8.The Guptas

? The Gupta Empire stretched across northern, central and parts of southern India between c. 320 and 550 CE. The period is noted for its achievements in the arts, architecture, sciences, religion, and philosophy. Chandragupta I (320 – 335 CE) started a rapid expansion of the Gupta Empire and soon established himself as the first sovereign ruler of the empire. It marked the end of … Read more

Jayaprakash Narayan And Emergency

? Jayaprakash Narayan and Emergency Jayaprakash Narayan was born on October 11, 1902, in Sitabdiara, a village on the border of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. Whenever the Ganga changed course, JP’s ancestral house has been shown alternately in Bihar and UP. He became a natural leader among the village boys. JP was married to … Read more

The Mughals 1

? Introduction ? In the fourteenth century, the disintegration of the Mongol empire led Timur to unite Iran and Turan under one rule.  Timur’s empire was spread from the lower Volga to the river Indus, including Iran, ? Asia  Minor (modern Turkey), Trans-Oxiana, Afghanistan, and some part of Punjab.   ? In 1404, Timur … Read more

Protection To Women Women Under Indian Constitution

? Protection to Women Women Under Indian Constitution & Criminal Law (Under Indian Constitution Law and Criminal Procedure Code) Violence against women is present in every country, cutting across boundaries of culture, class, education, income, ethnicity and age. Since time immemorial India is · particularly a male dominated society and prevalence of illiteracy among … Read more

Administrative Changes After 1858

? Administrative changes after 1858 The Revolt of 1857 gave a severe jolt to the British administration in India and made its re-organization inevitable. The Government of India’s structure and policies underwent significant changes in the decades following the Revolt. Changes in Administration By the Act of Parliament of 1858, the power to govern … Read more

Raja Ram Mohan Roy (1)

? Raja ram mohan roy During the late 18th century (what was known as the Dark Age), the society in Bengal was burdened with a host of evil customs and regulations. Elaborate rituals and strict moral codes were enforced which were largely modified, and badly interpreted ancient traditions. Practices like child marriage (Gouridaan), polygamy … Read more

Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel (1)

? Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel handled effectively the integration of the princely states with his diplomatic skills and foresightedness. The problem of amalgamating 562 independent states with a democratic self-governing India was difficult and delicate. But it was essential to save India from balkanization, once the Paramountcy of British crown would lapse. … Read more

Indian Freedom Struggle 5

? Gandhi-Irwin Pact This pact was signed between Mahatma Gandhi and the then Viceroy of India, Lord Irwin on 5 March 1931. Salient features of this act were as following: 1. The Congress would participate in the Round Table Conference. 2. The Congress would discontinue the Civil Disobedience Movement. 3. The Government would withdraw … Read more

Salankayanas

? Salankayanas Salankayana ruled from 3rd century AD to 5th century AD. They were known as Salankayana after the Gotra name. They were the feudatories of Ikshvakus. They Ruled near vengi area, with Vengi (Eluru) as the capital. Salankayana is another of the Phantom kingdoms of Andhra for Indologists. Their date is fixed based … Read more

Nature Of Philosophy (2)

? Nature of Philosophy, it’s relation with life,Science and culture Two answers are frequently given to the question ‘What is philosophy?’ One is that philosophy is an activity rather than a subject – in other words, you do philosophy rather than learn about it. The other is that philosophy is largely a matter of … Read more

Structure Of Government And Economic Policies Of British Empire In India

? Structure of Government and economic policies of British Empire in India (1757- 1857) : Administrative organization, Social and Cultural policies Structure of government under east india company (1757-1857) When the officials of the East India Company acquired control over Bengal in 1765, they had little intention of making any innovations in its administration. … Read more

Monuments And Conservation

? Museums and Archives in Karnataka; Preservation and protection of historical monuments – work of Archaeological Survey of India – World Heritage Sites in Karnataka. The concept of museums in India may be traced back to the historic times, in which references to the chitrasala (picture gallery) do occur. The earliest necessity to house … Read more

