Multipurpose Projects & Hydro-Electric Projects in India

Damodar Valley Project—- Damodar—– West Bengal & Jharkhand. It includes Maithon & Tilaiya Dam on Barakar river in Bihar, Konar Dam (Konar river) & Panchet Dam (Damodar). Rihand Dam —-Rihand —–Uttar Pradesh Nagarjunasagar Project —–Krishna—- Andhra Pradesh. Consists of two canals – Lal Bahadur Canal (Left) & Jawahar canal (Right). Tungabhadra Project Tungabhadra JV of … Read more

Mineral Resources of India:Non Metalic

Limestone M.P, Chattisgarh, Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan Dolomite Orissa (Birmitrapur in Sundergarh District-largest in India), M.P & Chattisgarh Phosphate Rajasthan (Udaipur) Uttaranchal (Dehradun), M.P. (Jhabua), U.P. (Lalitpur) Kaolin Kerala is largest producer. Mica Andhra Pradesh, Jharkhand (Kodarma-Large) & Rajasthan Gypsum Rajasthan & J & K. Steatite Rajasthan. It is also called soapstone/ Potstone. Magnesite Tamil Nadu … Read more

Mineral Resources of India:-Metallic Minerals

 Mineral  State  Mines/Districts Coal Jharkhand Jharia, Bokaro, Giridh, karanpura, Ramgarh, Daltonganj, Aurangabad, Hutar, Deogarh, Rajmahal Orissa Talcher, Rampur M.P (Former) Central Indian Coalfields -Singrauli, Sohagpur, Johilla, Umaria Satupura Coalfields – Pench, Kanhan, Pathkhera North Chhattisgarh – Chirmiri-Kaurasia, Bisrampur, Jhillmili, Sonhat, Lakhanpur, Sendurgarh, lakhanpur-Ramkola South Chhattisgarh-Hasdo-Arand, Korba, Mand-Raigarh West Bengal Raniganj, Darjeeling Andhra Pr. Singareni, Kothgundam, … Read more

Drainage System of India

Drainage: Flow of water through well-defined channels. Network of such channels is called a drainage system . Drainage basin: An area drained by a river and its tributaries. Watershed: Boundary line separating one drainage basin from other. River basins are larger watersheds. Drainage pattern of an area depends on the geological time period, nature and … Read more

Geological and Physiographic divisions of India

Three Geological divisions: The peninsular block The Himalayas and other Peninsular Mountains Indo-Ganga-Brahmaputra Plain   Peninsualar block is made of gneisses (metamorphic) and granites (igneous). Six physiographic divisions: The Northern and North-eastern Mountains The Northern Plain The Peninsular Plateau The Indian Desert The Coastal Plains The Islands Northern and North-Eastern Mountains Approximate length of the … Read more

Current Geopolitical Conflict Zones

Geopolitical Conflict is the Military engagements and diplomatic crises between nations with global implications and which even threatens in extreme circumstance to the survival of humanity.Various types of Geopolitical Conflicts are as follows:- Ø  Conventional War:-The engagement of two or more nations in military conflict, using conventional weapons to target military infrastructure and invade/defend sovereignty … Read more

Economic Growth, Development & Planning 

  Economic Growth Economic growth means an increase in real GDP. This increase in real GDP means there is an increase in the value of national output / national expenditure. Economic growth is an important macro-economic objective because it enables increased living standards and helps create new jobs. Measurement of Economic Growth Economic growth is … Read more

Indian Economy in global Scenario

  The global macroeconomic landscape is currently chartering a rough and uncertain terrain characterized by weak growth of world output. The situation has been exacerbated by; (i) declining prices of a number of commodities, with reduction in crude oil prices being the most visible of them, (ii) turbulent fnancial markets (more so equity markets), and … Read more

Concept of Developing, Emerging and Developed countries.

