Science Booster- Gene editing tool CRISPR-cas 9 and emerging new world

Gene editing tool CRISPR-cas 9 and emerging new world Vast number of patients suffering from lifelong incurable diseases such  as Sickle cell disease , Cystic fibrosis  or Haemophilia and many more are at the threshold for a complete reversal of the disease and  in near future  shall influence favourably the treatment of  poorly treated cancer … Read more

Medium of Propagation

Medium of Propagation Sound is a sequence of waves of pressure which propagates through compressible media such as air or water. During their propagation, waves can be reflected, refracted, or attentuated by the medium. The purpose of this experiment is to examine what effect the characteristics of the medium have on sound. Ground Wave or … Read more

Artificial intelligence

Artificial intelligence Artificial intelligence (AI) refers to the simulation of human intelligence in machines that are programmed to think like humans and mimic their actions. The term may also be applied to any machine that exhibits traits associated with a human mind such as learning and problem-solving. Artificial intelligence is based on the principle that … Read more

Chemistry in daily life

Chemistry in daily life The principles of chemistry have been used for the benefit of mankind. Think of cleanliness  the materials like soaps, detergents, household bleaches, tooth pastes, etc. will come to our mind. Look towards the beautiful clothes, immediately chemicals of the synthetic fibres used for making clothes and chemicals giving colours to them … Read more

Health and Hygiene

Health and Hygiene Maintaining personal hygiene is essential for more than one reason; social, health, personal, psychological or just as a way of life. Maintaining a good standard of hygiene helps keep infections, illnesses and bad odors at bay. The importance of hygiene should be taught from an early age to help cultivate good habits. … Read more

Health awareness Programme

Health awareness Programme Health Awareness Campaigns are one of the most functional elements in health system that push people to create that big change to eradicate or lessen the unhealthy impact the health issue. Healthcare Awareness Campaigns are meat to trigger that action of change, promise a healthier society with long standing impact in the … Read more

Heat: Measuring Temperature, Thermometers, Transformation of Heat

Heat: Measuring Temperature, Thermometers, Transformation of Heat Heat, energy that is transferred from one body to another as the result of a difference in temperature. If two bodies at different temperatures are brought together, energy is transferred—i.e., heat flows—from the hotter body to the colder. The effect of this transfer of energy usually, but not … Read more

Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO)

Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), was founded in 1969 to develop an independent Indian space program. Its headquarters are in Bangalore. ISRO’s chief executive is a chairman, who is also chairman of the Indian government’s Space Commission and the secretary of the Department of Space. The Indian Space Research Organisation … Read more

Periodic Table  and periodicity

Periodic Table  and periodicity Criteria for a new element discovery Assessing if an element has been “discovered” is not a simple task. While reviewing the discovery profiles of the transfermium elements in the early 90s’, IUPAC and IUPAP set up to establish a series of criteria that must be satisfied for the discovery of an … Read more

Preparation and properties of commonly used dyes

Preparation and properties of commonly used dyes Dye, substance used to impart colour to textiles, paper, leather, and other materials such that the colouring is not readily altered by washing, heat, light, or other factors to which the material is likely to be exposed. Dyes differ from pigments, which are finely ground solids dispersed in … Read more

Work power and energy

Work power and energy Work Work is a measure of energy transfer that occurs when an object is moved over a distance by an external force at least part of which is applied in the direction of the displacement. If the force is constant, work may be computed by multiplying the length of the path … Read more

Terminology related with Sound

Terminology related with Sound Amplitude Amplitude, the maximum displacement or distance moved by a point on a vibrating body or wave measured from its equilibrium position. It is equal to one-half the length of the vibration path. The amplitude of a pendulum is thus one-half the distance that the bob traverses in moving from one … Read more

Applications of GPS

8 Aviation Almost all modern aircraft are fitted with multiple GPS receivers. This provides pilots and sometimes passengers with a real-time aircraft position and map of each flight’s progress. GPS also allows airline operators to pre-select the safest, fastest and most fuel-efficient routes to each destination, and ensure that each route is followed as closely … Read more

Health Education in India

Health Education in India Medical education in global context has evolved over a period of time and so in India. With changing community needs, educational advancements and technological revolutions, we need to update the method of imparting knowledge and skills to the students. Major components of hidden curriculum like communication skills, attitude, empathy, altruism, professionalism, … Read more

Health Problems in India

Health Problems in India At the face of it, India is a booming economy and one of the fastest growing in the world. Yet, over one third of income is spent towards food and related consumption and hence, social security support for health, education, housing etc. becomes critical. However, over half a century post-independence, there … Read more

Digital India

Digital India Digital India is a flagship programme of the Government of India with a vision to transform India into a digitally empowered society and knowledge economy. This programme has been envisaged by Department of Electronics and Information Technology (DeitY) and will impact ministry of communications & IT, ministry of rural development, ministry of human … Read more