Jainism With Reference To Uttar Pradesh

? Jainism Originated in India thousands of years ago and is thought to have heavily influenced the two other main belief systems of the region at that time: Hinduism and Buddhism. The religion centres on the progress of one’s soul towards a divine consciousness through self-reformation, wisdom and self-control and pacifism towards all living … Read more

Warren Hastings

?   Warren Hastings (1773-1785) Became Governor in 1772 and Governor-General in 1773 through Regulating Act of 1773 1. His four councillors were Clavering, Francis, Monson and Barwell 2. Abolished Dual system (1767-1772) of administration (1772) 3. Auctioned the right to collect land revenue to the highest bidder (1772) 4. Divided Bengal into districts and … Read more

Annie Besant

? Annie Besant Annie Besant (1847–1933), second President of The Theosophical Society from 1907 to 1933, was described as a ‘Diamond Soul’, for she had many brilliant facets to her character. She was an outstanding orator of her time, a champion of human freedom, educationist, philanthropist, and author with more than three hundred books … Read more

6.The Mauryas

?   Foundation of the Mauryan Empire: The foundation of the Maurya Empire in 321 B.C. by Chandragupta Maurya was a unique event in history. Particularly in view of the fact that it was found shortly after Alexander’s victorious campaigns in North-West India during 327 B.C. – 325 B.C. There … Read more

Gorkha Invasion

? Gorkha invasion , nature and consequences The Gurkhas conquered Kumaon and Garhwal in 1804. After annexing these states, the Nepalese army, under the leadership of Amar Singh Thapa, and his son and his deputy Ranjor Singh Thapa, started making preparations for the conquest 6f the Punjab Hill States. However, in this region, their … Read more

Chalukyas

? Chalukyas The Chalukya dynasty was an Indian royal dynasty that ruled large parts of southern and central India between the 6th and the 12th centuries. During this period, they ruled as three related yet individual dynasties. The earliest dynasty, known as the “Badami Chalukyas”, ruled from Vatapi (modern Badami) from the middle of … Read more

Rajputas (1)

? Rajputas Rajput is a caste from the Indian subcontinent. The term Rajput covers various patrilineal clans historically associated with warriorhood: several clans claim Rajput status, although not all claims are universally accepted.  The term “Rajput” acquired its present meaning only in the 16th century, although it is also anachronistically used to describe the … Read more

Nature And Scope Of Philosophy And Religion (2)

? Nature and scope of philosophy and religion Philosophy:Nature and scope The word ‘philosophy’ is derived from two Greek words philos and sophia. Philos stands for love and sophia for wisdom. It stood for serious cultivation of the intellect and understanding. It was a searching inquiry into the deeper values of life. But simply … Read more

Groups In Christianity (1)

? Groups  in Christianity: The roman Catholic church, The eastern arthodox church, and protestants churches Roman catholic church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.29 billion members worldwide. As one of the oldest religious institutions in the world, it has played a … Read more

Solanki Of Gujrat

? Solanki of Gujrat The Solanki dynasty ruled parts of what are now Gujarat and Kathiawar in India between 950-1300 CE. The kings of the dynasty used the self-designation Chaulukya, and are also known as the Chalukyas of Gujarat or as the Solanki Rajputs. The dynasty ended when Alauddin Khalji conquered Gujarat. Gujarat was … Read more

The Reddie1

? The Reddies Reddy is a caste that originated in India, predominantly settled in Andhra Pradesh and Telangana. They are classified as a forward caste.  The origin of the Reddy has been linked to the Rashtrakutas, although opinions vary. At one time they were a warrior caste and later became feudal overlords and peasant … Read more

Indian Freedom Struggle 11

? POST INDEPENDENT ERA The era after India’s independence from colonial rule starts with its partition into two halves – India and Pakistan. Lord Mountbatten became the first Governor General of free India and M.A. Jinnah that of Pakistan. The transition was violent, with blood curling massacres all over the country, ample proof to … Read more

The Sakas

? Facts related to Uttar Pradesh Shakas had set up their Kshsatraps in Mathura. The brahmi inscription s of Mora(Mathura ) is associated with Sakas. The Sakas conquered the area of Mathura over Indian kings around 60BCE. Some of their satraps were Hangamasha and Hagana, who were in turn followed by the Saka Great … Read more

