Electricity And Its Effect1

? Electricity and its effects -electric intensity, potential, potential difference Electricity is the physical flow of electrons, referred to as an electrical current. Electricity is an energy carrier that efficiently delivers the energy found in primary sources to end users, who in turn convert it into energy services. Electricity can be created in three … Read more


? Rubbers There are many different kinds of rubber, but they all fall into two broad types: natural rubber (latex—grown from plants) and synthetic rubber (made artificially in a chemical plant or laboratory). Commercially, the most important synthetic rubbers are styrene butadiene (SBR), polyacrylics, and polyvinyl acetate (PVA); other kinds include polyvinyl chloride (PVC), … Read more


? Working principle and use of generator   Generator is a machine that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy. It works based on principle of faraday law of electromagnetic induction. The faradays law states that whenever a conductor is placed in a varying magnetic field, EMF is induced and this induced EMF is equal … Read more

Psychology Stress Management

? Psychology stress management Stress arises when individuals perceive a discrepancy between the physical or psychological demands of a situation and the resources of his or her biological, psychological or social systems. There are many ways of coping with stress. Their effectiveness depends on the type of stressor, the particular individual, and the circumstances. … Read more

Transport Of Water And Minerals In Plants And Animals

? Transport of water and minerals in plants and animals   Transport of water in plants The survival of plants is dependent on a number of factors which include water, minerals, gases, and nutrients they receive. The movement of gas, water, and nutrients in plants are carried out in components. They take in carbon … Read more

Introduction And Application Of Genetic Engineering

? Introduction and application of genetic engineering Genetic engineering Genetic engineering, the artificial manipulation, modification, and recombination of DNA or other nucleic acid molecules in order to modify an organism or population of organisms. The term genetic engineering initially referred to various techniques used for the modification or manipulation of organisms through the processes … Read more


? Vaccines A vaccine is a biological preparation that improves immunity to a particular disease. A vaccine typically contains an agent that resembles a disease-causing microorganism, and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe, its toxins or one of its surface proteins. The agent stimulates the body’s immune system to … Read more

Digestive System

? Digestive System Introduction The respiratory and circulatory systems work together to provide cells with the oxygen they need for cellular respiration. Cells also need glucose for cellular respiration. Glucose is a simple sugar that comes from the food we eat. To get glucose from food, digestion must occur. This process is carried out … Read more

Human Eye

? Human eye Human eye, in humans, specialized sense organ capable of receiving visual images, which are then carried to the brain. The eye is protected from mechanical injury by being enclosed in a socket, or orbit, which is made up of portions of several of the bones of the skull to form a … Read more


? Telecommunication Telecommunications, also known as telecom, is the exchange of information over significant distances by electronic means and refers to all types of voice, data and video transmission. This is a broad term that includes a wide range of information transmitting technologies such as telephones (wired and wireless), microwave communications, fiber optics, satellites, … Read more

Applications Of Space Technology In India

? Applications of Space Technology in India Agriculture Information on crop statistics is required for planning and decision making purposes, such as, distribution and storage of food grains, Govt. policies, pricing, procurement and food security and so on. Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers’ Welfare effectively uses contemporary techniques of satellite remote sensing in such … Read more


? Osmoregulation Osmoregulation is the process of maintaining salt and water balance (osmotic balance) across membranes within the body. The fluids inside and surrounding cells are composed of water, electrolytes, and nonelectrolytes. An electrolyte is a compound that dissociates into ions when dissolved in water. A nonelectrolyte, in contrast, does not dissociate into ions … Read more

Preservation & Promotion Of Culture And Indigenous Knowledge Use Of Regional Language In ICT (2)

? Preservation & promotion of culture and indigenous knowledge- Use of Regional Language in ICT “A nation’s culture resides in the hearts and in the soul of its people.” -Mahatma Gandhi Indigenous Knowledge (IK) refers to the knowledge, innovations, and practices of indigenous groups in matters related to agriculture and environmental management, medicine and … Read more

Nuclear Energy

? Nuclear energy Everything around us is made up of tiny objects called atoms. Most of the mass of each atom is concentrated in the center (which is called the nucleus), and the rest of the mass is in the cloud of electrons surrounding the nucleus. Protons and neutrons are subatomic particles that comprise … Read more

Food And Human Health

? Food and Human Health : General Awareness of Balanced and Unbalanced Food Food has been a basic part of our existence. By knowing the food composition , the nutritional content of food is known. Intake of food ensures growth in children and youth, maintains good health throughout life, meets special needs of pregnancy … Read more


