Isothermal Lines

Isothermal Lines The “isothermal process”, which is thermodynamic process in which the temperature of a system remains constant. The transfer of heat into or out of the system happens so slowly that thermal equilibrium is maintained. “Thermal” is a term that describes the heat of a system. “Iso” means “equal”, so “isothermal” means “equal heat”, … Read more

Housing in India

Housing in India Issues related to housing sector in India Un-planned growth of settlements  A number of housing clusters have mushroomed in and around various metropolitan centres in haphazard and unplanned manner, without a proper layout and devoid of service lines and other essential facilities. These unauthorized developments are encroachments on land parcels belonging to … Read more

Spherical Coordinates and Projections,Time

Spherical Coordinates and Projections,Time Spherical coordinates can be a little challenging to understand at first. Spherical coordinates determine the position of a point in three-dimensional space based on the distance ? from the origin and two angles ? and ?. If one is familiar with polar coordinates, then the angle ? isn’t too difficult to … Read more


Grassland Grassland, area in which the vegetation is dominated by a nearly continuous cover of grasses. Grasslands occur in environments conducive to the growth of this plant cover but not to that of taller plants, particularly trees and shrubs. The factors preventing establishment of such taller, woody vegetation are varied. Grasslands are one of the … Read more


Mountains Mountain, landform that rises prominently above its surroundings, generally exhibiting steep slopes, a relatively confined summit area, and considerable local relief. Mountains generally are understood to be larger than hills, but the term has no standardized geological meaning. Very rarely do mountains occur individually. In most cases, they are found in elongated ranges or … Read more

Human Migration

? Human migration Human migration, the permanent change of residence by an individual or group; it excludes such movements as nomadism, migrant labour, commuting, and tourism, all of which are transitory in nature. Human migration is the movement of people from one place to another with the intention of settling in the new location. … Read more

Multiculturalism (1)

? Multiculturalism Multiculturalism means  the co-existence of diverse cultures, where culture includes racial, religious, or cultural groups and is manifested in customary behaviours, cultural assumptions and values, patterns of thinking, and communicative styles. The idea of multiculturalism in contemporary political discourse and in political philosophy is about how to understand and respond to the … Read more

Biosphere Reserves Of India

? Biosphere reserves What is a Biosphere Reserve? A Biosphere Reserve is a special ecosystem or a specialized environment with a flora and fauna that require protection and nurturing. These reserves are managed and studied for the conservation of various life forms found here. They are subjects of scientific and … Read more

Rural #U2013 Urban Continuum

? Rural – Urban continuum Rural- urban continuum, the merging of town and country, a term used in recognition of the fact that in general there is rarely, either physically or socially, a sharp division, a clearly marked boundary between the two, with one part of the population wholly urban, the other wholly rural. … Read more


? NATURAL RESOURCES OF INDIA What are natural resources ? Natural resources are useful raw materials that we get from the Earth. They occur naturally, which means that humans cannot make natural resources. Instead, we use and modify natural resources in ways that are beneficial to us. The materials used in human-made objects are natural … Read more

Indian Industry

? Indian Industry : An introduction Industry accounts for 26% of GDP and employs 22% of the total workforce. According to the World Bank, India’s industrial manufacturing GDP output in 2015 was 6th largest in the world on current US dollar basis ($559 billion), and 9th largest on inflation-adjusted constant 2005 US dollar basis … Read more

Hydrological Cycle

? Hydrological Cycle Water cycle, also called hydrologic cycle, cycle that involves the continuous circulation of water in the Earth-atmosphere system. Of the many processes involved in the water cycle, the most important are evaporation, transpiration, condensation, precipitation, and runoff. Although the total amount of water within the cycle remains essentially constant, its distribution … Read more

Marine Resources And EEZ

? Marine Resources – Economic significance and EEZ Economic significance of marine resources Marine energy Marine energy or marine power (also sometimes referred to as ocean energy, ocean power, or marine and hydrokinetic energy) refers to the energy carried by ocean waves, tides, salinity, and ocean temperature differences. The movement of water in the … Read more


? Elements Chemical element, also called element, any substance that cannot be decomposed into simpler substances by ordinary chemical processes. Elements are the fundamental materials of which all matter is composed. At present there are 118 known chemical elements. About 20 percent of them do not exist in nature (or are present only in … Read more

Earthquakes And Volcanoes

? Earthquakes and Volcanoes: Types, distribution and their impact:- Earthquake:- The study of seismic waves provides a complete picture of the layered interior. An earthquake in simple words is shaking of the earth. It is a natural event. It is caused due to release of energy, which generates waves that travel in all directions. … Read more


? FUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATION OF TOWN AND PROBLEM OF HUMAN SETTLEMENT The definition of function varies across the disciplines. In political science it refers to duties, in mathematics it means the relationship between two variables and in geography it is synonymous to occupation. Geographers have classified towns on the basis of their site, situation, size, … Read more

