The Qutb Shahi Dynasty (1)

?     Andhra Pradesh- Contribution of Qutubshahis to Telugu language and Literature- Art-Architecture-Monuments:-   The Qutb Shahi dynasty held sway over the Andhra country for about two hundred years from the early part of the 16th century to the end of the 17th century. Sultan Quli Qutb Shah, the founder of the dynasty, … Read more

Lord Cornwallis

? Lord Cornwallis (1786 – 1793) Introduction Lord Cornwallis, a warrior-statesman. He succeeded Warren Hastings as Governor-General in 1786. He belonged to an influential and aristocratic family which had wider political connections. He was also a close friend of Prime Minister Pitt. Dundas, the most influential member of the Board of Control … Read more

Literary And Scholarly Studies During British Indi1

? Literary and Scholarly studies during british India Bengali Literature Before the impact of the West, the Bengali literature had two distinct sources—that of the learned and the well-to-do, and of the common people. The aristocratic type of literature, that is the former type, was patronised by the Courts, the Chiefs, the landlords. The … Read more

Christian Doctrine And Theology (1)

? Christian doctrine and theology Christian doctrine There are many important differences of interpretation and opinion of the Bible and sacred tradition on which Christianity is based. Because of these irreconcilable differences in theology and a lack of consensus on the core tenets of Christianity, Catholics, Protestants and Orthodox often deny that members of … Read more

Indian Freedom Struggle 8

? SECOND WORLD WAR AND INDIAN NATIONALISTS  In September 1939, the Second World War broke out. Indian opinion was not sought but the British government dragged India in the war as a party. Britain which claimed to be fighting for freedom had destroyed the freedom of the Indian people and had dragged India into … Read more

Vakataks

? Vakataks Vakataka dynasty, Indian ruling house originating in the central Deccan in the mid-3rd century CE, the empire of which is believed to have extended from Malwa and Gujarat in the north to the Tungabhadra in the south and from the Arabian Sea in the west to the Bay of Bengal in the … Read more

Mahayan

? Rise of Mahayana and Development of Art (Gandhara, Mathura and other Schools)     Mahayana Buddhism is sometimes called Northern Buddhism. It is mainly followed by monks and nuns, and is largely found throughout China, Japan, Korea, Mongolia, Nepal, Russia, Tibet, and Vietnam.   The reign of Kanishka is known for the rise of … Read more

The Chandelas

? Facts related to Uttar Pradesh Yashovarman, also known as Lakshavarman, was a king of the Chandela dynasty of India. He ruled in the Jejakabhukti region (Bundelkhand in present-day Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh). The Khajuraho inscription also states that Yashovarman turned the rivers Ganga and Yamuna into his “pleasure-lakes”, and that the waters of these rivers became muddy when his might elephants bathed … Read more

Indian Freedom Struggle 7

? Subhas Chandra Bose  Subhas Chandra Bose was most dynamic leader of India`s struggle for independence. He is more familiar with his name Netaji. His contribution towards India`s Freedom struggle was of a revolutionary. Subhas Chandra Bose was born on 23rd Jan, 1897 in Cuttack, Orissa, India. From his childhood he was a bright … Read more

Hindutva And Patriotism

? Hindutva and Patriotism Hindutva Literally ‘Hindutva’ means a way of life or a state of mind that is based on the cultural and spiritual ethos based on the spiritual systems that evolved from India. Hindutva is a philosophy like Communism or Socialism. The difference is that, whereas communism and socialism are materialistic philosophies … Read more

Religious Sects

? Religious sects: Shankaracharya, Ramanujacharya, Madhwacharya – Sri Basaveshvara, Veerashaivism and Vachana movement  The revival and expansion of Hinduism after the Gupta period took many forms. The chief gods were the Shiva and Vishnu and many magnificent temples were built to proclaim their supremacy. The rise of the worship of Shiva and Vishnu marked … Read more

Pre Historic Period Races And Culture

? Prehistoric period :- Races and culture The distant past when there was no paper or language or the written word, and hence no books or written document, is called as the Prehistoric period. It was difficult to understand how Prehistoric people lived until scholars began excavations in Prehistoric sites.Piecing together of information deduced … Read more