? Intoxicants The intoxicants used in society  might be taken as the following: alcohol, bhang, ganja, tobacco and opium, coca etc. Alcohol as an intoxicant Alcohol, also known by its chemical name ethanol, is a psychoactive substance that is the active ingredient in drinks such as beer, wine, and distilled spirits (hard liquor). It … Read more

Source Of Energy

? Conventional and New Source of Energy   Energy is one of the most important component of economic infrastructure. It is the basic input required to sustain economic growth. There is direct relation between the level of economic development and per capita energy consumption.   Two Main Sources of Energy:   … Read more

Linear Motio1

? Linear motion Linear motion, also called uniform motion or rectilinear motion, motion in one spatial dimension.  According to Newton’s first law (also known as the principle of inertia), a body with no net force acting on it will either remain at rest or continue to move with uniform speed in a straight line, … Read more

Electricity And Its Effect1

? Electricity and its effects -electric intensity, potential, potential difference Electricity is the physical flow of electrons, referred to as an electrical current. Electricity is an energy carrier that efficiently delivers the energy found in primary sources to end users, who in turn convert it into energy services. Electricity can be created in three … Read more

Contibution Of Indian Scientist

? Contribution of Indian  Scientist:   Scientist Achievement Homi Jehangir Baba Father of Indian Nuclear Programme, Carried out first nuclear test 1974, Atomic energy establishment was renamed Bhabha Atomic research centre. Venkatraman Ramakrishna Indian origin biologist cum scientist won nobel prize in 2009 in chemistry. He pioneered in the studies of the structure and … Read more


? Fertilizers All plants need certain mineral nutrients to survive. These minerals occur naturally in the soil and are taken up from the soil by the roots of the plants. Most soils usually have enough of these minerals to keep plants healthy. However, some nutrients are gradually used up by the plants, or are … Read more

Tissue Culture Methods And Applications

? Tissue culture methods and applications Tissue culture refers to a method in which fragments of a tissue (plant or animal tissue) are introduced into a new, artificial environment, where they continue to function or grow. While fragments of a tissue are often used, it is important to note that entire organs are also … Read more

Distribution Of Mulberry And Non Mulberry Sericulture (area, Production And Productivity Across States)

? Distribution of Mulberry and Non-mulberry Sericulture (area, production and productivity across states), Cocoon Production Sericulture which has its origin in China is an age old industry in India. Silk route is one of the ancient internationally recognized route for global business for not only silk but also other important commodities. History reveals that … Read more

Diseases Of Plants Caused By Fungi

? Diseases of plants caused by fungi Early Blight of Potato The disease is quite common in India, and occurs on about three week old plants. Since this blight occurs earlier than the ‘late blight’ of potato (caused by Phytophthora infestans), it is called ‘early blight.’ Prevention Measures:   Field sanitation and rotation of … Read more

Nuclear Tech Terms, Radioactivity And Its Application

? Quick Revision ( SCIENCE SERIES, Art 2):   NUCLEAR TECHNOLOGY, RADIOACTIVITY and Its application     Nuclear technology: Nuclear technology is technology that involves the nuclear reaction of atomic nuclei. Among the notable nuclear technologies are nuclear reactors, nuclear medicine and nuclear weapons.   BASIC CONCEPTS: Nuclear energy: The energy produced due to changes … Read more

Circulatory System

? Circulatory System v  The circulatory system can be compared to a system of interconnected, one-way roads that range from superhighways to back alleys. v  Like a network of roads, the job of the circulatory system is to allow the transport of materials from one place to another. v  As described in Figure below, … Read more

Space Technology

? Space Technology- Indian space programs. Application of Satellites for different purposes   Despite being a developing economy with its attendant problems, India has effectively developed space technology and has applied it successfully for its rapid development and today is offering a variety of space services globally. Indian Space Program: During the formative decade … Read more

Concept Of Biotechnology

? Concept of biotechnology The term ‘Biotechnology’ may sound futuristic, but it is nearly as old as civilization itself. We have begun growing crops and raising animals 10,000 years ago to provide a stable supply of food and clothing. We have been using the biological processes of microorganisms for 6,000 years to make useful … Read more

Special Promotional Programme For Horticulture Development

? Special Promotional Programme for Horticulture Development Definition of Horticulture: Horticulture may be broadly defined as the Science and art of growing fruits, vegetables and flowers and crops like spices condiments and other plantation crops. It is a science of cultivation of Garden plants. The word Horticulture in derived from the Latin word Hortus … Read more

