Multipurpose Projects & Hydro-Electric Projects in India

Damodar Valley Project—- Damodar—– West Bengal & Jharkhand. It includes Maithon & Tilaiya Dam on Barakar river in Bihar, Konar Dam (Konar river) & Panchet Dam (Damodar). Rihand Dam —-Rihand —–Uttar Pradesh Nagarjunasagar Project —–Krishna—- Andhra Pradesh. Consists of two canals – Lal Bahadur Canal (Left) & Jawahar canal (Right). Tungabhadra Project Tungabhadra JV of … Read more Multipurpose Projects & Hydro-Electric Projects in India

Mineral Resources of India:Non Metalic

Limestone M.P, Chattisgarh, Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan Dolomite Orissa (Birmitrapur in Sundergarh District-largest in India), M.P & Chattisgarh Phosphate Rajasthan (Udaipur) Uttaranchal (Dehradun), M.P. (Jhabua), U.P. (Lalitpur) Kaolin Kerala is largest producer. Mica Andhra Pradesh, Jharkhand (Kodarma-Large) & Rajasthan Gypsum Rajasthan & J & K. Steatite Rajasthan. It is also called soapstone/ Potstone. Magnesite Tamil Nadu … Read more Mineral Resources of India:Non Metalic

Mineral Resources of India:-Metallic Minerals

 Mineral  State  Mines/Districts Coal Jharkhand Jharia, Bokaro, Giridh, karanpura, Ramgarh, Daltonganj, Aurangabad, Hutar, Deogarh, Rajmahal Orissa Talcher, Rampur M.P (Former) Central Indian Coalfields -Singrauli, Sohagpur, Johilla, Umaria Satupura Coalfields – Pench, Kanhan, Pathkhera North Chhattisgarh – Chirmiri-Kaurasia, Bisrampur, Jhillmili, Sonhat, Lakhanpur, Sendurgarh, lakhanpur-Ramkola South Chhattisgarh-Hasdo-Arand, Korba, Mand-Raigarh West Bengal Raniganj, Darjeeling Andhra Pr. Singareni, Kothgundam, … Read more Mineral Resources of India:-Metallic Minerals

Drainage System of India

Drainage: Flow of water through well-defined channels. Network of such channels is called a drainage system . Drainage basin: An area drained by a river and its tributaries. Watershed: Boundary line separating one drainage basin from other. River basins are larger watersheds. Drainage pattern of an area depends on the geological time period, nature and … Read more Drainage System of India

Geological and Physiographic divisions of India

Three Geological divisions: The peninsular block The Himalayas and other Peninsular Mountains Indo-Ganga-Brahmaputra Plain   Peninsualar block is made of gneisses (metamorphic) and granites (igneous). Six physiographic divisions: The Northern and North-eastern Mountains The Northern Plain The Peninsular Plateau The Indian Desert The Coastal Plains The Islands Northern and North-Eastern Mountains Approximate length of the … Read more Geological and Physiographic divisions of India

Current Geopolitical Conflict Zones

Geopolitical Conflict is the Military engagements and diplomatic crises between nations with global implications and which even threatens in extreme circumstance to the survival of humanity.Various types of Geopolitical Conflicts are as follows:- Ø  Conventional War:-The engagement of two or more nations in military conflict, using conventional weapons to target military infrastructure and invade/defend sovereignty … Read more Current Geopolitical Conflict Zones

Economic Growth, Development & Planning 

  Economic Growth Economic growth means an increase in real GDP. This increase in real GDP means there is an increase in the value of national output / national expenditure. Economic growth is an important macro-economic objective because it enables increased living standards and helps create new jobs. Measurement of Economic Growth Economic growth is … Read more Economic Growth, Development & Planning 

Indian Economy in global Scenario

  The global macroeconomic landscape is currently chartering a rough and uncertain terrain characterized by weak growth of world output. The situation has been exacerbated by; (i) declining prices of a number of commodities, with reduction in crude oil prices being the most visible of them, (ii) turbulent fnancial markets (more so equity markets), and … Read more Indian Economy in global Scenario

Concept of Developing, Emerging and Developed countries.

