Delhi Sultanate

? The Delhi Sultanate basically refers to the Muslim rulers who ruled India through Delhi. This basically came into existence after Mohammed Ghori captured Delhi after defeating Prithviraj. After Prithviraj was captured, the Delhi Sultanate went into the hands of one of Ghori's generals known as Qutub-ud-din Aibak. During the end of the 12th century, … Read more

Yadavas

? The Seuna, Sevuna or of Devagiri (c. 850–1334) was an Indian dynasty, which at its peak ruled a kingdom stretching from the Tungabhadra to the Narmada rivers, including present-day Maharashtra, north Karnataka and parts of Madhya Pradesh, from its capital at Devagiri (present-day Daulatabad in modern Maharashtra). The initially ruled as feudatories of the … Read more

The Bahmani Sultanate

?                                                                     The Bahmani kingdom came into existence in 1347AD. Alauddin Hasan, an Afghan, founded the Sultanate after revolted against the  Bin Tuglaq, sultan of Delhi. He ruled it under the title of Bahaman Shah. He was also known as Hasan Gangu, as he had risen in the servise of a Brahmin, named Gangu. … Read more

The Kanauj And Their Contribution

? Kannauj is one among the most ancient place of India having rich archeological and cultural heritage, The ancient name of this place is Kanyakubja or Mahodya (as per Balmiki Ramayana, Mahabharat and Puran) later name kanyakubja was changed as Kannauj the present name of the District.   The early history of the region now … Read more

Discussion Forum for JPSC Mains Exam

Dear All we have launched a discussion forum for the dedicated preparation and guidance for 6th JPSC Mains Exam. Users will be able to get following services:- Doubt clearance for Mains topics by PSC Notes Experts. Continuation of Daily Mains Practice Question (DMPQ). Requests for redevelopment of notes (for topics not upto the students satisfaction). … Read more

Tana Bhagat Movement

Tana Bhagat Movement Oraon Tana bhagat Movement (1914-1919) a tribal uprising of a section of the Oraons under the leadership of Jatra Oraon, a twenty-five year old youth of Gumla, Ranchi, occurring during the late colonial period in the Chhotanagpur region. In April 1914 Jatra proclaimed that he had received a message from Dharmesh, the … Read more

Birsa Movement

Birsa Movement Birsa Munda (1875–1900) was an Indian tribal freedom fighter, religious leader, and folk hero who belonged to the Munda tribe. He spearheaded an Indian tribal religious Millenarian movement that arose in the tribal belt of modern-day Bihar and Jharkhand in the late 19th century, during the British Raj, thereby making him an important … Read more

Union Public Service Commission

Union Public Service Commissions Public Service Commissions for the Union as per Article-315 Subject to the provisions of this article, there shall be a Public Service Commission for the Union Any such law as aforesaid may contain such incidental and consequential provisions as may be necessary or desirable for giving effect to the purposes of … Read more

Disaster Management :Causes, Meaning and Classification of Disaster; Disaster Mitigation;Immediate and Long-term measures

Disaster Management History shows that India is exposed to national disasters. Cyclones, floods, earthquakes, droughts and floods are major threats. About 60 percent of the landmass is prone to earthquakes of various intensities, over 40 million hectares is prone to floods and 68 percent of the area is susceptible to drought. This not only results … Read more

National Human Rights Commission

Human Rights Commission Establishment of Human Right Commission The National Human Rights Commission is a statutory (and not a constitutional) body. It was established in 1993 under a legislation enacted by the Parliament, namely, the Protection of Human Rights Act, 1993. This Act was amended in 2006. The commission is the watchdog of human rights … Read more

Quit India Movement

SECOND WORLD WAR AND INDIAN NATIONALISTS In September 1939, the Second World War broke out. Indian opinion was not sought but the British government dragged India in the war as a party. Britain which claimed to be fighting for freedom had destroyed the freedom of the Indian people and had dragged India into the war. … Read more

The partition of India and its consequences

Direct Action Day (1946) Direct Action Day hartal called by the Muslim League on August 16, 1946 to get rid of ‘British slavery and contemplated future caste-Hindu domination’. The  backdrop of the Direct Action Day was not only the Muslim League’s acceptance of the cabinet mission plan, but also the loss of face it had … Read more

17.02.18 JPSC (Jharkhand) Current Affairs

JHARKHAND   Jharkhand to set up ‘Dada-Dadi’ park in every city Jharkhand Chief Minister Raghubar Das  said a “Dada-Dadi Park” for senior citizens would be established in every city of the state soon.   The projects include Adityapur Sewerage Yojna worth Rs 255.15 crore, Urban Water Project worth Rs 49.30 crore in Chakradharpur, West Singhbhum district and Multi-purpose Convention Hall … Read more

22.11.17 JPSC (Jharkhand) Current Affairs

JHARKHAND   Gift Milk scheme is Launched at Jharkhand   ð  Chief Minister Raghubar Das said that the Government has already started the process for a ‘White Revolution’ in the State and it will begin exporting milk outside the State in near future. The CM, during the launch of National Dairy Development Board’s (NDDB) ‘Gift … Read more