Uses And Harms Of Bacreria

? Uses and harms of bacreria Harmful bacteria Pathogenic Bacteria These bacteria cause great losses to plant and animal popula­tion by causing several diseases. Reduction of Soil Fertility Some facul­tative anaerobic bacteria are available mostly in the oxygen deficient soil which reverse the nitrifying process, thereby causing the loss of a part of its … Read more

Concerns And Challenges Use Of Science And Technology

? Concerns and challenges use of science and technology Digital technology and problems Social Media is an entirely different issue, especially with the upcoming generations. Without Facebook, Snapchat, Twitter, Instagram and more, where would tweens and teenagers find themselves today. They physically cannot function without staying updated with the newest social media craze. News … Read more

Harmful Plants

? Harmful plants They may look harmless enough, but plants can harbor some of the most deadly poisons known. From the death of Socrates by poison hemlock to the accidental ingestion of deadly nightshade by children, poisonous plants have been responsible for human deaths throughout history. Get to know some of the most infamous … Read more

Excretory System

? Excretory System Introduction v  If you exercise on a hot day, you are likely to lose a lot of water in sweat. Then, for the next several hours, you may notice that you do not pass urine as often as normal and that your urine is darker than usual. v  Do you know … Read more


? Excretion:In plants Excretion, the process by which animals and plants rid themselves of waste products and of the nitrogenous by-products of metabolism. Through excretion organisms control osmotic pressure—the balance between inorganic ions and water—and maintain acid-base balance. The process thus promotes homeostasis, the constancy of the organism’s internal environment. Plants have no special … Read more

Diseases Related To Kidney

? Diseases related to kidney Abderhalden-Kaufmann-Lignac syndrome Autosomal recessive syndrome of disturbance of amino acid transport characterized by deposition of cystine crystals in numerous tissues of the body, particularly evident in the conjunctiva and cornea. Children in whom cystinosis is found are subnormal in development, with dwarfing, rickets, and osteoporosis. Renal tubular disease, aminoaciduria, … Read more

Control And Coordination

? Control and coordination:Plants and animals All the living organisms respond and react to changes in the environment around them. The changes in the environment to which the organisms respond and react are called stimuli such as light, heat, cold, sound, smell, touch etc. Coordination in plants Coordination refers to ordered working of different … Read more


? Photosynthesis Photosynthesis, the process by which green plants and certain other organisms transform light energy into chemical energy. During photosynthesis in green plants, light energy is captured and used to convert water, carbon dioxide, and minerals into oxygen and energy-rich organic compounds. It would be impossible to overestimate the importance of photosynthesis in … Read more


? Biopesticides Plants, growing in the wild or in cultivation, face numerous threats from insects, bacteria, viruses, and fungi, as well as from other plants. Biopesticides are inert substances or living organisms that can help protect plants from such threats. Chemical pesticides can offer similar protection but, by contrast, are neither alive nor made … Read more

Matter In Our Surroundings

? Matter in our surroundings, Elements, Compounds, Mixtures Matter is any thing which has mass and occupies space. All solids, liquids and gases around us are made of matter. Scientist believe that matter is made of tiny particles that clump together. You cannot see these particles but you can see the matter, for example, … Read more

Food Preservatives

? Food preservatives Food preservatives constitute a group of compounds of widely different molecular structures; they are organic and inorganic substances with different functional groups and tendencies to form ions. There are no procedures that are generally applicable to the analysis of preservatives as a class of food additive; the procedures are specific to … Read more

Disaster Management

? Disaster Management History shows that India is exposed to national disasters. Cyclones, floods, earthquakes, droughts and floods are major threats. About 60 percent of the landmass is prone to earthquakes of various intensities, over 40 million hectares is prone to floods and 68 percent of the area is susceptible to drought. This not … Read more

Types Of Respiration

? Types of respiration External Respiration One method for obtaining oxygen from the environment is through external respiration or breathing. In animal organisms, the process of external respiration is performed in a number of different ways. Animals that lack specialized organs for respiration rely on diffusion across external tissue surfaces to obtain oxygen. Others … Read more


? Respiration Respiration is defined as the movement of oxygen from the outside environment to the cells within tissues, and the transport of carbon dioxide in the opposite direction. The physiological definition of respiration is differs from the biochemical definition, which refers to cellular respiration, a metabolic process by which an organism obtains energy … Read more

Refraction Of Light

? Refraction of light Refraction is the bending of light (it also happens with sound, water and other waves) as it passes from one transparent substance into another.  This bending by refraction makes it possible for us to have lenses, magnifying glasses, prisms and rainbows. Even our eyes depend upon this bending of light. … Read more

