Law And Rule

? Law and Rule related Administration   Administrative Law Administrative law is the body of law created by the agencies and departments of the government, which carry out the laws passed by Center or a state legislature. When Center passes a law on a complicated issue, Center  often needs help determining all … Read more

General Defences

?   General Defences Vis Major or Act of God When something occurs over which you have no control and it is effected of accentuated by the forces of nature then you are not liable in tort law for such inadvertent damage that may arise out of such. However if you were well aware … Read more

Education

? Education Role of Education especially in Human Resource Development and Social Change. Education System in India : Problems and Issues (Including Universalization and Vocationalization). Education for Girls, other Socially and Economically and other disadvantaged sections of people and Minorities, etc. Right to Education, Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan, Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan in Uttarakhand. Status … Read more

Civil And Criminal Laws

? Civil and Criminal laws: hierarchy of civil and criminal courts in India Courts and Justice system in India The courts are divided into three categories with top court, middle court and lower court. The top court is named as the Supreme Court, while the middle court is named as High Court, and the … Read more

Free And Compulsory Primary Education

? Free and Compulsory primary education The Indian Constitution is a social document and the supreme law of the land. The founding fathers of the Constitution have incorporated a well designed constitutional manifesto under Part-IV of the Constitution to achieve socio-economic Justice. The Directive Principles of State Policy are principles of good governance. Education … Read more

Nepotism

? Nepotism Nepotism describes a variety of practices related to favoritism; it can mean simply hiring one’s own family members, or it can mean hiring and advancing unqualified or under-qualified family members based simply on the familial relationship. The word nepotism stems from the Latin word for “nephew,” especially the nephews of the prelates … Read more

Budgetry Reforms

? BUDGETARY REFORMS     Government bodies raise money by imposing taxes on citizens and then use those funds to pursue various programs such as education, defence, infrastructure and research and development. A government’s budget describes all of its sources of income and where it spends that income, and budget reform is the process … Read more

Changes In Administrative Structure During British Period (1)

? Changes in Administrative structure during British period In the beginning, the Company left the administration of its possessions in India in Indian hands, confining its activities to supervision. But soon found `that British aims were not adequately served by following old methods of administration. Consequently, the Company took all aspects of administration in … Read more

National And State SCST Commission

? National and state SC/ST commission National SC commission National Commission for Scheduled Castes (NCSC) is an Indian constitutional body established with a view to provide safeguards against the exploitation of Scheduled Castes to promote and protect their social, educational, economic and cultural interests, special provisions were made in the Constitution.   Functions To … Read more

Right To Service

? Right To Service     Delivering public services in a time bound, decentralised and citizen friendly manner has been one of the major challenges facing the administration wing of the government.   Right to Public Services legislation in India comprises statutory laws which guarantee time-bound delivery of various public services rendered to citizens … Read more

Basics Of Recruitment

? Basics of recruitment, selection, induction, training & development Recruitment (hiring) refers to the overall process of attracting, shortlisting, selecting and appointing suitable candidates for jobs (either permanent or temporary) within an organization. Recruitment can also refer to processes involved in choosing individuals for unpaid roles. Managers, human resource generalists and recruitment specialists may … Read more

EXECUTIVE ACCOUNTABILITY

? EXECUTIVE–ITS ACCOUNTABILITY TO PARLIAMENT RELATION OF PARLIAMENT WITH THE EXECUTIVE One of the most important questions which engaged the attention of the framers of the Constitution was the nature of the Executive and its relation with the Legislature. Dr. Ambedkar observed in introducing the Constitution:   The decision of the Constituent … Read more

River Water Dispute Settlements Board

? River water dispute settlements board The Inter-State River Water Disputes are one of the most contiguous issues in the Indian federalism today. In the extreme cases, it may hamper the relationship between the different states. The recent cases of the Cauvery Water Dispute and the Satluj Yamuna Link Canal case are examples. Water … Read more

Ethical And Moral Values In Governance

? Ethical and moral values in governance The notion of “Good Governance” has become the buzzword these days in wake of globalization. Good governance is commonly described as a style of governance that is efficient, effective, responsive, corruption free and citizen friendly for ensuring people’s trust in government and promoting social harmony, political stability … Read more

Citizen Centric Governance

? Citizen Centric Governance   The “key word” to be used in this is the “citizens engagement” in the various phases of the service definition, development, refining and monitoring, and the whole concept of user-centric services is based on “putting the citizen (user) at the centre of innovative services” starting from enabling of a … Read more