Disaster Management Models

? Disaster management models. Roles and responsibilities of stakeholders including community, Concept of first responders Disaster management (DM) is a challenging domain to model because of the variety of dynamic characteristics attached to the domain. Metamodeling is a model-driven approach that describes how semantic domain models can be built into an artifact called a … Read more

Problems Of Soil Erosion And Degradation In Maharashtra

? Problems of soil erosion and degradation in Maharashtra Konkan Region This region is located between 1;044′ and 20°20′ N lat. and 700 10′ and 730 50′ E long. with a longitudinal distance of 500 krns and a width of 15-20 kms. It comprises of four districts, namely Sindhudurg, Ratnagiri, Thane and Raigad. The … Read more

Demographic Dividend And Transition

? Demographic dividend and transition Demographic dividend The term “demographic dividend” (DD) refers to the accelerated economic growth that a country can achieve when it has a low dependency ratio or, in other words, when the proportion of its population that is of working age is greater than the proportion of its population that … Read more


? Bushmen The indigenous people of Southern Africa, whose homeland covers much of Botswana, South Africa, Zimbabwe, Lesotho, Mozambique, Namibia, Swaziland and Angola, are often also known as Bushmen or the San people. They are traditionally nomadic hunters and gatherers who moved over vast areas of land throughout Southern Africa. The Bushmen are split … Read more

Evolution And Geomorphology Of The Indian Subcontinent

? Evolution and Geomorphology of the Indian Subcontinent About 140 million years ago the main landmass on Earth was concentrated together in a super continent called Gondwana which started to break up in four tectonic plates; African, Antarctic, Australian and Indian plates. The rifting is thought to be caused by the rising of a … Read more


? Oceans – Bottom Relief Four major divisions can easily be identified on the ocean floor: The continental shelf, the continental slope, the continental rise, the abyssal plain. Besides these, there are many associated features—ridges, hills, seamounts, guyots, trenches, canyons, sleeps, fracture zones, island arcs, atolls, coral reefs, submerged volcanoes and sea-scarps. This great … Read more

Frontiers And Boundaries With Reference To Indian Sub

? Frontiers and boundaries with reference to Indian sub-continent A Frontier, can be defined as a politico-geographical area, lying beyond defined borders of a political unit into which expansion could take place. It is a physical and moral concept which implied looking outwards and moving outwards. It is not an abstract concept but a … Read more

Rain Water Harvesting (1)

? Rain Water Harvesting Water forms the lifeline of any society. Water is essential for the environment, food security and sustainable development. All the known civilizations have flourished with water source as the base and it is true in the present context too. Availability of drinking water and provision of sanitation facilities are the … Read more

Fauna And Floral Geography

? Fauna and Flora Geography: Wild Animals, Animals, Birds, Reptiles, Mammals, Trees and Plants and others Flora is the name given to the collective plant life that grows or once grew in a certain area or during a given time period. It usually refers to the native plant life present but does include new … Read more

Wildlife Of India

? Wildlife of India Wildlife means all the flora and fauna, which are not domesticated by humans. It includes animals, birds,plants,insects and microorganisms.  With large regional variations in physiographic,climate,and edaphic types, indian forests offer a large variety of wild life in india.India bosts of more than 90,000species of animals which is about … Read more

Schemes For Agriculture Development

? Extension Activities: The government is taking up extension activities in a big way and utilizing the campaign modes to educate farmers in all possible forms.  Polam Pilusthondi: The main objective of the scheme is to strengthen the extension reach at farmers’ doorstep for increasing productivity, profi tability, sustainability and explore the possibilities of … Read more

Distribution Of Major Natural Resources Of World

? Distribution of major natural resources of World-Water, Soils,  Forests in reference to South and South-East Asia     Distribution of key natural resources across the world (including South Asia and the Indian subcontinent) Natural resources are highly valued because human beings are dependent on them to fulfil their fundamental needs that changes with … Read more

Social And Environmental Impacts Of Disasters

? Social and Environmental impacts of disasters Social impacts of disasters Natural Disasters can cause social impacts that are similar in different types of communities such as the need for rebuilding, urgent access to health care, simply accessing shelter during/after a storm, availability to food and water, turning towards the government for aid or … Read more

Factors Controlling Landform Development

? Factors controlling landform development Landforms are individual expressions of terrain, from mountain peaks to level, featureless plains. While they sometimes seem stolid and inviolable, they are built up and destroyed by physical and chemical forces on a scale of time often dizzying to the human mind. From winds and floods to plant roots, … Read more

Global Warming And Its Impact

? Global Warming and Its Impact Global warming is the slow increase in the average temperature of the earth’s atmosphere because an increased amount of the energy (heat) striking the earth from the sun is being trapped in the atmosphere and not radiated out into space. The earth’s atmosphere has always acted like a greenhouse to … Read more