  In 1978, the World Bank, for the first time, constructed an analytical country classification system. The occasion was the launch of the World Development Report. Annexed to the report was a set of World Development Indicators (WDI), which provided the statistical underpinning for the analysis. The first economic classification in the 1978 WDI divided … Read more Concept of Developing, Emerging and Developed countries.

12 Finance Commission of India

  The Twelfth Finance Commission  was appointed under the chairmanship of C. Rangarajan on November 1, 2002 to make recommendations regarding the distribution between the Union and the States of net proceeds of shareable taxes, the principles which should govern the grants- in-aid of the revenues of States from the Consolidated Fund of India and … Read more 12 Finance Commission of India

Export Import (EXIM) Policy  of India  

Export Import Policy or  Exim Policy or Foreign Trade Policy is a set of guidelines and instructions related to the import and export of goods. Various Objectives of Exim Policy are :- To facilitate sustained growth in exports from India and import in India. To stimulate sustained economic growth by providing access to essential raw … Read more Export Import (EXIM) Policy  of India  

Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)

Notification on Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) of developmental projects 1994 under the provisions of Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 making EIA  mandatory for 29 categories of developmental projects. One more item was added to the list in January, 2000. environmental impact assessment statutory for 30 activities Environment Impact Assessment Notification of 2006 has categorized the developmental … Read more Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)

Waste minimization

Waste minimization is an appropriate strategy to address the problems of industrial pollution. The objective of the scheme is to assist the small and medium scale industries in adoption of cleaner production processes. • A scheme on adoption of clean technology and promotion and establishment of waste minimization circles in small and medium scale industries … Read more Waste minimization


The rapid growth of technology, upgradation of technical innovations and a high rate of obsolescence in the electronics industry have led to one of the fastest growing waste streams in the world which consist of end of life electrical and electronic equipment products. It comprises a whole range of electrical and electronic items such as … Read more E-Waste

Noise Pollution

  Sound is measured in decibels (dB). An increase of about 10 dB is approximately double the increase in loudness. A person’s hearing can be damaged if exposed to noise levels over 75 dB over a prolonged period of time. The World Health Organization recommends that the sound level indoors should be less than 30 … Read more Noise Pollution

Soil Pollution

Soil Pollution is the Contamination of the soil by human and natural activities which may cause harmful effects on living beings. This may be due to the following factors. (i) Industrial wastes: Industries are the major causes for soil pollution Textiles, steel, paper, Cement, oil, dyeing and other industries are responsible for soil pollution. Toxic … Read more Soil Pollution

Water Pollution

  Addition of certain substances to the water such as organic, inorganic, biological, radiological, heat, which degrades the quality of water so that it becomes unfit for use. Putrescibility is the process of decomposition of organic matter present in water by microorganisms using oxygen. Water having DO (dissolved oxygen)  content below 8.0 mg/L may be … Read more Water Pollution

Air Pollution

  aggravated because of four developments: Increasing traffic, growing cities, rapid economic development, and industrialization contamination of air by the discharge of harmful substances   Major air pollutants and their sources Carbon monoxide (CO) It is a colourless, odourless gas that is produced by the incomplete burning of carbon – based fuels including petrol, diesel, … Read more Air Pollution

Environment Pollution: An Introduction

Environment Pollution is  defined as ‘an addition or excessive addition of certain materials to the physical environment (water, air and lands), making it less fit or unfit for life’. Pollutants are the materials or factors, which cause adverse effect on the natural quality of any component of the environment. Classifications According to the form in … Read more Environment Pollution: An Introduction

Key Initiatives To Protect Marine And Coastal Environments

    Coastal Ocean Monitoring and Prediction System (COMAPS) Being implemented from 1991. Assesses the health of coastal waters and facilitates management of pollution-related issues Programme was restructured and modified in 2000 2001 to include pollution monitoring; liaison, regulation and legislation; and consultancy services. 2.Land Ocean Interactions in the Coastal Zone (LOICZ)   Launched in … Read more Key Initiatives To Protect Marine And Coastal Environments

Coral Reef and Coral Bleaching

  Coral is actually a living animal. has a symbiotic relationship (each gives something to the other and gets something back in return) With ‘zooxanthellae’ microscopic algae which live on coral [i.e. instead of living on the sea  floor, the algae lives up on the coral which is closer to the ocean surface and so … Read more Coral Reef and Coral Bleaching