Good Governance

The “key word” to be used in this is the “Good Governance” in the various phases of the service definition, development, refining and monitoring, and the whole concept of Good Governance services is based on “putting the citizen (user) at the centre of innovative services” starting from enabling of a specific procedure: citizens shall be … Read more

The Consumer Protection Act

The Consumer Protection Act is an Act to provide for better protection of the interests of consumers and for that purpose to make provision for the establishment of consumer councils and other authorities for the settlement of consumers’ disputes and for matters connected therewith .A number of laws have been enacted in India to safeguard … Read more

Bureaucracy : Origin; its merits and demerits; Role of Bureaucracy in Policy formulation and its Implementation. Nexus between Bureaucracy and Political Executive

In ancient and medieval India, there was monarchical form of government and the general administration was run by people having near or distant relationship with the King instead of dedicated bureaucracy . But gradually the administration assumed complexities and this required specialist knowledge.The British rulers established a new form of administration analogous to their own … Read more

Morale and Productivity

Morale and Productivity of an Employee are higly interdependent. Morale is the most important Psychological state of mind of a person which is expressed as selfconfidence, loyalty toward an organization and/or enthusiasm. Morale of an employee determines the behavior either positively or negatively in an organization. Morale is directly related to employee motivation level and … Read more

Right to Education Act

Education is the most powerful tool which can shape the destiny of an individual as well as the whole nation. It is also the key to gender equality. Also it is not only the individual who gets empowered, but the community as a whole and society at large. It is in recognition of these aspects … Read more

Human Rights

Human Rights are commonly understood as inalienable fundamental rights “to which a person is inherently entitled simply because she or he is a human being,” and which are “inherent in all human beings” regardless of their nation, location, language, religion, ethnic origin or any other status. The history of human rights can be traced to past documents, … Read more

Public and Private Administration

The public and Private administration:-Public administration is different from private administration in three important aspects, the first is the political character, secondly the breadth of scope, impact and consideration and public accountability. These differences seem very fundamental and very valid in the Iight of our own exploration of the subject in previous articles. Following principles … Read more

Recruitment of Civil Service

Civil service refers to the body of government officials who are employed in civil occupations that are neither political nor judicial. The concept of civil service was prevalent in India from ancient times. The Mauryan administration employed civil servants in the name of adhyakshas and rajukas. The examination for civil servants in those days too … Read more

Generalist versus Specialist

Generalist versus Specialist: A ‘generalist’ means an amateur administrator who had education in linguistics or classics and is a highly intelligent man with certain personal qualities of character. While on the other hand, A ‘specialist’ is an expert who has devoted time and studies to a special branch of learning and has acquired specialized experience … Read more

Right to information act

Right to information is a fundamental right of any citizen of India to know what is happening with the government. Every individual has the freedom to seek any government related information through this RTI act 2005. The Right to Information Act (2005) is one of the key legislation enacted by the Parliament which guarantees the … Read more

Right to Service Act

Delivering public services in a time bound, decentralised and citizen friendly manner has been one of the major challenges facing the administration wing of the government.Right to Service legislation in India comprises statutory laws which guarantee time-bound delivery of various public services rendered to citizens and provides mechanism for punishing the errant public servant if … Read more

Lokayukta

Lokayukta investigates cases of corruption, where substantiated, recommend action. He is a great check on corruption, brings about transparency in the system, makes administrative machinery citizen friendly. His functions largely depend upon jurisdiction vested in him and facilities provided for taking cognizance of citizens’ grievances promptly, dexterously and expeditiously through simple, informal mechanism devoid of … Read more

The State Public Service Commission

The Jharkhand Public Service Commission was Constituted under the provisions of the Article 315 of the Constitution of India by the Governor of Jharkhand vide Notification . Jharkhand Public Service Commission (JPSC) was established with the aim of making a commission fully responsible for making the recruitment for the government posts in the state. The … Read more

Finance Commission

Under the Constitution the financial resources of the State are very limited though they have to do many works of social uplift under directive principles. In order to cope with their ever-expanding needs, the Central Government makes grants-in-aid to the States. Grant- in-aid to States , through it Central Government exercises a strict control over … Read more

District Administration : Origin and development of the office of the District Magistrate and Collector; Changing Role Collector; Impact of the separation of Judiciary on District Administration

District has been the basic unit of administration in India since ancient times. In India, we have a democratic welfare state which involves wide scope of activities for the development of the people and the nation as a whole. District administration, is that part of public administration which functions in the territorial limits of the … Read more

State Administration : State Secretariat, Chief Secretary. Chief Minister’s Office.

