Population Growth And Economic Development

? Population growth and economic development The effect of population growth on a society’s per capita output level depends on the pattern of population growth as also its institutional (organ­isational) framework. In other words, it depends on the age composition of the population. The pattern of spending reflects the age distribution. An ageing population—one … Read more


? Earth’s Rotation and Revolution Primarily two motions: Rotation and Revolution. Rotation of Earth Earth rotates along its axis from west to east. It takes approximately 24 hrs to complete on rotation. Days and nights occur due to rotation of the earth. The circle that divides the day from night on the globe is … Read more

Scheduled Caste Population Composition Of India

? Scheduled Caste population composition of India Scheduled Castes are notified in 31 States/UTs of India and there are altogether 1,241 individual ethnic groups, etc. notified as Scheduled Castes in different States/UTs. There has been some changes in the List of SCs/STs in States/ UTs during the last decade. As per the 2011 Census … Read more

Approaches To Disaster Risk Reductions

? Approaches to Disaster Risk Reductions Disaster management meant different for different players. For many decades prior to Major catastrophes like Orissa Super Cyclone (1999), Gujarat Earth quake & West Bengal Floods (2000) disaster management for respective state governments was to emphasis on early warning, evacuation, post disaster compensation, rehabilitation, shelter construction, i.e., basically … Read more


? Eskimo Eskimo, any member of a group of peoples who, with the closely related Aleuts, constitute the chief element in the indigenous population of the Arctic and subarctic regions of Greenland, Canada, the United States, and far eastern Russia (Siberia). Early 21st-century population estimates indicated more than 135,000 individuals of Eskimo descent, with … Read more

Weather Forecast

? Weather forecast There are two ways for weather forcasting: Short-range forecasting Meteorologists can make somewhat longer-term forecasts (those for 6, 12, 24, or even 48 hours) with considerable skill because they are able to measure and predict atmospheric conditions for large areas by computer. Using models that apply their accumulated expert knowledge quickly, … Read more

Advance Infrastructure In Rural Areas (2)

? Advance Infrastructure in Rural Areas Good quality infrastructure is critical to sustainable growth, especially for rural areas. As over 60 per cent of the population lives in rural areas, with low levels of per capital income, there is need to impart greater attention in improving rural infrastructure. Currently the rural infrastructure is inadequate … Read more

Nuclear Energy

? Nuclear Energy Introduction Global energy demand continues to climb as the industrialized world’s energy use rises, millions pull themselves out of poverty in developing countries, and the world population expands. Thus, the debate over the energy supply of the future intensifies. This debate is complicated by ongoing global climate destabilization as a result … Read more


?                                            ANIMAL HUSBANDRY AND DAIRY Sustained efforts – Stabilized Primary sector  Technology in agriculture – bringing together global leaders in cutting edge technologies to aid small and marginal farmers  Drought – a thing of the past – Sustained growth in Agriculture and Allied sectors – Growth despite deficit rainfall  Soil Health … Read more

Development Of Railway

? Development of Railway:- The romance of train travel in India is legendary, but the task of constructing the railways in the first place was daunting. There were huge problems in dealing with such a vast and inhospitable country. The idea of introducing railways to India had been mooted as early as the 1830s. … Read more

Source Of Energy

? Conventional and New Source of Energy   Energy is one of the most important component of economic infrastructure. It is the basic input required to sustain economic growth. There is direct relation between the level of economic development and per capita energy consumption.   Two Main Sources of Energy:   … Read more


? Distribution of major natural resources of World-Water, Soils,  Forests in reference to South and South-East Asia     Distribution of key natural resources across the world (including South Asia and the Indian subcontinent) Natural resources are highly valued because human beings are dependent on them to fulfil their fundamental needs that changes with … Read more

Role Of Agriculture In Indian Economic Development

? Role of agriculture in Indian economic development-interrelationship between agriculture, industry and service sectors Role of agriculture in Indian economic development Contribution to National Income From the very beginning, agriculture is contributing a major portion to our national income. In 1950-51, agriculture and allied activities contributed about 59 per cent of the total national … Read more

Natural Hazards And Natural Disasters

? Natural Hazards and Natural Disasters A natural hazard is a threat of a naturally occurring event will have a negative effect on humans. This negative effect is what we call a natural disaster.  In other words when the hazardous threat actually happens and harms humans, we call the event a natural disaster. Natural … Read more

Cottage And Village Industries In India

? Cottage and Village industries in India problems and prospects Cottage Industry is a form of small scale industry where the productivity of the good£ takes place in the houses of the workers, and the workforce include the members of the family. The equipment’s used to generate products are not the hi-tech ones but … Read more