  In 1978, the World Bank, for the first time, constructed an analytical country classification system. The occasion was the launch of the World Development Report. Annexed to the report was a set of World Development Indicators (WDI), which provided the statistical underpinning for the analysis. The first economic classification in the 1978 WDI divided … Read more

12 Finance Commission of India

  The Twelfth Finance Commission  was appointed under the chairmanship of C. Rangarajan on November 1, 2002 to make recommendations regarding the distribution between the Union and the States of net proceeds of shareable taxes, the principles which should govern the grants- in-aid of the revenues of States from the Consolidated Fund of India and … Read more

Export Import (EXIM) Policy  of India  

Export Import Policy or  Exim Policy or Foreign Trade Policy is a set of guidelines and instructions related to the import and export of goods. Various Objectives of Exim Policy are :- To facilitate sustained growth in exports from India and import in India. To stimulate sustained economic growth by providing access to essential raw … Read more

Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)

Notification on Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) of developmental projects 1994 under the provisions of Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 making EIA  mandatory for 29 categories of developmental projects. One more item was added to the list in January, 2000. environmental impact assessment statutory for 30 activities Environment Impact Assessment Notification of 2006 has categorized the developmental … Read more

Waste minimization

Waste minimization is an appropriate strategy to address the problems of industrial pollution. The objective of the scheme is to assist the small and medium scale industries in adoption of cleaner production processes. • A scheme on adoption of clean technology and promotion and establishment of waste minimization circles in small and medium scale industries … Read more


The rapid growth of technology, upgradation of technical innovations and a high rate of obsolescence in the electronics industry have led to one of the fastest growing waste streams in the world which consist of end of life electrical and electronic equipment products. It comprises a whole range of electrical and electronic items such as … Read more

Noise Pollution

  Sound is measured in decibels (dB). An increase of about 10 dB is approximately double the increase in loudness. A person’s hearing can be damaged if exposed to noise levels over 75 dB over a prolonged period of time. The World Health Organization recommends that the sound level indoors should be less than 30 … Read more

Soil Pollution

Soil Pollution is the Contamination of the soil by human and natural activities which may cause harmful effects on living beings. This may be due to the following factors. (i) Industrial wastes: Industries are the major causes for soil pollution Textiles, steel, paper, Cement, oil, dyeing and other industries are responsible for soil pollution. Toxic … Read more

Water Pollution

  Addition of certain substances to the water such as organic, inorganic, biological, radiological, heat, which degrades the quality of water so that it becomes unfit for use. Putrescibility is the process of decomposition of organic matter present in water by microorganisms using oxygen. Water having DO (dissolved oxygen)  content below 8.0 mg/L may be … Read more

Air Pollution

  aggravated because of four developments: Increasing traffic, growing cities, rapid economic development, and industrialization contamination of air by the discharge of harmful substances   Major air pollutants and their sources Carbon monoxide (CO) It is a colourless, odourless gas that is produced by the incomplete burning of carbon – based fuels including petrol, diesel, … Read more

Environment Pollution: An Introduction

Environment Pollution is  defined as ‘an addition or excessive addition of certain materials to the physical environment (water, air and lands), making it less fit or unfit for life’. Pollutants are the materials or factors, which cause adverse effect on the natural quality of any component of the environment. Classifications According to the form in … Read more

Key Initiatives To Protect Marine And Coastal Environments

    Coastal Ocean Monitoring and Prediction System (COMAPS) Being implemented from 1991. Assesses the health of coastal waters and facilitates management of pollution-related issues Programme was restructured and modified in 2000 2001 to include pollution monitoring; liaison, regulation and legislation; and consultancy services. 2.Land Ocean Interactions in the Coastal Zone (LOICZ)   Launched in … Read more

Coral Reef and Coral Bleaching

  Coral is actually a living animal. has a symbiotic relationship (each gives something to the other and gets something back in return) With ‘zooxanthellae’ microscopic algae which live on coral [i.e. instead of living on the sea  floor, the algae lives up on the coral which is closer to the ocean surface and so … Read more


  Mangroves are the characteristic littoral plant formation of tropical and subtropical sheltered coastlines. are trees and bushes growing below the high water level of spring tides which exhibits remarkable capacity for salt water tolerance. basically evergreen land plants growing on sheltered shores, typically on tidal flats, deltas, estuaries, bays, creeks and the barrier islands. … Read more


  located where river meets the sea. the most productive water bodies in the world The complete salinity range from 0-35 ppt is seen from the head (river end) to the mouth (sea end) of an estuary Coastal lakes which have their connection with the sea through small openings are better known as lagoons or … Read more