Acids And Bases

? Acid An acid is a substance which forms H+ ions as the only positive ion in aqueous solution. Examples:- Hydrochloric acid dissolved in water forms H+ and Cl– ions   HCl —> H+ + Cl–   Sulphuric acid dissolved in water forms H+ and SO42- ions   H2SO4 —>2H+ + SO42-   Nitric acid forms H+ and NO3– ions when dissolved in water … Read more

Waste Water Management

? Waste Water Management Water, food and energy securities are emerging as increasingly important and vital issues for India and the world. Most of the river basins in India and elsewhere are closing or closed and experiencing moderate to severe water shortages, brought on by the simultaneous effects of agricultural growth, industrialization and urbanization. … Read more

Electric Power Plant

? Electric power plant Electricity is produced at a an electric power plant. Some fuel source, such as coal, oil, natural gas, or nuclear energy produces heat. The heat is used to boil water to create steam. The steam under high pressure is used to spin a turbine. The spinning turbine interacts with a … Read more

Remote Sensing GIS And Its Application

? Remote sensing- GIS and its application   Remote Sensing Remote sensing is the acquisition of information about an object or phenomenon without making physical contact with the object and thus in contrast to on-site observation. In current usage, the term “remote sensing” generally refers to the use of satellite- or aircraft-based sensor technologies … Read more

Post Harvest Technology And Value Addition (2)

? Post harvest technology and value addition in Food Processing While increased productivity is an essential component of a vibrant agricultural sector, improved post-harvest handling and processing is essential to ensure high-quality products reach the markets. Too often, even when the yields are high, producers lose income due to poor post-harvest practices. Effective post-harvest … Read more

General Studies Of Alternating Current And Direct Current

? General studies of alternating current and direct current Alternating Current Alternating Current (AC) Alternating current describes the flow of charge that changes direction periodically. As a result, the voltage level also reverses along with the current. AC is used to deliver power to houses, office buildings, etc. AC can be produced using a … Read more

Ohms And Resistance

? Electric current Ohm’s law and Resistance   Electrical current is the flow of charged particles. The flow of charges will be constant in current electricity. Electric current flows from higher electric potential to lower electric potential. For the current to flow, it requires a circuit which is closed loop of a conducting material. … Read more

E Learning IT& Rural Applications

? E-learning- IT& Rural applications A learning system based on formalised teaching but with the help of electronic resources is known as E-learning. While teaching can be based in or out of the classrooms, the use of computers and the Internet forms the major component of E-learning. E-learning can also be termed as a … Read more

Rain Water Harvesting

? Rain Water Harvesting v  Water forms the lifeline of any society. Water is essential for the environment, food security and sustainable development. v  All the known civilizations have flourished with water source as the base and it is true in the present context too. v  Availability of drinking water and provision of sanitation … Read more

Transgenic Animals

? Transgenic animals Transgenic animals are animals that have been cloned. The medical and biotechnological uses of animal cloning are almost innumerable, as many diseases have been eradicated thanks to the production of these transgenic animals. Transgenic animals development Since the discovery of the molecular structure of DNA by Watson and Crick in 1953, … Read more

Engineering Plastics

? Engineering plastics Engineering plastics are a group of plastic materials that have better mechanical and/or thermal properties than the more widely used commodity plastics (such as polystyrene, PVC, polypropylene and polyethylene).  Being more expensive, engineering plastics are produced in lower quantities and tend to be used for smaller objects or low-volume applications (such … Read more

National Seed Policy

? National Seed Policy The Seed Act, 1966, seed control order 1983 and New Policy on Seeds Development, 1988, from the basis of promotion and regulation of the Indian Seed Industry. The “New Seed Policy” of 1988 ushered in a new area of growth and phenomenal development. Because, it allowed limited import of commercial … Read more

India Missile

? India’s Missile program   Introduction India’s missile programme took a shot from space programme, beginning 1967.   In 1972, Rohini- a 560 two-stage, solid propulsion sounding rocket was developed and test fired India first launched its small 17-tonne SLV-3 space booster in 1979 India successfully injected the 35 kg Rohini I satellite into … Read more

Primary And Secondary Cells Their Properties And Drawback

? Primary and secondary cells their properties and drawback Primary Cell Primary cells are those that cannot be recharged and needs to be discarded after the expiration of their lifetime. If the electrolyte is not in liquid form, we are talking about dry cells.     Primary cells usually have high energy density, capacity, are … Read more

Food Safety And Microbial Standards, Food Quality Standards,

? Food safety and Microbial standards, Food quality standards Food safety-Indicators of food microbial Quality and safety-Coliforms, Enterococci, Bifidobacteria, Coliphages/Enteroviruses, predictive Microbiology/ Microbial modeling Microbial Standards of Processed and preserved Foods The Center for disease control (CDC) investigates each documented outbreak of food borne disease and attempts to determine not only the specific microorganisms … Read more

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