Rural Development Initiatives

? Rural development initiatives :Karnataka Urban Ashraya/Vajpayee Urban Housing Scheme This is State Sponsored scheme implemented for urban poor and it was introduced by the Government in the year 1991-92. The annual income of the beneficiary is Rs.32,000/-. The beneficiaries are selected by the Ashraya Committee comprising both official and non official members appointed … Read more

Child Labour

? Child labour The term “child labour” is often defined as work that deprives children of their childhood, their potential and their dignity, and that is harmful to physical and mental development. It refers to work that: is mentally, physically, socially or morally dangerous and harmful to children; and interferes with their schooling by: … Read more

Pricing Of Public Utilities And Government Policy

? Pricing of public utilities and government policy Priority to public There are a number of principles which govern the pricing of public utility services. There are public utilities like education, sewage, roads, etc. which may be supplied free to the public and their costs should be covered through general taxation. Dalton calls it … Read more

Open University

? Open University The Open University (OU) is a public distance learning and research university, and the biggest university in the UK for undergraduate education. The majority of the OU’s undergraduate students are based in the United Kingdom and principally study off-campus; many of its courses (both undergraduate and postgraduate) can also be studied … Read more

Vocational Education

? Vocational Education: As a tool of HR development Human resource development, in short, means invest­ment in human capital. Human capital means people can act as capital assets which yield a stream of economic benefits over their working life.  An improvement in the mental capability, skill, and physical capacity of the people constitutes an … Read more

Green GDP

? Green GDP Green Gross Domestic Product also known as Green GDP, accounts for the environmental consequences of a country’s traditional GDP. It acts as an index of the growth of economy with the environmental implications of that growth which is related to a country’s conventional GDP. Green GDP tells us the biodiversity that … Read more

Population Growth And Economic Development

? Population growth and economic development The effect of population growth on a society’s per capita output level depends on the pattern of population growth as also its institutional (organ­isational) framework. In other words, it depends on the age composition of the population. The pattern of spending reflects the age distribution. An ageing population—one … Read more

Coperative Society

? Co-operative movement in India and M.P The cooperative movement in India has its origin in agriculture and allied sectors. The first Cooperative Credit Societies Act was enacted in 1904.Subsequently a more comprehensive legislation called the Cooperative Societies Act was enacted. This Act provided for the creation of the post of registrar of cooperative … Read more

Problems Of Agricultural Labour

? Problems of Agricultural Labour Agricultural labourers who are mostly landless and form a significant section of rural society mainly depend on wage employment in agriculture. Majority of them belong to scheduled castes and scheduled tribes and among the worst exploited section of society.  Unlike the industrial worker who are well organised agricultural labourers … Read more

Government Market Borrowings

? Government market borrowings, loans and grants There are two types of borrowings : Internal borrowings External borrowings There is third mean of public loan i.e. other liabilities Internal borrowings Internal debt or domestic debt is the part of the total government debt in a country that is owed to lenders within the country. … Read more

Land Reforms

? Land reforms Land reform is a broad term. It refers to an institutional measure directed towards altering the existing pattern of ownership, tenancy and management of land. It entails “a redistribution of the rights of ownership and/or use of land away from large landowners and in favour of cultivators with very limited or … Read more

Emergence Of India As Educational Force

? Emergence of India as Educational Force The Indian higher education system has undergone rapid expansion. In less than 20 years, the country has created additional capacity for a mammoth 40 million students. While the scale of this expansion is remarkable in itself, what sets it apart from earlier decades of equally aggressive expansion … Read more

Institutions Of Developmental Finance

? Institutions of developmental finance A Development Financial institution (DFI) is defined as “an institution endorsed or supported by Government of india primarily to provide development/Project finance to one or more sectors or sub-sectors of the economy. the institution differentiates itself by a thoughtful balance between commercial norms of operation, as adopted by any … Read more

Educational Development Of Minorities

? Educational Development of Minorities Overview “Education is the single most important instrument for social and economic transformation. A well educated population, adequately equipped with knowledge and skill is not only essential to support economic growth, but is also a precondition for growth to be inclusive since it is the … Read more

National Income

? National Income     The study of National Income is important because of the following reasons: To see the economic development of the country. To assess the developmental objectives. To know the contribution of the various sectors to National Income. Internationally some countries are wealthy, some countries are not wealthy and … Read more