KHAJURAHO TEMPLES (1)

?               KHAJURAHO  TEMPLES:-   The Khajuraho Temples:-                          This is a UNESCO World Heritage site. It was accorded this status in 1986. The temples at Khajuraho, located in the Chhatarpur district were built during the Chandela dynasty, which reached its apogee between 950 and 1050. The mediaeval trailer Ibn Battuta noted in … Read more

Indian Freedom Struggle 4

? Women in Liberation war 1. Kalpana Datta Joshi (b.1913)  Born in Chittagong, Kalpana became an active member of Chittagong Jugantar party after the famous armory raid led by Master Da. Arrested along with Master Da and Tarekeshwar Dastidar from their hiding place after a fierce battle with a police/military squad, Kalpana was transported … Read more

The Gahadavala

? Introduction. The Gahadvala or sometime spelled as Gadhwal is a Suryavanshi Kshatriya dynasty that ruled the kingdom of Kannauj for approximately a hundred years, beginning in the late eleventh century. Rajput Rathore claim being descendants of Gaharwars   Rebuilding the Kannuj Kingdom. The Kannauj kingdom was established in the tenth century by Som … Read more

Indian Freedom Struggle 1

? ORIGIN OF NATIONALISM The rise of Nationalism is reflected in the spirit of Renaissance in Europe when freedom from religious restrictions led to the enhancement of national identity. This expression of Nationalism was furthered by the French Revolution. The political changes resulted in the passing of sovereignty from the hands of an absolute … Read more

Mahatma Phule

? Mahatma Phule Jyotirao ‘Jyotiba’ Govindrao Phule was a prominent social reformer and thinker of the nineteenth century India. He led the movement against the prevailing caste-restrictions in India. He revolted against the domination of the Brahmins and struggled for the rights of peasants and other low-caste people. Mahatma Jyotiba Phule was also a … Read more

Development Of Press During The British Rule

? Development of Press, Railway, Press and Telegraph, Industries in British India   Development of Press:- The first press in India was established by the Portuguese in 1550, first book was published by Portuguese missionaries (1557). The next was established by British in 1684. James Augustus Hickey is considered as the “father of Indian … Read more

Land Revenue System Under British Rule

? Land Revenue System under British Rule Since the grant of diwani for Bengal, Bihar and Orissa in 1765, the major concern of the East India Company’s administration in India was to collect as much revenue as possible. Agriculture was the main basis of economy and the main source of income and hence, although … Read more

Indian Freedom Struggle 10

? Direct Action Day (1946) Direct Action Day hartal called by the Muslim League on August 16, 1946 to get rid of ‘British slavery and contemplated future caste-Hindu domination’. The  backdrop of the Direct Action Day was not only the Muslim League’s acceptance of the cabinet mission plan, but also the loss of face … Read more

Important Jain Sites In Uttar Pradesh

? Shri Ahichchhatra Tirth Geographic location: It is near the Ramnagar village of district Bareilly. Various Jain idols and inscriptions found during the land excavations tell us about the historical importance of this place.This place is known for ages for the event that took place while BhagwanParshwanatha attained ‘KevalGyan’ here through deep ‘Tapashcharan’.In the … Read more

Concept Of Decolonization

? Concept of Decolonization, Nationalism and Socialism, Globalization and Concept of Modernity Concept of Decolonization Decolonization refers to the undoing of colonialism, the establishment of governance or authority through the creation of settlements by another country or jurisdiction. The term generally refers to the achievement of independence by the various Western colonies and protectorates in Asia and [Africa]] … Read more

Gajapatis

? Gajapatis The Ganga dynasty was followed by the establishment of the rule of another glorious dynasty known as the Suryavamsi Gajapatis. The political chaos which had been prevailing in Odisha from the middle of the fourteenth century A.D. due to the weakness and ineffectiveness of the later Gangas was ended by the emergence … Read more