Transparency International And Accountability

? Transparency International and Accountability Transparency International (TI) is an international non-governmental organization which is based in Berlin, Germany, and was founded in 1993. Its nonprofit purpose is to take action to combat global corruption and prevent criminal activities arising from corruption. It publishes for example the Global Corruption Barometer and the Corruption Perceptions … Read more

Role Of Media

? The Role of the Media and Investigative Journalism in Combating Corruption Media reporting in general, and especially investigative journalism by affiliated or independent journalists, or indeed non-governmental organisations (NGOs), are among the most important sources of public awareness-raising on corruption. Media reporting is an essential source of detection in corruption cases, either for … Read more

Self Help Groups

? Self Help Groups (SHGs) and Civil Society in India The Self Help Groups (SHG) initiative was adopted by India several decades ago in order to alleviate poverty, and improve women’s ability to achieve rights and well-being. At the beginning, SHG was an initiative undertook by NGOs, but later on, due to its success … Read more

Ideal Of Service

? Ideal of service Upanishads and the ideal of Service The Upanishadic Ideal of service is based on the concepts of Truth, Dharma and Yajna. Without comprehending these three concepts we cannot understand what we have come to recognise as service today – the most appealing and popular component of modern religions. Discovering the … Read more

Judicial Accountabilty

?   Introduction The Indian Judiciary plays an increasingly important role in the life and the governance of this country.. Recently CJI as the master of the roster with the sole prerogative to determine which Bench of judges gets to hear which cases comes under question. Four senior judges of supreme court … Read more

Charities

? Charities The practice of charity means the voluntary giving of help to those in need, as a humanitarian act. There are instances in India, of great men, who gave their all to the cause of charity. One such man was Deshbandhu Chittaranjan Das, the great political leader and a renowned barrister. He donated … Read more

Central Information Commission

? Central Information Commission (CIC)   The Central Information Commission is a high-powered independent body which inter alia looks into the complaints made to it and decides the appeals.   The Central Information Commission (CIC) set up under the Right to Information Act is the authorized quasi judicial body, established in 2005,under the Government … Read more

Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan

? SARVA SHIKSHA ABHIYAN IN UTTARAKHAND   In a federal setup like India, strategy for realizing development has to be formulated and implemented at State level within the contours of National framework. Uttarakhand accounts for 1.69 per cent of area of the country as a whole. A brief review of growth trajectory over the … Read more

Politician And Civil Servant Relations

? Politician and Civil Servant Relations It is an era of welfare states. Gone are the days when states were either instruments of tyranny or mere custodians of law and order. Nowadays the states not only protect and restrain but also foster and promote. As such the role of the ministers, who work for … Read more

Criminal Misappropriation

? Criminal misappropriation Criminal misappropriation takes place when the possession has been innocently come by, but where, by a subsequent change of intention, or the knowledge of new fact with which the party was not previously acquainted, the retaining becomes wrongful and fraudulent. A person commits criminal misappropriation, if he: Dishonestly misappropriates or converts … Read more

Social Welfare Programmes

? Social Welfare Programmes of India Social Welfare sector is responsible for the welfare, rehabilitation and development of the Persons with Disabilities, the Social Deviants, and the Other Disadvantaged who require special attention of the State because of the disabilities and vulnerabilities they suffer from. While there is no information about the size of … Read more

Law And Order

? Law and order law and order refers to demands for a strict criminal justice system, especially in relation to violent and property crime, through stricter criminal penalties. These penalties may include longer terms of imprisonment, mandatory sentencing, three-strikes laws, and in some countries, capital punishment. ‘Police’ and ‘Public Order’ are State subjects under … Read more

CONTRACTS AND CONSUMER PROTECTION

? CONTRACTS AND CONSUMER PROTECTION A consumer contract is a legally binding agreement between you and the consumer concerning the sale of goods or the supply of services. Elements of a Contract Offer An offer is a promise to act or refrain from acting, which is made in exchange for a return promise to … Read more

Role Of Women And Women

?   Role of Women and Women’s Organization   Role of Women Historical data signified that women have many role in civilisation since ancient time and these roles are changing over the period. In a society, status of people can be assessed by importance of women in that culture. Many factors that rationalise the … Read more

Sailent Features Of Representation Of Peoples Act

? Sailent features of Representation of Peoples act People are the supreme power in the democratic country. Accordingly the People of India solemnly resolved that India is a democratic country. As we know that the India is a largest democracy in the world. The term Democracy mentioned in the Preamble of the constitution of … Read more

State Politics

? State Politics of Rajasthan: Party System, Political Demography, Different phases of Political competition in Rajasthan       The state with an area of 3, 42,239sq.km is divided into two types of constituencies- – the Parliamentary Constituency and the Assembly Constituency.   The predominant political parties in the state are the Indian National … Read more