Backward Class Movement

? Backward Class movement Some of the most important backward class movement in India are as follows:   Satya Shodhak Samaj Shri Narayana Dharma Paripalana Yogam Movement Justice Party The Self-respect Movement. Satya Shodhak Samaj In Western India, Jyotirao Govindrao Phule struggled for the upliftment of lower castes through his Satya Shodhak Samaj. Belonging … Read more

Mesolithic Period Food Producers

? Mesolithic Period- Food producers The period of the earth’s history called the Stone Age was filled with remarkable achievements, made by early humans who roamed the globe following large animals around for food and for clothing. These early nomadic humans called hunter-gatherers needed tools and weapons that would be strong enough to take … Read more

The Kushana Dynasty

? Facts related to Uttar Pradesh Under the rule of Kanishka, the Kushana empire reached its maximum territorial limits. This empire extended from the Central Asia to the northern India, while including Varanasi, Kaushambi and Sravasti in Uttar Pradesh region. The Kushanas patronized the Gandhara and the Mathura schools of sculptural art which are … Read more

The Gupta Dynasty

? Facts related to Uttar Pradesh There is controversy among scholars about the original homeland of the Guptas. Jayaswal has pointed out that the Guptas were originally inhabitants of Prayaga (Allahabad), Uttar Pradesh, in north India, as the vassal of the Nagas or Bhaarshivas. Thereafter they rose in prominence. Early Gupta coins and inscriptions have been mainly found in Uttar … Read more

Liberation War Of Bangladesh

? Liberation War of Bangladesh The Liberation War of Bangladesh in 1971 was the culmination of a 25-year tumultuous relationship between East and West Pakistan. The British failed to keep a united India as riots started between the Hindus, Sikhs and Muslims in 1946. The riots were so widespread that on August 14, 1947 … Read more

Rise Of Maratha Power

? Rise of Maratha Empire Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj (Shivaji Shahaji Bhosale) was the founder of strong Maratha Empire in the west part of India in 17th Century. Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj (Shivaji Shahaji Bhosale) was born in the fort of Shivneri, near from city Junner (Pune District), in the year 1630 (19th February’ 1630). His … Read more

Kingdom Of Vijaynagar

?                                                     Kingdom of Vijaynagar The kingdom of Vijaynagar founded by two brothers, Harihar and Bukka, on the south bank of the River Tungabhadra in 1336 AD. According to the legends, they had been the feudatories of the Kakatiyas of Warangal. Later they became ministers in the kingdom of Kampili. After the destruction of … Read more

Adi Andhra And Non Brahmins Movements

? Adi-Andhra The Adi Andhra are a Scheduled caste of people living in south India. A Scheduled caste means that they are disadvantaged and victims of past discrimination. The Indian government provides guaranteed places in education and public jobs for them. As of 2001 only about 60% of the Adi Andhra could read and … Read more

Urban Indian Economy After 1858 (1)

? Urban Indian economy after 1858 During this period, the Indian economy essentially remained stagnant, growing at the same rate (1.2%) as the population.  India also experienced deindustrialization during this period. Compared to the Mughal era, India during the British colonial era had a lower per-capita income, a large decline in the secondary sector, … Read more

Depressed Class Missions, Non Brahmanical Movements And Justice Party

? Depressed Classes Mission, Non-Brahmin movement and Justice Party   One, of the earliest lower caste movements, which became the torch bearer for the future caste movements, was founded in Maharashtra in the 1870s by Jyotibha Phule, who with his books Gulamgiri (1872) and Sarvajanik Satyadharma Pustak and his organisation Satya Shodhak Samaj, proclaimed … Read more

Ikshvakus And Their Cultural Contribution

? Ikshvakus and their cultural contribution The Ikshvaku dynasty (c. 225-340 A.D) was a feudatory tribe under the patronage of the great Satavahana Empire that ruled the Andhra region, delta of the Krishna and Godavari rivers on the east coast, situating their capital at Dharanikota (present day Amravati). Their downfall around the 3 rd … Read more