International Credit Ratings

? International Credit Ratings A credit rating is an evaluation of the credit risk of a prospective debtor (an individual, a business, company or a government), predicting their ability to pay back the debt, and an implicit forecast of the likelihood of the debtor defaulting. The credit rating represents an evaluation of a credit … Read more

Food Security Scheme

? After the rural job guarantee programme, the government is now focusing on an ambitious National Food Security Act aimed at drawing more people into the food security net. It has made a strong pitch for providing 35 kg of cereal at Rs 3 per kg every month to the poor of this country. … Read more

Repo And Reverse Repo Transactions

? Repo and reverse repo transactions The repurchase agreement (repo or RP) and the reverse repo agreement (RRP) are key tools used by many large financial institutions, banks, and some businesses. These short-term agreements provide temporary lending opportunities that help to fund ongoing operations. The Federal Reserve also uses the repo and reverse repo … Read more

Manufacturing Policy Of India

? Manufacturing policy of India The Government of India has announced a National Manufacturing Policy with the objective of enhancing the share of manufacturing in GDP to 25% within a decade and creating 100 million jobs. The National Investment & Manufacturing Zones (NIMZs) are an important instrumentality of the manufacturing policy. The NIMZs are … Read more

PPP In Health Care

? PUBLIC/PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP IN HEALTH CARE SERVICES IN INDIA       It is widely accepted that the deficiencies in public sector health system can only be overcome by significant reforms. The need for reforms in India’s health sector has been emphasized by successive plan documents since the Eighth Five-Year Plan in 1992, by … Read more

FRBM Act

? Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act The FRBM Act 2003 in its amended form was passed by the government to bring fiscal discipline and to implement a prudent fiscal policy. High fiscal deficit was the one major macroeconomic problem faced by Indian economy around 2000. It was argued that high deficits lead to … Read more

Export Potential Of Small Scale And Cottage Industries

? Export Potential of Small scale and cottage industries With the establishment of a large number of modem small-scale industries in the post-independence period, the contribution of the small-scale sector in export earnings has increased by leaps and bounds. What is heartening to observe is that the bulk of the exports of the small-scale … Read more

Highlights Of Current Year

? Highlights of current year’s union budget and its analysis Highlights of the budget,2019 Income up to Rs 5 lakh exempted from income tax Standard deduction raised to Rs 50,000 from Rs 40,000 Direct tax proposals to provide Rs 23,000 cr relief to 3 crore taxpayers Persons with gross income up to Rs 6.50 … Read more

Growth

? Growth, Development & Planning with special reference to Rajasthan Historically, Rajasthan has been placed fairly low in terms of human development. In terms of human development index, it stood 28th among 32 states and union territories in 1981, with only Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar among the larger states behind; the rank … Read more

Vocational And Technical Education In India

? vocational and technical education in india Technical and Vocational Education plays a vital role in human resource development of the country by creating skilled manpower, enhancing industrial productivity and improving the quality of life. The term Technical Education and Vocational Training are sometimes used synonymously. However, as per present practice, the term TE … Read more

Cottage And Village Industries In India

? Cottage and Village industries in India problems and prospects Cottage Industry is a form of small scale industry where the productivity of the good£ takes place in the houses of the workers, and the workforce include the members of the family. The equipment’s used to generate products are not the hi-tech ones but … Read more

Availability Of Skilled Human Resources In India

? Availability of Skilled Human Resources in India Skilling the youth is the new buzzword in the government, and all the experts agree that it clearly needs a more skilled approach to implement what has been drawn up in a policy paper. It was roughly a year ago the government rejigged the UPA’s Skill … Read more

Reforms And Prospects Of Cooperative Movement In Maharashtra

? Reforms and prospects of cooperative movement in Maharashtra India is a union of States. Co-operation is a State subject, i.e. falling within the scope of State legislation. Each State has its Co-operative Societies’ Act, as Maharashtra State Co-operative Societies Act, 1961, regulating the working of the co-operative movement in Maharashtra. Co-operative credit structure … Read more

