. Recruitment can also refer to processes involved in choosing individuals for unpaid roles. Managers, human resource generalists and recruitment specialists may … Read more

EXECUTIVE ACCOUNTABILITY

? EXECUTIVE–ITS ACCOUNTABILITY TO PARLIAMENT RELATION OF PARLIAMENT WITH THE EXECUTIVE One of the most important questions which engaged the attention of the framers of the Constitution was the nature of the Executive and its relation with the Legislature. Dr. Ambedkar observed in introducing the Constitution:   The decision of the Constituent … Read more

River Water Dispute Settlements Board

? River water dispute settlements board The Inter-State River Water Disputes are one of the most contiguous issues in the Indian federalism today. In the extreme cases, it may hamper the relationship between the different states. The recent cases of the Cauvery Water Dispute and the Satluj Yamuna Link Canal case are examples. Water … Read more

Ethical And Moral Values In Governance

? Ethical and moral values in governance The notion of “Good Governance” has become the buzzword these days in wake of globalization. Good governance is commonly described as a style of governance that is efficient, effective, responsive, corruption free and citizen friendly for ensuring people’s trust in government and promoting social harmony, political stability … Read more

Citizen Centric Governance

? Citizen Centric Governance   The “key word” to be used in this is the “citizens engagement” in the various phases of the service definition, development, refining and monitoring, and the whole concept of user-centric services is based on “putting the citizen (user) at the centre of innovative services” starting from enabling of a … Read more

Transparency International And Accountability

? Transparency International and Accountability Transparency International (TI) is an international non-governmental organization which is based in Berlin, Germany, and was founded in 1993. Its nonprofit purpose is to take action to combat global corruption and prevent criminal activities arising from corruption. It publishes for example the Global Corruption Barometer and the Corruption Perceptions … Read more

Role Of Media

? The Role of the Media and Investigative Journalism in Combating Corruption Media reporting in general, and especially investigative journalism by affiliated or independent journalists, or indeed non-governmental organisations (NGOs), are among the most important sources of public awareness-raising on corruption. Media reporting is an essential source of detection in corruption cases, either for … Read more

Self Help Groups

? Self Help Groups (SHGs) and Civil Society in India The Self Help Groups (SHG) initiative was adopted by India several decades ago in order to alleviate poverty, and improve women’s ability to achieve rights and well-being. At the beginning, SHG was an initiative undertook by NGOs, but later on, due to its success … Read more

Ideal Of Service

? Ideal of service Upanishads and the ideal of Service The Upanishadic Ideal of service is based on the concepts of Truth, Dharma and Yajna. Without comprehending these three concepts we cannot understand what we have come to recognise as service today – the most appealing and popular component of modern religions. Discovering the … Read more

Judicial Accountabilty

?   Introduction The Indian Judiciary plays an increasingly important role in the life and the governance of this country.. Recently CJI as the master of the roster with the sole prerogative to determine which Bench of judges gets to hear which cases comes under question. Four senior judges of supreme court … Read more

Charities

? Charities The practice of charity means the voluntary giving of help to those in need, as a humanitarian act. There are instances in India, of great men, who gave their all to the cause of charity. One such man was Deshbandhu Chittaranjan Das, the great political leader and a renowned barrister. He donated … Read more

Central Information Commission

? Central Information Commission (CIC)   The Central Information Commission is a high-powered independent body which inter alia looks into the complaints made to it and decides the appeals.   The Central Information Commission (CIC) set up under the Right to Information Act is the authorized quasi judicial body, established in 2005,under the Government … Read more

Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan

? SARVA SHIKSHA ABHIYAN IN UTTARAKHAND   In a federal setup like India, strategy for realizing development has to be formulated and implemented at State level within the contours of National framework. Uttarakhand accounts for 1.69 per cent of area of the country as a whole. A brief review of growth trajectory over the … Read more

Politician And Civil Servant Relations

? Politician and Civil Servant Relations It is an era of welfare states. Gone are the days when states were either instruments of tyranny or mere custodians of law and order. Nowadays the states not only protect and restrain but also foster and promote. As such the role of the ministers, who work for … Read more

Criminal Misappropriation

? Criminal misappropriation Criminal misappropriation takes place when the possession has been innocently come by, but where, by a subsequent change of intention, or the knowledge of new fact with which the party was not previously acquainted, the retaining becomes wrongful and fraudulent. A person commits criminal misappropriation, if he: Dishonestly misappropriates or converts … Read more

Social Welfare Programmes

? Social Welfare Programmes of India Social Welfare sector is responsible for the welfare, rehabilitation and development of the Persons with Disabilities, the Social Deviants, and the Other Disadvantaged who require special attention of the State because of the disabilities and vulnerabilities they suffer from. While there is no information about the size of … Read more

Law And Order

? Law and order law and order refers to demands for a strict criminal justice system, especially in relation to violent and property crime, through stricter criminal penalties. These penalties may include longer terms of imprisonment, mandatory sentencing, three-strikes laws, and in some countries, capital punishment. ‘Police’ and ‘Public Order’ are State subjects under … Read more

CONTRACTS AND CONSUMER PROTECTION

? CONTRACTS AND CONSUMER PROTECTION A consumer contract is a legally binding agreement between you and the consumer concerning the sale of goods or the supply of services. Elements of a Contract Offer An offer is a promise to act or refrain from acting, which is made in exchange for a return promise to … Read more

Role Of Women And Women

?   Role of Women and Women’s Organization   Role of Women Historical data signified that women have many role in civilisation since ancient time and these roles are changing over the period. In a society, status of people can be assessed by importance of women in that culture. Many factors that rationalise the … Read more

Sailent Features Of Representation Of Peoples Act

? Sailent features of Representation of Peoples act People are the supreme power in the democratic country. Accordingly the People of India solemnly resolved that India is a democratic country. As we know that the India is a largest democracy in the world. The term Democracy mentioned in the Preamble of the constitution of … Read more

State Politics

? State Politics of Rajasthan: Party System, Political Demography, Different phases of Political competition in Rajasthan       The state with an area of 3, 42,239sq.km is divided into two types of constituencies- – the Parliamentary Constituency and the Assembly Constituency.   The predominant political parties in the state are the Indian National … Read more

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