Tribal Problems

? Tribal Problems: Isolation Migration and Acculturation Various Problems of Tribal Communities in India As per the dictionary, problem means a question to be considered, solved, or answered in a particular way, difficult to deal or control. Social problems are those social conditions identified by scientific inquiry and values as detrimental to human well-being.” … Read more

Philosophy Thinkers

?     Saint Anselm Ontological argument for the existence of God   Ontological arguments are arguments, for the conclusion that God exists, from premises which are supposed to derive from some source other than observation of the world—e.g., from reason alone. In other words, ontological arguments are arguments from what are typically alleged … Read more

Battle Of Plassey

? Battle of Plassey TheBattle of Plassey was a battle that took place on June 23, 1757, on the banks of the Bhagirathi River, about 150 km north of Calcutta. It is near Murshidabad, then the capital of the Nawab of Bengal in India. Pâl?shir, an extravagant red flowering tree known as “Flame of … Read more

Vinayak Damodar Savarkar

? Vinayak Damodar Savarkar Vinayak Damodar Savarkar,Bombay, Hindu and Indian nationalist and leading figure in the Hindu Mahasabha (“Great Society of Hindus”), a Hindu nationalist organization and political party. While a student of law in London (1906–10), Savarkar helped to instruct a group of Indian revolutionaries in methods of sabotage and assassination that associates … Read more

Socio Religious Brahmo Samaj, Arya Samaj, Theosophical Society

? Socio-religious reform movements in the 19th century: Brahmo Samaj, Arya Samaj, Theosophical Society India has a long history of socio-religious reform movements. However, the present work focuses on the social reform movements of Nineteenth century only. The reforms by definition entail change or replacement of the institutions, which have become functionally irrelevant(totally or … Read more

Anglo Maratha

? Anglo-Maratha Wars The first, second, and third Anglo-Maratha wars were fought between the army of the British East India Company, which after 1757 was de facto ruler of Bengal and of other provinces in North East India, and the Maratha Empire, or confederacy, in the south of India. The Moghul Empire was already … Read more

Comparative Study Of Indian And Western Philosophy

? Comparative Study of Indian and Western Philosophy Philosophy is the root of all knowledge. It is considered as mother of all sciences. Philosophy has interpreted man and his various activities in a comprehensive manner. It helps to coordinate the various activities of the individuals and the society. It helps us to understand the … Read more

The Huna Invasion

? Facts related to Uttar Pradesh   In the beginning of the sixth century A.D. when the Gupta empire was disintegrating, they repeated their invasion under their ruler Toramana. Though there is no conclusive evidence that Toramana was a Huna yet, mostly he had been accepted so. This time the Hunas succeeded and occupied … Read more

Vijaynagar

?  Vijayanagara empire and their contribution to art, literature and culture –  socio-economic conditions, administration, fall of Vijayanagar empire                                 Vijayanagara empire The Vijayanagara Empire, an important South Indian empire was founded by Harihara Raya I and his brother Bukka Raya I. The capital of the empire was Vijayanagara, present days Hampi in … Read more

World Heritage Sites In India

? world heritage sites in india Mahabodhi Temple The Mahabodhi Temple, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is an ancient, but much rebuilt and restored, Buddhist temple in Bodh Gaya, marking the location where the Buddha is said to have attained enlightenment. Bodh Gaya (in Gaya district) is about 96 km (60 mi) from Patna, … Read more

Maratha Empire

? Rise of Maratha Empire Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj (Shivaji Shahaji Bhosale) was the founder of strong Maratha Empire in the west part of India in 17th Century. Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj (Shivaji Shahaji Bhosale) was born in the fort of Shivneri, near from city Junner (Pune District), in the year 1630 (19th February’ 1630). His … Read more

Pallavas

? Pallavas The Pahlavas are a people mentioned in ancient Indian texts like the Manu Smriti, various Puranas, the Ramayana, the Mahabharata, and the Brhatsamhita. In some texts the Pahlavas are also mentioned as “Pallavas”: While the Vayu Purana distinguishes between Pahlava and Pahnava, the Vamana Purana and Matsya Purana refer to both as … Read more

