Ajanta frescoes

Ajanta frescoes The Ajanta caves are located in the western Indian state of Maharashta, cut into the cliff face above the spot where the river Waghora draws a harmonious half-moon through lush vegetation. Discovered by English officers during a tiger hunt in 1819, the caves are in such a remote spot (the nearest towns are … Read more Ajanta frescoes

Folk arts of India

Folk arts of India Madhubani Art Madhubani, practiced in the Mithilia region of India, is a famous form of folk art. It is done with the help of natural pigments and dyes. The equipment for painting is also usually hand crafted. Geometrical figures and vibrant use of colour are the most strking features of Madhubani … Read more Folk arts of India

Lord Cornwallis

? Lord Cornwallis (1786 – 1793) Introduction Lord Cornwallis, a warrior-statesman. He succeeded Warren Hastings as Governor-General in 1786. He belonged to an influential and aristocratic family which had wider political connections. He was also a close friend of Prime Minister Pitt. Dundas, the most influential member of the Board of Control … Read more Lord Cornwallis

Literary And Scholarly Studies During British Indi1

? Literary and Scholarly studies during british India Bengali Literature Before the impact of the West, the Bengali literature had two distinct sources—that of the learned and the well-to-do, and of the common people. The aristocratic type of literature, that is the former type, was patronised by the Courts, the Chiefs, the landlords. The … Read more Literary And Scholarly Studies During British Indi1

Vakataks

? Vakataks Vakataka dynasty, Indian ruling house originating in the central Deccan in the mid-3rd century CE, the empire of which is believed to have extended from Malwa and Gujarat in the north to the Tungabhadra in the south and from the Arabian Sea in the west to the Bay of Bengal in the … Read more Vakataks

Mahayan

? Rise of Mahayana and Development of Art (Gandhara, Mathura and other Schools)     Mahayana Buddhism is sometimes called Northern Buddhism. It is mainly followed by monks and nuns, and is largely found throughout China, Japan, Korea, Mongolia, Nepal, Russia, Tibet, and Vietnam.   The reign of Kanishka is known for the rise of … Read more Mahayan

The Chandelas

? Facts related to Uttar Pradesh Yashovarman, also known as Lakshavarman, was a king of the Chandela dynasty of India. He ruled in the Jejakabhukti region (Bundelkhand in present-day Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh). The Khajuraho inscription also states that Yashovarman turned the rivers Ganga and Yamuna into his “pleasure-lakes”, and that the waters of these rivers became muddy when his might elephants bathed … Read more The Chandelas

Hindutva And Patriotism

? Hindutva and Patriotism Hindutva Literally ‘Hindutva’ means a way of life or a state of mind that is based on the cultural and spiritual ethos based on the spiritual systems that evolved from India. Hindutva is a philosophy like Communism or Socialism. The difference is that, whereas communism and socialism are materialistic philosophies … Read more Hindutva And Patriotism

Religious Sects

? Religious sects: Shankaracharya, Ramanujacharya, Madhwacharya – Sri Basaveshvara, Veerashaivism and Vachana movement  The revival and expansion of Hinduism after the Gupta period took many forms. The chief gods were the Shiva and Vishnu and many magnificent temples were built to proclaim their supremacy. The rise of the worship of Shiva and Vishnu marked … Read more Religious Sects

Backward Class Movement

? Backward Class movement Some of the most important backward class movement in India are as follows:   Satya Shodhak Samaj Shri Narayana Dharma Paripalana Yogam Movement Justice Party The Self-respect Movement. Satya Shodhak Samaj In Western India, Jyotirao Govindrao Phule struggled for the upliftment of lower castes through his Satya Shodhak Samaj. Belonging … Read more Backward Class Movement

The Kushana Dynasty

? Facts related to Uttar Pradesh Under the rule of Kanishka, the Kushana empire reached its maximum territorial limits. This empire extended from the Central Asia to the northern India, while including Varanasi, Kaushambi and Sravasti in Uttar Pradesh region. The Kushanas patronized the Gandhara and the Mathura schools of sculptural art which are … Read more The Kushana Dynasty