Women

? Women, Minorities, Backward classes, Differently-abled persons, and children in India Women, minorities, backword classes, differentially abled people and children are the vulnerable section of the society. Women due to tradition  and patriarchy (male sex considered to be superior to female in society) Disabled due to their physical and mental inability to perform activities … Read more

New Developments In Criminal Laws

? New developments in criminal laws The Criminal Law (Amendment) Bill 2018 The Lok Sabha has passed the Criminal Law (Amendment) Bill 2018 that proposes to enhance punishment for rape of a child. The Bill provides for death penalty as the maximum punishment in cases of rape of a child under 12. The Bill … Read more

Lokpal And Redressel Of Citizens Grievances

? Lokpal and Redressel of Citizens grievances:- Introduction: The central theme of democracy is that the ruler is accountable to the rules of all sorts of activities and policies. This has arisen due to the fact that the modern states are populous. Because of this and other reasons the direct democracy of ancient Greek … Read more

Employment

?   Employment and Development: Human Resource Management and Human Resource Development and its indicators in India. Nature, types and Problems of Unemployment in India. Employment Schemes and Programmes both of Union Government and Uttarakhand Government. Rural Development and Community Development Programmes- Role of related Institutions and Organizations including all centrally and State sponsored … Read more

Principles Of Natural Justice

? Principles of Natural Justice The term “Principles of Natural Justice”, derived from the expression „Jus Natural” of the Roman Law, does not have force of law as they may or may not form part of statute but they are necessarily to be followed. The adherence to principles of natural justice as recognized by … Read more

Provisions Of SC (1)

? Provisions of SC/ST Atricities act, The Scheduled Castes and Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989 is an Act of the Parliament of India enacted to prevent atrocities against scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. The Act is popularly known as POA, the SC/ST Act, the Prevention of Atrocities Act, or simply the Atrocities Act. … Read more

Planning Commission And National Development Council (1)

? Planning commission and national development council Planning commission The Planning Commission was an institution in the Government of India, which formulated India’s Five-Year Plans, among other functions. Background Rudimentary economic planning, deriving from the sovereign authority of the state, was first initiated in India in 1938 by Congress President and Indian National Army … Read more

Philosophical Basis Of Governance

? Philosophical basis of governance Governance is the exercise of economic, political, and administrative authority to manage a country’s affairs at all levels. It comprises mechanisms, processes, and institutions through which citizens and groups articulate their interests, exercise their legal rights, meet their obligations, and mediate their differences. The challenge for all societies is … Read more

Fundamentalism And Terrorism

? fundamentalism and terrorism Citizens worldwide are becoming all too familiar with the accelerated frequency of terrorist attacks in the 21st century, particularly with those involving a religious underpinning. Why, though, have religiously-affiliated acts of terrorism become such a common occurrence? By examining how religious fundamentalism has accelerated and intensified terrorism within the modern … Read more

Right To Constitutional Remedies (1)

? Right to constitutional Remedies( writs) Writs under Article 32 of the Constitution A declaration of fundamental rights is meaningless unless there are effective judicial remedies for their enforcement. Article 32 for the enforcement of the Fundamental Rights by means of the specified writ of writs of the same nature. The purpose is to … Read more

Basic Knowledge Of Laws In India

? Basic Knowledge of Laws in India The law is an amorphous set of rules govern individuals and group behavior. We don’t even know about many of these rules or we understand them only generally. For example, you don’t need to see a written law to know that it’s a crime to steal or … Read more

Naxalism

? Naxalism Naxalism is considered to be one of the biggest internal security threats India faces at the moment, then Prime Minister Manmohan Singh said in 2008. Every year, many security personnel are killed in various attacks perpetrated by naxalites. Although the forces are trying hard to root the red menace out of the … Read more

Community Based Organizations

? Community Based Organizations (CBOs) Community based organizations (CBO’s) are nonprofit groups that work at a local level to improve life for residents. The focus is to build equality across society in all streams – health care, environment, quality of education, access to technology, access to spaces and information for the disabled, to name … Read more

Attorney General

? Attorney General of India Constitutional of Attorney General Article 76 The President shall appoint a person who is qualified to be appointed a Judge of the Supreme Court to be Attorney-General for India. It shall be the duty of the Attorney-General to give advice to the Government of India upon such legal matters, … Read more

Class And Caste In Indian Politics

? Class and caste in Indian politics Caste in Indian society refers to a social group where membership is largely decided by birth. Each such local group avoids entering into marital relationship with outsiders. Originally, this group was associated with a specific profession. The mutual relationship of one caste with the other is established … Read more

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