Anglo Sikh

? Anglo-Sikh War Maharaja Ranjit Singh died in 1839 after a reign of nearly forty years, leaving seven sons by different wives, none of whom was a worthy successor to the ‘Lion of the Panjab’. Two main factions, the Hindu Dogra brothers and the Sikh aristocracy, fought for control. Kharrak Singh was the first … Read more

Maha Gujarat Andolan

? Maha gujarat andolan During British rule in India, sections of the western coast of India were the part of the Bombay Presidency. In 1937, Bombay Presidency was included as a province of British India. After independence of India in 1947, the demand for linguistic states came up. On 17 June 1948, Rajendra Prasad … Read more

Mughal Empire

?                              Mughal Empire (1526 A.D.-1857 A.D.) Babur- His actual name was Zahiruddin Mohammed, son of Omar Sheikh Mirza, the king of Ferghana in Afghanistan. His ambition was to conquer Samarkand, the seat of Timur. In 1527 A.D., Babur defeated rana  sanga in the battle of Kanwa. In the battle of Chanderi (1528 A.D.), … Read more

11.Cultural Achievements Of Pallavas

? Civilization and Culture of the Pallavas The Pallava rule formed a golden epoch in the cultural history of south India. The period under the Pallavas was marked by considerable literary activities and cultural revival. The Pallavas warmly patronized Sanskrit language and most of the literary records of the time were composed in that … Read more

Sir Syed Ahmed

? Sir Syed Ahmed Sir Syed Ahmad Khan was an Indian Muslim pragmatist, philosopher, educator and Islamic reformist. He served the East India Company and became a judge at a Small Causes Court. He was a British loyalist but didn’t hesitate to criticise British policies, which he believed spurred the Indian Rebellion of 1857, … Read more

The Kanauj And Their Contribution

? The Kanauj and their Contribution Kannauj is one among the most ancient place of India having rich archeological and cultural heritage, The ancient name of this place is Kanyakubja or Mahodya (as per Balmiki Ramayana, Mahabharat and Puran) later name kanyakubja was changed as Kannauj the present name of the District.   The … Read more

Development Of Hindi And Urdu Language

?     Development of Hindi and Urdu Language   Hindi and Urdu are two Hindustani Languages; spoken mostly in the northern and Central India and in Pakistan. Hindi and Urdu are two different languages but these languages have many common things. Both Hindi and Urdu are developed in a similar phase and adopted … Read more

Hindu Dharma

? Hindu Dharma: General characteristics and some common beliefs – Purusharthas– rituals and ethics – festivals and sacred days – pilgrimage and fairs. Hinduism is one of the oldest religions in the world. It is a religion followed by several racial and ethnic groups. The Hindu sacred texts deal with the ethical behaviour of … Read more

Commissioner Rule

? The Commissioners Rule (1831-1881)         Following the annexation of Mysore to English East India Company the British began to administer the state of Mysore from 1831-1881 by creating a new office called the office of commissioners. Initially the office had two commissioners-colonels Briggs as the senior commissioner and Lushington as … Read more

4.The Licchavi And Their Republican Constitution

? The History of Licchavis The Lichchhavis (also Lichchavi, Licchavi) were an important member of the Vajjian confederacy. The early Indian traditions describe the Lichchhavis as Kshatriyas. Scholars reject the theory of foreign origin of the Lichchhavis on the strength of these traditions. But they were degraded to the status of fallen … Read more

Struggle For Emancipation Of Dalits And Their Empowerment

? Struggle for emancipation of Dalits and their empowerment Dalit empowerment Dalit empowerment may be defined as a process of gaining control by Dalits as a community over self, ideology, material and knowledge resources, which determine power relationship in a society. As a political process, Dalit empowerment challenges the prevailing power structure of subordination … Read more

The Mughals 3

?   Akbar the Great   ? In 1542, Akbar, the greatest of the Mughal rulers, was born at Amarkot.   ? When Humayun fled to Iran, Kamran (brother of Humayun) captured young Akbar. Kamran treated the child well; however, Akbar was re-united with his parents after the capture of Qandhar.   ? When … Read more

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