Origin Of The Monsoon

? Origin of the Monsoon:   Classcial Theories: Halley’s Thermal concept: Indian monsoon is because of contrast between Indian Subcontinent and adjoining Indian Ocean. Halley’s theory, suggested in 1686, considers the summer monsoon to be a regional phenomenon. Aerological concept: This was suggested by R. Scherhag in 1948. According to this theory, monsoon circulation … Read more

Land Resources Management (1)

? Land Resources Management Land and water have been the basic elements of life support system on our planet since the dawn of civilization. All great civilizations, flourished where these resources were available in plenty and they declined or perished with the depletion of these resources. In recent years, the land resource has been … Read more

World Distribution Of Iron Ore Reserves

? World distribution of iron ore reserves China China now emerged as a leading iron ore-producing country in the world. Till 1975, its production of iron ore in the world was only 6.5 per cent, but in year 2000, China produced 24.3 per cent iron ore of the world. This percentage further increased to … Read more

Oceans And Continents

? Introduction to Continents and Ocean Basins Continents and ocean basins being fundamental relief features of the globe are considered as ‘relief features of the first order’. It is, therefore, desirable to inquire into their mode of possible origin and evolu­tion. Different views, concepts, hypotheses and theo­ries regarding the origin of the continents and … Read more

Oceans Currents

? Oceans: Currents Ocean current, stream made up of horizontal and vertical components of the circulation system of ocean waters that is produced by gravity, wind friction, and water density variation in different parts of the ocean. Ocean currents are similar to winds in the atmosphere in that they transfer significant amounts of heat … Read more

Migration And Metropolitan Regions

? Migration and Metropolitan Region Migration Migration has been defined as crossing of the boundary of a political or administrative unit for a certain minimum period of time. It includes the movements of refugees, displaced persons, uprooted people as well as economic migrants. Internal migration refers to a move from one area (a province, … Read more

Census Of India

? Census of India : Economic and Social features Rural and urban population Altogether, 833.5 million persons live in rural area as per Census 2011, which was more than two-third of the total population, while 377.1 million persons live in urban areas. Urban proportion has gone up from 17.3 per cent in 1951 to … Read more


? Landform Each landform has its unique physical shape, size, materials and is a result of the action of certain geomorphic processes and agent(s). Every landform has a beginning. Landforms once formed may change in their shape, size and nature slowly or fast due to continued action of geomorphic processes and agents. Due to … Read more

Climatic Regions Of India

? Climatic Regions of India : Koeppen’s Classification   Climate Type Climatic Region Annual Rainfall in the Region Amw(Monsoon type with shorter dry winter season) Western coastal region, south of Mumbai over 300 cm As(Monsoon type with dry season in high sun period) Coromandel coast = Coastal Tamil Nadu and adjoining … Read more

Distribution Of Natural Resources

? Distribution of natural resources World Distribution of forest reserves Forests cover 31 percent of the world’s land surface, just over 4 billion hectares. (One hectare = 2.47 acres.) This is down from the pre-industrial area of 5.9 billion hectares. According to data from the U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization, deforestation was at its … Read more

Broad Physical Feature

? Broad Physical Feature: Mountains, Plateaus, Plains, Lakes and Glaciers:-   Landforms are the natural features and shapes existent on the face of the earth. Landforms possess many different physical characteristics and are spread out throughout the planet. Together, landforms constitute a specific terrain and their physical arrangement in the landscape forms what is … Read more

El Nino

? El Nino El Niño is the name given to the occasional development of warm ocean surface waters along the coast of Ecuador and Peru. When this warming occurs the usual upwelling of cold, nutrient rich deep ocean water is significantly reduced. El Niño normally occurs around Christmas and usually lasts for a few weeks to a few … Read more

Oceans Tides

? Oceans  tides An ocean tide refers to the cyclic rise and fall of seawater. Tides are caused by slight variations in gravitational attraction between the Earth and the moon and the Sun in geometric relationship with locations on the Earth’s surface. Tides are periodic primarily because of the cyclical influence of the Earth’s … Read more


? Cyclones: Types and Mechanism Cyclone is a system of low atmospheric pressure in which the barometric gradient is steep. Cyclones represent circular fluid motion rotating in the same direction as the Earth. This means that the inward spiralling winds in a cyclone rotate anticlockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern … Read more


? Agroecology Agroecology shares much in common with other approaches to sustainable farming. Agroecology is farming that “centers on food production that makes the best use of nature’s goods and services while not damaging these resources.”  Farming thrives when it works with local ecosystems, for example, improving soil and plant quality through available biomass … Read more

Solar System

? The Solar System The solar system consists of the Sun and its eight main planets, their satellites, asteroids, comets, meteors and other dwarf planets. The Sun is at the one of the two Centers of the Solar system and the planets revolving around it in elliptical orbits. Let us take a look at … Read more

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