The state secretarial consists of departments of state government which are headed politically by the ministers and administratively by the secretaries. The chief secretary Is the head of the entire state secretariat while a secretary is a head of one or two departments. Functions of State Secretariat: ? the secretariat of the state determines the … Read more

Union Administration : Central Secretariat,Cabinet Secretariat, Prime Minister’s Office

Cabinet Secretariat The Cabinet Secretariat is responsible for the administration of the Government of India (Transaction of Business) Rules, 1961 and the Government of India (Allocation of Business) Rules 1961, facilitating smooth transaction of business in Ministries/ Departments of the Government by ensuring adherence to these rules. The Secretariat assists in decision-making in Government by … Read more

Environmental Conservation-in situ and ex situ conservation

In-situ conservation means maintenance of biodiversity in natural habitat whereas Ex-situ conservation emphasises the conservation of biodiversity outside natural habitat.The Indian Constitution entails the subject of forests and wildlife in the Concurrent list. The Federal Ministry acts as a guiding torch dealing with the policies and planning on wildlife conservation and Environmental Conservation, while the … Read more

The Water Prevention and Control of Pollution Act

The Water Prevention and Control of Pollution Act was enacted in 1974 to provide for the prevention and control of water pollution, and for the maintaining or restoring of wholesomeness of water in the country. The Act was amended in 1988. The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Cess Act was enacted in 1977, to … Read more

The Air Prevention & Control of Pollution

The Air Prevention & Control of Pollution Act is an Act by Parliament to provide for the prevention, control and abatement of air pollution, for the establishment, with a view to carrying out the aforesaid purposes, of Boards, for conferring on and assigning to such Boards powers and functions relating thereto and for matters connected … Read more

Global warming

Global warming is a term used for a gradual rise of atmospheric temperature and consequent changes in the radiation balance mainly due to human action leading to climatic change at different levels – local, regional and global. As per recent estimates, it has been found that  the surface air temperature over the past 100 years … Read more

Forest Conservation Act

In order to check rapid deforestation due to forestlands being released by state governments for agriculture, industry and other development projects (allowed under the Indian Forest Act) the federal government enacted the Forest Conservation Act in 1980 with an amendment in 1988. The Act made the prior approval of the federal government necessary for de-reservation … Read more

Environmental Laws-The Environment Protection Act

The Environment Protection Act is an important legislation that provides for coordination of activities of the various regulatory agencies, creation of authorities with adequate powers for environmental protection, regulation of the discharge of environmental pollutants, handling of hazardous substances, etc. The Act provided an opportunity to extend legal protection to non-forest habitats (‘Ecologically Sensitive Areas’) … Read more

Ozone layer depletion

Ozone (O3) is a molecule made up of three atoms of oxygen (O), and is mostly found in the strato- sphere, where it protects us from the Sun’s harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Although it represents only a tiny fraction of the atmosphere, ozone is crucial for life on Earth. The stratospheric ozone layer forms a … Read more

Acid rain

The pH of natural rain is found to be in the range from 5 to 7. The term acid rain is customarily applied to precipitation with a pH below 5. Such low pH values are generally possible only in the presence of large amounts of anthropogenic pollution. Sulphuric acid and nitric acid is considered as … Read more

Global Environmental Issues: Climate change

Climate Change It is the long term change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns over periods of time Though it has been happening naturally for millions of years, in recent years it has accelerated due to anthropogenic causes and has been causing global warming. UNFCCC defines climate change as – “a change of climate … Read more

Biodiversity: concept, hotspots, threats to biodiversity

Biodiversity is defined as the variability among living organisms from all sources including, inter alia, terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are a part; this includes diversity within species, between species, and of ecosystems. Basically biodiversity is the total number of genes, species and ecosystems of a region. It includes … Read more

Concept of Ecosystem, Structure and Function of Ecosystem

Eco-System-An ecosystem is defined as a structural and functional unit of biosphere consisting of community of living beings and the physical environment, both interacting and exchanging materials between them. It includes plants, trees, animals, fish, birds, micro-organisms, water, soil, and  people. When an ecosystem is healthy (i.e. sustainable) it means that all the elements live … Read more

Union Administration : Central Secretariat,Cabinet Secretariat, Prime Minister’s Office

The Cabinet Secretariat is responsible for the Union administration of the Government of India (Transaction of Business) Rules, 1961 and the Government of India (Allocation of Business) Rules 1961, facilitating smooth transaction of business in Ministries/ Departments of the Government by ensuring adherence to these rules. The Secretariat assists in decision-making in Government by ensuring … Read more

Sound/Noice Pollution

Sound is measured in decibels (dB). An increase of about 10 dB is approximately double the increase in loudness. A person’s hearing can be damaged if exposed to noise levels over 75 dB over a prolonged period of time. The World Health Organization recommends that the sound level indoors should be less than 30 dB. … Read more

 Solid Waste Management

E — WASTE E-waste is not hazardous if it is stocked in safe storage or recycled by scientific methods or transported from one place to the other in parts or in totality in the formal sector. The e-waste can be considered hazardous if recycled by primitive methods Survey was carried out by the Central Pollution … Read more

Domestic Violence Against Women (Prevention) Act

Violence against women is a manifestation of historically unequal power relations between men and women, which have led to domination over and discrimination against women by men and to the prevention of the full advancement of women. The United Nations Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women, General Assembly Resolution, December 1993. Domestic violence … Read more

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