Energy Resources

? Sources of Energy: Conventional and Nonconventional Sources – Energy is one of the most important component of economic infrastructure. It is the basic input required to sustain economic growth. There is direct relation between the level of economic development and per capita energy consumption. Simply speaking more developed a country, higher … Read more

Seasonal Climatic Conditions In India

? Seasonal Climatic conditions in India Climate in India varies significantly from the permanently snow-capped Himalayas in the north to the tropics in the south. The country has four seasons. December to February is relatively dry and cool, March to May is dry and hot, from June to September predominating southwest maritime winds bring … Read more

Salinity Of Oceans

? Salinity of oceans Salinity is defined as the ratio between the weight of the dissolved materials and the weight of the sample sea water. Generally, salinity is defined as ‘the total amount of solid material in grams contained in one kilogram of sea water and is expressed as part per thousand (%o) e.g., … Read more

Oceanic Resources Of India And Their Potential

? Oceanic resources of India and their potential Oceans are the world’s single largest ecosystem, covering nearly three-fourths of the earth’s surface, thereby providing a massive arena for emerging complex and interconnected development issues such as climate change, livelihoods, commerce, and security. According to estimates by the Global Ocean Commission, ocean resources contribute five … Read more

Variation In The Population In Various Countries

? Variation in the population in various countries The Growth of Human Population: Four Major Periods or Stages An early period of hunters and gatherers   This period ranges between the first evolutions of humans on this planet to the beginning of agriculture. During this period, it is estimated that the total population was … Read more

Earth And Its Geological Time Scale

? Earth and its Geological time scale:-   Origin of the Earth:- EARLY THEORIES:- A large number of hypotheses were put forth by different philosophers and scientists regarding the origin of the earth. One of the earlier and popular arguments was by German philosopher Immanuel Kant. Mathematician Laplace revised it in 1796. It is … Read more

Water Resources

? Water Resources  Rainfall: With an average annual rainfall of 1,170 mm, India is one of the wettest countries in the world. At one extreme are areas like Cherrapunji, in the northeast, which is drenched each year with 11,000 mm of rainfall, and at the other extreme are places like Jaisalmer, in the west, … Read more

Canadian Pacific Railway

? Canadian pacific railway The Canadian Pacific Railway company was incorporated in 1881. Its original purpose was the construction of a transcontinental railway, a promise to British Columbia upon its entry into Confederation. The railway — completed in 1885 — connected Eastern Canada to BC and played an important role in the development of … Read more

Management Of Land And Water Resources (1)

? Management of land and water resources LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN INDIA Land and water have been the basic elements of life support system on our planet since the dawn of civilization. All great civilizations, flourished where these resources were available in plenty and they declined or perished with the depletion of these resources. … Read more

Horticulture And Forestry

?   Horticulture : The agrarian state of Andhra Pradesh is heading towards a value addition platform from the conventional production approach. ‘Horticulture’ sector has been recognized as an essential component for food and nutritional security in the State. Efforts are being made to make Andhra Pradesh maintain its supremacy in the production of … Read more

Solar Energy

? Solar Energy : Source, Solar heating devices, solar cooker solar cell   Sunlight is Earth’s most abundant energy source and is delivered free of charge. Indeed, the energy from sunlight reaching the land surface of the earth  is thousands of times greater than the world’s current total annual consumption of energy. Yet harnessing sunlight’s energy … Read more


? ELEMENTS OF CLIMATE AND WEATHER   Climate is decided by a region’s climate system. A climate system has few major components: the atmosphere, the layer, the cryosphere, and the land surface. The atmosphere is that the most variable a part of the climate system. The composition and movement of gases encompassing the planet … Read more


? Introduction Urban areas have been recognized as “engines of inclusive economic growth”. Of the 121 crore Indians, 83.3 crore live in rural areas while 37.7 crore stay in urban areas, i.e approx 32 % of the population. The census of India, 2011 defines urban settlement as :- All the places which have municipality, corporation, … Read more

Marine Resources

? Marine Resources – Economic significance and EEZ Economic significance of marine resources Marine energy Marine energy or marine power (also sometimes referred to as ocean energy, ocean power, or marine and hydrokinetic energy) refers to the energy carried by ocean waves, tides, salinity, and ocean temperature differences. The movement of water in the … Read more

Natural Resources

? Natural resources, their sustainable management and conservation A natural resource is something that is found in nature and can be used by people. Earth’s natural resources include light, air, water, plants, animals, soil, stone, minerals, and fossil fuels. People need some natural resources to stay alive. They use others to make their lives … Read more