The Gupta Dynasty

? Facts related to Uttar Pradesh There is controversy among scholars about the original homeland of the Guptas. Jayaswal has pointed out that the Guptas were originally inhabitants of Prayaga (Allahabad), Uttar Pradesh, in north India, as the vassal of the Nagas or Bhaarshivas. Thereafter they rose in prominence. Early Gupta coins and inscriptions have been mainly found in Uttar … Read more The Gupta Dynasty

Islam Sacred Places, The Family System, Sharia, Sunni And Shia

? Islam: Sacred places, the family system, Sharia, Sunni and Shia Sacred places Makkah The most sacred place in Islam is the Ka’ba in Makkah, Saudi Arabia. The Ka’ba is a mosque (built by Abraham according to Muslim tradition) built around a black stone. The Prophet Muhammad designated Makkah as the holy city of … Read more Islam Sacred Places, The Family System, Sharia, Sunni And Shia

Rise Of Maratha Power

? Rise of Maratha Empire Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj (Shivaji Shahaji Bhosale) was the founder of strong Maratha Empire in the west part of India in 17th Century. Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj (Shivaji Shahaji Bhosale) was born in the fort of Shivneri, near from city Junner (Pune District), in the year 1630 (19th February’ 1630). His … Read more Rise Of Maratha Power

Kingdom Of Vijaynagar

?                                                     Kingdom of Vijaynagar The kingdom of Vijaynagar founded by two brothers, Harihar and Bukka, on the south bank of the River Tungabhadra in 1336 AD. According to the legends, they had been the feudatories of the Kakatiyas of Warangal. Later they became ministers in the kingdom of Kampili. After the destruction of … Read more Kingdom Of Vijaynagar

Depressed Class Missions, Non Brahmanical Movements And Justice Party

? Depressed Classes Mission, Non-Brahmin movement and Justice Party   One, of the earliest lower caste movements, which became the torch bearer for the future caste movements, was founded in Maharashtra in the 1870s by Jyotibha Phule, who with his books Gulamgiri (1872) and Sarvajanik Satyadharma Pustak and his organisation Satya Shodhak Samaj, proclaimed … Read more Depressed Class Missions, Non Brahmanical Movements And Justice Party

Tribal Problems

? Tribal Problems: Isolation Migration and Acculturation Various Problems of Tribal Communities in India As per the dictionary, problem means a question to be considered, solved, or answered in a particular way, difficult to deal or control. Social problems are those social conditions identified by scientific inquiry and values as detrimental to human well-being.” … Read more Tribal Problems

Philosophy Thinkers

?     Saint Anselm Ontological argument for the existence of God   Ontological arguments are arguments, for the conclusion that God exists, from premises which are supposed to derive from some source other than observation of the world—e.g., from reason alone. In other words, ontological arguments are arguments from what are typically alleged … Read more Philosophy Thinkers

Battle Of Plassey

? Battle of Plassey TheBattle of Plassey was a battle that took place on June 23, 1757, on the banks of the Bhagirathi River, about 150 km north of Calcutta. It is near Murshidabad, then the capital of the Nawab of Bengal in India. Pâl?shir, an extravagant red flowering tree known as “Flame of … Read more Battle Of Plassey

Vinayak Damodar Savarkar

? Vinayak Damodar Savarkar Vinayak Damodar Savarkar,Bombay, Hindu and Indian nationalist and leading figure in the Hindu Mahasabha (“Great Society of Hindus”), a Hindu nationalist organization and political party. While a student of law in London (1906–10), Savarkar helped to instruct a group of Indian revolutionaries in methods of sabotage and assassination that associates … Read more Vinayak Damodar Savarkar

Socio Religious Brahmo Samaj, Arya Samaj, Theosophical Society

? Socio-religious reform movements in the 19th century: Brahmo Samaj, Arya Samaj, Theosophical Society India has a long history of socio-religious reform movements. However, the present work focuses on the social reform movements of Nineteenth century only. The reforms by definition entail change or replacement of the institutions, which have become functionally irrelevant(totally or … Read more Socio Religious Brahmo Samaj, Arya Samaj, Theosophical Society

Anglo Maratha

? Anglo-Maratha Wars The first, second, and third Anglo-Maratha wars were fought between the army of the British East India Company, which after 1757 was de facto ruler of Bengal and of other provinces in North East India, and the Maratha Empire, or confederacy, in the south of India. The Moghul Empire was already … Read more Anglo Maratha