  Areas of marsh, fen, peatland/water, whether natural (or) artificial, permanent (or) temporary with water that is static (or) flowing, fresh, brackish (or) salt, including areas of marine water the depth of which at low tide does not exceed 6 mtrs. Wetlands Classification- Inland wetland- a)Natural- Lakes / Ponds, Ox-bow Lakes, Waterlogged, Swamp/marsh b) Manmade- … Read more


  Eutrophication is a syndrome of ecosystem, response to the addition of artificial or natural substances such as nitrates and phosphates through fertilizer, sewage, etc that fertilize the aquatic ecosystem. The growth of green algae which we see in the lake surface layer is the physical identification of an Eutrophication. Some algae and blue-green bacteria … Read more


  Any – body of standing water, generally large enough in area and depth, irrespective of its hydrology, ecology, and other characteristics is generally known as lake. Ageing of Lakes The nutrient enrichment of the lakes promotes the growth of algae, aquatic plants and various fauna. This process is known as natural eutrophication. Similar nutrient … Read more


  Fresh water ecosystems- The salt content of fresh bodies is very low, always less than 5 ppt  (parts per thousand). E.g lakes, ponds, pools, springs, streams, and rivers Marine ecosystems – the water bodies containing salt concentration equal to or above that of sea water (i.e., 35 ppt or above). E.g shallow seas and … Read more

India’s action against Desertification

India as a signatory to United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) has submitted four National Reports to UNCCD  in the years 2000, 2002, 2006 and 2010 Some of the major programmes currently implemented that address issues related to land degradation and desertification is:- Integrated Watershed Management Programme (IWMP), National Afforestation Programme (NAP), National Mission for … Read more

Cold Desert/ Temperate Desert

  Cold desert of India include areas of ladak, leh and kargil of kashmir and spiti valley of Himachal  Pradesh and some parts of northern Uttaranchal and Sikkim. Lies in rain shadow of Himalaya Oak, pine, deodar, birch and rhododendron are the important trees and bushes found there. Major  animal include yaks, dwarf cows, and … Read more


Deserts are formed in regions with less than 25 cm of annual rainfall, .or sometimes in hot regions where there is more rainfall, but unevenly distributed in the annual cycle. Lack’ of rain in the mid latitude is often due to stable high pressure zones; deserts in temperate regions often lie in “rain shadows”, that … Read more


  found where rainfall is about 25-75 cm per year, not enough to support a forest, but more than that of a true desert. vegetation formations that are generally found in temperate climates. In India, they are found mainly in the high Himalayas. The rest of India’s grasslands are mainly composed of steppes and savannas. … Read more


  Forest types in India are classified by Champion and Seth into sixteen types.   Tropical Wet evergreen forests are found along the Western Ghats, the Nicobar and Andaman Islands and all  along the north-eastern region. It is characterized by tall, straight evergreen trees. The trees in this forest form a tier pattern: Beautiful fern … Read more


Forest ecosystem includes a complex assemblage of different kinds of biotic communities. Optimum conditions such as temperature and ground moisture are responsible for the establishment of forest communities. Forests may be evergreen or deciduous which are distinguished on the basis of leaf into broad-leafed or needle leafed coniferous forests in the case of temperate areas. … Read more


  a universal process of directional change in vegetation, on an ecological time scale. occurs when a series of communities replace one another due to large scale destruction either natural or manmade. continously -one community replacing another community, until a stable, mature community develops. The first plant to colonise an area is called the pioneer … Read more


The elements or mineral nutrients are always in circulation moving from non-living to living and then back to the non-living components of the ecosystem in a more or less circular fashion. This circular fashion is known as biogeochemical cycling (bio for living; geo for atmosphere). Nutrient Cycling: The nutrient cycle is a concept that describes … Read more


  The interaction between the organisms is fundamental for its survival and functioning of ecosystem as a whole. Type of Biotic Interaction Mutualism: both species benefit. Example: in pollination mutualisms, the pollinator gets food (pollen, nectar), and the plant has its pollen transferred to other flowers for cross-fertilization (reproduction).   Commensalism: one species benefits, the … Read more


  Movement of these pollutants involves two main processes:   Bioaccumulation refers to how pollutants enter a food chain. there is an increase in concentration of a pollutant from the environment to the first organism in a food chain.   Biomagnification refers to the tendency of pollutants to concentrate as they move from one trophic … Read more