Pressure And Wind Belt1

? Pressure and wind belts Atmospheric pressure, also called barometric pressure, force per unit area exerted by an atmospheric column (that is, the entire body of air above the specified area). Atmospheric pressure can be measured with a mercury barometer (hence the commonly used synonym barometric pressure), which indicates the height of a column … Read more

Cotton Textile Industry In India

? Cotton textile industry in india India is known worldwide for its production of textiles in general, and cotton in particular, both being major industries for the country. Indian textile industry is the mother of all industries and is among the world?s top producers of yarns and fabrics. Textile industry is one of the … Read more


? ORIGIN The Department of Agriculture has been created mainly to provide Agricultural Extension services to farmers and to transfer the latest technical knowledge to the farming community, introduction of high yielding varieties, laying demonstrations, imparting training to farmers to improve skills & knowledge to boost up the agricultural Production and productivity. The other … Read more

Railway Road Ports (1)

? Railway,Roades And Ports of India Impact on The Indian economy The Indian Railways contributes to India’s economic development, accounting for about one per cent of the GNP and the backbone of freight needs of the core sector. It accounts for six per cent of the total employment in the organised sector directly and … Read more


? Glaciers Glaciers are made up of fallen snow that, over many years, compresses into large, thickened ice masses. Glaciers form when snow remains in one location long enough to transform into ice. What makes glaciers unique is their ability to move. Due to sheer mass, glaciers flow like very slow rivers. Some glaciers … Read more

Types Of Settlement In India

? Settlement can be defined as any form of human habitation which ranges from a single dwelling to large city. The word settlement has another connotation as well as this is a process of opening up and settling of a previously uninhabited area by the people. In geography this process is also known as … Read more

Flood And Drought Occurence

? Flood and Drought Occurrence Drought Drought is a complex, slow-onset phenomenon of ecological challenge that affects people more than any other natural hazards by causing serious economic, social and environmental losses in both developing and developed countries. The period of unusual dryness (i.e. drought) is a normal feature of the climate and weather … Read more

Lunar Eclipse

? Lunar Eclipse A lunar eclipse happens at a Full Moon, when the Moon’s tilted orbit brings it into the Earth’s shadow, which can then be seen cast onto the Moon. While not as spectacular as a total solar eclipse, a lunar eclipse is much easier to see; and a total lunar eclipse is … Read more

Changes In Cropping Pattern

?   Changes  in  cropping  pattern Cropping pattern means the proportion of area under various  crops  at  a  point of  time or  yearly sequence  and  spatial  arrangement  of crops  and Changes  in  cropping  pattern Cropping pattern means the proportion of area under various  crops  at  a  point of  time or  yearly sequence  and  spatial … Read more

Major Irrigation Projects Of India And Command Area Development

? Major Irrigation Projects of India and Command Area Development Command area development programme The Centrally sponsored Command Area Development (CAD) Programme was launched in 1974-75 with the main objectives of improving the utilization of created irrigation potential and optimizing agriculture production and productivity from irrigated agriculture through a multi-disciplinary team under an Area … Read more

Vital Statics Of Birth And Death

?                  Health Status of the country   The  health  of  a  nation  is  an  essential  component  of  development,  vital  to  the   nation?s economic growth and internal stability. Assuming the minimum level of health care to the population  is  a  critical  constituent  of  the  development  process. First,  India  has  to  complete  its  unfinished … Read more

Communication Infrastructure Of India

? Communication infrastructure of India The Communication Industry in India is one of the rapidly emerging sectors in India. The growth in communication industry is triggered by an increase in the revenues generated from both landline and mobile facilities. Telecommunication is the transmission of messages over distances for the purpose of communication. Telecommunications play … Read more

International Transportation

? International Transportation International transportation can be a complex mode of serious shipping or it can be a simple way of moving the cargo from point A to point B. In the end, transportation is to bring your product from one end to the other in the most cost efficient way and in a … Read more

River Water Sharing

? MANAGEMENT AND DEVELOPMENT OF WATER RESOURCES   The Central Government shall, on and from the appointed day, constitute an Apex Council for the supervision of the functioning of the Godavari River Management Board and Krishna River Management Board.   The Apex Council shall consist of: (a) Minister of Water Resources, Government of India—Chairperson … Read more

Solar Eclipse

      Solar Eclipse A solar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes between the sun and the Earth, blocking some or all of the sun’s rays, preventing them from reaching the Earth. The result of this is that the sun appears to be (partially or completely) covered by a giant black circle (which is … Read more

Humidity And Precipitation

? Humidity and precipitation Atmospheric humidity, which is the amount of water vapour or moisture in the air, is another leading climatic element, as is precipitation. All forms of precipitation, including drizzle, rain, snow, ice crystals, and hail, are produced as a result of the condensation of atmospheric moisture that forms clouds in which … Read more

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