Yoga Philosophy

? Yoga Philosophy (Yog Darshan), Astang Yoga Yoga An AYUSH system of medicine includes Indian systems of medicine and Homeopathy. AYUSH is an acronym for Ayurveda, Yoga & Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha & Sowa Rigpa, and Homoeopathy. Yoga is essentially spiritual and it is an art and science of healthy living which focuses on bringing … Read more

3.Antiquity And Stratification Of Vedic Literature

? Although the Rig Veda deals with devotional work of religious nature, yet it gives a vivid picture of the early Vedic civilization. The Vedic Civilization is best understood from the social life, political organisation, economic life and religious beliefs. The Kula or family was the basic unit of Rig-Vedic society. The Kula was … Read more

Rashtrakutas (1)

? Rashtrakutas The Rashtrakutas called themselves descendants of one named Satyaki. But there is difference of opinion about their origin among the historians. According to some they were originally of Dravidian peasant extraction. From some of the inscriptions of the Chalukya kings it is known that the Rashtrakutas were feudatories of the Chalukyas. Perhaps … Read more

Dr Ambedkar

? Dr. Ambedkar and constitution Due to his seminal role in the framing of the Indian Constitution, Dr Bhimrao Ambedkar is popularly known all over India as the chief architect of the Indian Constitution. His efforts to eradicate social evils were remarkable and that is why he is called the “messiah” of the Dalits … Read more

Persian

? Persian and Greek invasion: Persian invasion; Alexander, the Great and his legacy.       India has a varied culture and traditions, many of them have been influenced by the foreign culture. India being a prosperous and rich country with great civilisation, it attracted the empires from long and many civilisations like Persian … Read more

The Age Of Buddha Important Cites In Uttar Pradesh

? Sarnath About 10 km. from the holy city of Varanasi, Sarnath is the place where more than 2,500 years ago Buddha delivered his first sermon after attaining enlightenment. An imposing conical structure, 34 meters in height, called Dhamek stupa signifies the “seat of the holy Buddha.” There are also the ruins of Dharmarajika … Read more

Indian Freedom Struggle 3

? REVOLUTIONARY TERRORISTS  BHAGAT SINGH The name Bhagat Singh has become a synonym of revolution. He was one of the great revolutionaries who made supreme sacrifice for the nation. Thousands of young people sacrificed their lives in the altar of India’s liberation struggle but the name Bhagat Singh has a special place in the … Read more

Pahlava Dynasty

? Pahlava dynasty The breakdown of the Mauryan Empire led to the rise of many regional kingdoms in different parts of the country. At the same time, we witness invasions by various groups of people based in Central Asia and western China. These were Indo-Greeks, the Scythians or the ?akas, the Parthians or the … Read more

Shungas

? Shungas The Sunga Empire (or Shunga Empire) is a Magadha dynasty that controlled North-central and Eastern India as well as parts of the northwest (now Pakistan) from around 185 to 73 B.C.E. It was established after the fall of the Indian Mauryan empire. The capital of the Sungas was Pataliputra. Later kings such … Read more

INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION AND THE EMERGENCE OF CAPITALISM

? INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION AND THE EMERGENCE OF CAPITALISM   The Industrial Revolution refers to the greatly increased output of machine-made goods that began in England during the 18th century. Before the Industrial Revolution, people wove textiles by hand. Beginning in the middle 1700s, machines did this and other jobs as well. The Industrial Revolution … Read more

Prehistoric Period

? Prehistoric period :- Races and culture The distant past when there was no paper or language or the written word, and hence no books or written document, is called as the Prehistoric period. It was difficult to understand how Prehistoric people lived until scholars began excavations in Prehistoric sites.Piecing together of information deduced … Read more

The Vedas For All

? The Vedas for all – The Casteless society The Sanatana Dharma during Vedic era had never endorsed caste system. Thus restoration of true Sanatana Dharma alone would create a casteless society in India. The caste is always a British invention which enumerated based on occupation. But true definition of ‘Jaati’ as per Veda … Read more

Not Found Comparative Study Of Indian And Western Philosophy

? Comparative Study of Indian and Western Philosophy Philosophy is the root of all knowledge. It is considered as mother of all sciences. Philosophy has interpreted man and his various activities in a comprehensive manner. It helps to coordinate the various activities of the individuals and the society. It helps us to understand the … Read more

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