Magnetic Keepers

? Magnetic keepers A magnet keeper, also known historically as an armature, is a ferromagnetic bar made from soft iron or steel, which is placed across the poles of a permanent magnet to help preserve the strength of the magnet by completing the magnetic circuit; it is important for magnets that have a low … Read more


? Fungi fungi, any of about 99,000 known species of organisms of the kingdom Fungi, which includes the yeasts, rusts, smuts, mildews, molds, and mushrooms. There are also many funguslike organisms, including slime molds and oomycetes (water molds), that do not belong to kingdom Fungi but are often called fungi. Many of these funguslike … Read more

Thermal Effect Of Current It

? Thermal effect of current it’s use, calculation of power and electrical energy Spent When an electric current flows through a conductor, electrical energy is expended n over coming the frictional resistance between eh electrons and the molecules of the wire. If potential difference of V volts is applied across a conductor and current … Read more


? Working principle and use of generator   Generator is a machine that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy. It works based on principle of faraday law of electromagnetic induction. The faradays law states that whenever a conductor is placed in a varying magnetic field, EMF is induced and this induced EMF is equal … Read more


? Steroids Steroids are naturally made by our bodies in small amounts. They help to control many functions. But steroids can also be made artificially and used as drugs to treat different diseases, including cancer.  Steroids used to treat cancer are usually a type called corticosteroids. These are man made versions of the hormones … Read more

Rate Of Chemical Reaction

? The Rate of a Chemical Reaction   The rate of a chemical reaction can be defined as the amount of the reaction which occurs in unit time. The rate of a reaction is measured by choosing certain properties of the reaction which will indicate how far the reaction has gone, and whose … Read more

Exothermic And Endothermic Reactions.

? Endothermic Reactions Endothermic reactions are those chemical reactions where energy is absorbed by the system from the surroundings mostly in the form of heat. The concept is applied in the physical sciences like chemical reactions where hear is converted to chemical bond energy by way of experiments. Common examples of endothermic … Read more

Tissue Culture

? Tissue culture Tissue culture, a method of biological research in which fragments of tissue from an animal or plant are transferred to an artificial environment in which they can continue to survive and function. The cultured tissue may consist of a single cell, a population of cells, or a whole or part of … Read more


? Carbohydrates (glucose, sucrose and cellulose) Carbohydrates (also called saccharides) are molecular compounds made from just three elements: carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Monosaccharides (e.g. glucose) and disaccharides (e.g. sucrose) are relatively small molecules. They are often called sugars. Other carbohydrate molecules are very large (polysaccharides such as starch and cellulose). Carbohydrates are: a source of energy … Read more

Production Of Plaster Of Paris

? Production of plaster of paris Plaster is a building material used for the protective or decorative coating of walls and ceilings and for moulding and casting decorative elements. “plaster” usually means a material used for the interiors of buildings, while “render” commonly refers to external applications. Another imprecise term used for the material … Read more

Information And Communication Technology

? Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Policy of Telangana ICT draft 2016 Hyderabad, the capital of Telangana, is now recognized as one of the leading Information Technology hubs globally. It houses over 1200 IT companies, both large and small which together employ close to 4 Lakhs professionals, besides supporting an indirect employment to over … Read more

Reproduction And Growth

? Reproduction and growth – type of reproduction Living things grow and they reproduce. Growth is a way to generate the materials for reproduction. Reproduction is a way to make new organisms that can grow. Thus, the apparent “goal” of every organism is to fill the available world with its offspring, that is, with … Read more

NRHM, National HIV Programme

? NRHM, National HIV Programme NATIONAL RURAL HEALTH MISSION – THE VISION The National Rural Health Mission (2005-12) seeks to provide effective healthcare to rural population throughout the country with special focus on 18 states, which have weak public health indicators and/or weak infrastructure.  These 18 States are Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Himachal … Read more

Electric Discharge In Gases

? Electric discharge in gases Electrical discharge through gases is studied by using a specially designed glass tube commonly called as a discharge tube. It consists of a cylindrical glass tube having a side tube, and two metallic electrodes one at each end. These electrodes can be connected to the respective terminals of a … Read more


? Vermiculture Vermiculture means artificial rearing or cultivation of worms (Earthworms) and the technology is the scientific process of using them for the betterment of human beings. Vermicompost is the excreta of earthworm, which is rich in humus. Earthworms eat cow dung or farm yard manure along with other farm wastes and pass it … Read more

Bt Cotton

? Bt cotton Bt cotton is an insect-resistant transgenic crop designed to combat the bollworm. Bt cotton was created by genetically altering the cotton genome to express a microbial protein from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis. In short, the transgene inserted into the plant’s genome produces toxin crystals that the plant would not normally produce … Read more

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