Policy Of Subsidiary Alliance, Doctrine Of Lapse, Structure Of British Raj Upto 1857

? Policy of subsidiary alliance, Doctrine of Lapse, Structure of British Raj upto 1857   Of all the European East India companies which came to India as traders in different periods of the 15th and 16th centuries, only the British and the French East India companies remained as dominant ones by the beginning of the 18th … Read more Policy Of Subsidiary Alliance, Doctrine Of Lapse, Structure Of British Raj Upto 1857

The Huna Invasion

? Facts related to Uttar Pradesh   In the beginning of the sixth century A.D. when the Gupta empire was disintegrating, they repeated their invasion under their ruler Toramana. Though there is no conclusive evidence that Toramana was a Huna yet, mostly he had been accepted so. This time the Hunas succeeded and occupied … Read more The Huna Invasion

Vijaynagar

?  Vijayanagara empire and their contribution to art, literature and culture –  socio-economic conditions, administration, fall of Vijayanagar empire                                 Vijayanagara empire The Vijayanagara Empire, an important South Indian empire was founded by Harihara Raya I and his brother Bukka Raya I. The capital of the empire was Vijayanagara, present days Hampi in … Read more Vijaynagar

Maratha Empire

? Rise of Maratha Empire Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj (Shivaji Shahaji Bhosale) was the founder of strong Maratha Empire in the west part of India in 17th Century. Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj (Shivaji Shahaji Bhosale) was born in the fort of Shivneri, near from city Junner (Pune District), in the year 1630 (19th February’ 1630). His … Read more Maratha Empire

Pallavas

? Pallavas The Pahlavas are a people mentioned in ancient Indian texts like the Manu Smriti, various Puranas, the Ramayana, the Mahabharata, and the Brhatsamhita. In some texts the Pahlavas are also mentioned as “Pallavas”: While the Vayu Purana distinguishes between Pahlava and Pahnava, the Vamana Purana and Matsya Purana refer to both as … Read more Pallavas

Yoga Philosophy

? Yoga Philosophy (Yog Darshan), Astang Yoga Yoga An AYUSH system of medicine includes Indian systems of medicine and Homeopathy. AYUSH is an acronym for Ayurveda, Yoga & Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha & Sowa Rigpa, and Homoeopathy. Yoga is essentially spiritual and it is an art and science of healthy living which focuses on bringing … Read more Yoga Philosophy

Rashtrakutas (1)

? Rashtrakutas The Rashtrakutas called themselves descendants of one named Satyaki. But there is difference of opinion about their origin among the historians. According to some they were originally of Dravidian peasant extraction. From some of the inscriptions of the Chalukya kings it is known that the Rashtrakutas were feudatories of the Chalukyas. Perhaps … Read more Rashtrakutas (1)

Dr Ambedkar

? Dr. Ambedkar and constitution Due to his seminal role in the framing of the Indian Constitution, Dr Bhimrao Ambedkar is popularly known all over India as the chief architect of the Indian Constitution. His efforts to eradicate social evils were remarkable and that is why he is called the “messiah” of the Dalits … Read more Dr Ambedkar

Persian

? Persian and Greek invasion: Persian invasion; Alexander, the Great and his legacy.       India has a varied culture and traditions, many of them have been influenced by the foreign culture. India being a prosperous and rich country with great civilisation, it attracted the empires from long and many civilisations like Persian … Read more Persian

Pahlava Dynasty

? Pahlava dynasty The breakdown of the Mauryan Empire led to the rise of many regional kingdoms in different parts of the country. At the same time, we witness invasions by various groups of people based in Central Asia and western China. These were Indo-Greeks, the Scythians or the ?akas, the Parthians or the … Read more Pahlava Dynasty

Shungas

? Shungas The Sunga Empire (or Shunga Empire) is a Magadha dynasty that controlled North-central and Eastern India as well as parts of the northwest (now Pakistan) from around 185 to 73 B.C.E. It was established after the fall of the Indian Mauryan empire. The capital of the Sungas was Pataliputra. Later kings such … Read more Shungas

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