  ENERGY FLOW- Energy is the basic force responsible for all metabolic activities. The flow of energy from producer to top consumers is called energy flow  which is unidirectional. Energy flows through the trophic levels: from producers to subsequent trophic levels. There is a loss of some energy in the form of unusable heat at … Read more


Biosphere is a part of the earth where life can exist. represents a highly integrated and interacting zone comprising of atmosphere (air), hydrosphere (water) and lithosphere (land) Life in the biosphere is abundant between 200 metres (660 feet) below the surface of the ocean and about 6,000 metres (20,000 feet) above sea level. absent at … Read more

Aquatic Zones

  Aquatic systems are not called biomes, The major differences between the various aquatic zones are due to salinity, levels  of dissolved nutrients; water temperature, depth of sunlight penetration.   Fresh Water Ecosystem-Fresh water ecosystem are classified as lotic (moving water) or lentic (still or stagnant water).   Marine Ecosystem- Estuaries-Coastal bays, river mouths and … Read more

Biomes and Its types

Biome The terrestrial part of the biosphere is divisible into enormous regions called biomes, which are characterized, by climate, vegetation, animal life and general soil type. No two biomes are alike. The most important climatic factors are temperature and precipitation. Tundra- Northern most region  adjoining the ice bound  poles. Devoid of trees except stunted shrubs … Read more


  Niche:- a  description  of  all  the  biological,  physical  and  chemical  factors  that  a  species needs to survive, stay healthy and reproduce. No two species have exact identical niches. Niche plays an important role in conservation of organisms. Types of Niche Habitat niche – where it lives Food niche – what is eats or decomposes … Read more

Classification of Eco-system

  Natural Ecosystem- Terrestrial- Forests, Grasslands, Deserts Aquatic- Fresh Waters, Saline Waters, Marine Waters Ecotone :- a zone of junction between two or more diverse ecosystems. For e.g. the mangrove forests represent an ecotone between marine and terrestrial ecosystem. Characteristics of Ecotone It may be very narrow or quite wide. It has the conditions intermediate … Read more

Components of Ecosystem

  The components of the ecosystem is categorised into abiotic of non-living and biotic of living components. Both the components of ecosystem and environment are same.   Abiotic Components the inorganic and non-living parts of the world.  consists of soil, water, air, and light energy etc.  involves a ,large number of chemicals like oxygen, nitrogen-, … Read more

ECOLOGY- An Introduction

    Ecology is  defined “as a scientific study of the relationship of the living organisms with each other and with their environment.” The classical texts of the Vedic period such as the Vedas, the Samhitas, the Brahmanas and the Aranyakas-Upanishads contain many references to ecological concepts .The Indian treatise on medicine, the Caraka- Samhita … Read more

Continental Drift Theory – Tectonics

  The continental drift theory is the theory that once all the continents were joined in a super-continent, which scientists call Pangaea. Over a vast period of time, the continents drifted apart to their current locations. Alfred Wegener first supported continental drift. Wegener’s explanation of continental drift in 1912 was that drifting occurred because of … Read more

Orogenic or the mountain-forming movements

  Orogenic or the mountain-forming movements act tangentially to the earth surface, as in plate tectonics. Tensions produces fissures (since this type of force acts away from a point in two directions) and compression produces folds (because this type of force acts towards a point from two or more directions). In the landforms so produced, … Read more

Earth Movements – Endogenetic Movements

  The interaction of matter and temperature generates these forces or movements inside the earth’s crust. The earth movements are mainly of two types: diastrophism and the sudden movements. The energy emanating from within the earth is the main force behind endogenic geomorphic processes. This energy is mostly generated by radioactivity, rotational and tidal friction … Read more

Earth’s Layers – Earth’s Composition

  The Crust of Earth It is the outermost and the thinnest layer of the earth’s surface, about 8 to 40 km thick. The crust varies greatly in thickness and composition – as small as 5 km thick in some places beneath the oceans, while under some mountain ranges it extends up to 70 km … Read more

Earth’s Interior – Earthquake Waves – Shadow Zone

  Most of the knowledge we have about Earth’s deep interior comes from the fact that seismic waves penetrate the Earth and are recorded on the other side.  Earthquake ray paths and arrival times are more complex than illustrated in the animations, because velocity in the Earth does not simply increase with depth. Velocities generally … Read more

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