Employment Trend

? JOB CREATION   As outlined in the NITI Aayog’s Action Agenda, India suffers more from the problem of underemployment (i.e. low-productivity, low-wage jobs) than unemployment as for example: In 2011-12, agriculture engaged nearly 50% of the workforce but contributed 15% to GDP In 2010-11, within manufacturing, small firms employed 72% but output was … Read more

Urbanisation

? Introduction Urban areas have been recognized as “engines of inclusive economic growth”. Of the 121 crore Indians, 83.3 crore live in rural areas while 37.7 crore stay in urban areas, i.e approx 32 % of the population. The census of India, 2011 defines urban settlement as :- All the places which have municipality, corporation, … Read more

Development Process Various Groups And Associations

? Development Process various groups and associations,donors, charities, institutional and other stakeholders Voluntary sector in development Voluntary Organizations play a vital role in the shaping and implementation of participatory democracy. Their credibility lies in the responsible and constructive role they play in society. They have been contributing immensely for quite sometime towards various development … Read more

Sectoral Composition With Respect To Contribution To Gross Domestic Product

? Sectoral Composition with respect to contribution to Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and Employment Historically, India has classified and tracked its economy and GDP in three sectors: agriculture, industry and services. Agriculture includes crops, horticulture, milk and animal husbandry, aquaculture, fishing, sericulture, aviculture, forestry and related activities. Industry includes various manufacturing sub-sectors. India’s definition … Read more

Natural Resources

? Natural resources, their sustainable management and conservation A natural resource is something that is found in nature and can be used by people. Earth’s natural resources include light, air, water, plants, animals, soil, stone, minerals, and fossil fuels. People need some natural resources to stay alive. They use others to make their lives … Read more

Sugar Industry Of India

? Sugar Industry of India India is the world’s largest producer of sugarcane and second largest producer of sugar after Cuba. But India becomes the largest producer if gur and khandsari are also included. Historical background India has a long tradition of manufacturing sugar. References of sugar making by the Indians are found even … Read more

Structural Changes In The Indian Economy

? Structural changes in the Indian Economy Change in composition of domestic product or change in national income by industry of origin refers to change in relative significance (share) of different sectors of the economy. Generally, an economy is divided into three major sectors viz. primary, secondary and tertiary sectors. Primary sector includes agricultural … Read more

Automobile Industries Of India

? Automobile Industries of India The Indian auto industry became the 4th largest in the world with sales increasing 9.5 per cent year-on-year to 4.02 million units (excluding two wheelers) in 2017. It was the 7th largest manufacturer of commercial vehicles in 2017. The Two Wheelers segment dominates the market in terms of volume owing … Read more

Minerals Based Industries

?   Iron and Steel Industry:   Pig Iron Pig iron is the intermediate product of smelting of iron ore with a high-carbon fuel such as coke and charcoal and is the basic raw material in Foundry and Casting Industry for the manufacture of various types of castings required for … Read more

Food And Human Health

? Food and Human Health : General Awareness of Balanced and Unbalanced Food Food has been a basic part of our existence. By knowing the food composition , the nutritional content of food is known. Intake of food ensures growth in children and youth, maintains good health throughout life, meets special needs of pregnancy … Read more

Issues Related To Deprived Class Education

? Issues related to Deprived Class Education The concept of Deprived/ Marginalized Groups   is generally used to analyse socioeconomic, political, and cultural spheres, where disadvantaged people struggle to gain access to resources and full participation in social life. In other words, marginalized people might be socially, economically, politically and legally ignored, excluded, or neglected, … Read more

Enterpreneur And Commercial

? Division of Public Sector Enterprises (PSEs)   The division of the PSEs of the existing state of Andhra Pradesh will be done according to the location of production facilities  With the exception of a few PSEs, the headquarters of most of them are located in Hyderabad. However, it is the location of the … Read more

Role Of Finance Ministry In Monetary And Fiscal Policy

? Role of Finance Ministry in Monetary and Fiscal Policy Fiscal role of ministry of finance The Ministry of Finance plays a very crucial role in development planning in India. It supervise the financial institution and is responsible for the overall financial management of the country. The Ministry of Finance is responsible for the … Read more

Indian Institute Of Management

? Indian Institute of Management The Indian Institutes of Management (IIMs) are a group of 20 public, autonomous institutes of management education and research in India. They primarily offer postgraduate, doctoral and executive education programmes. The establishment of IIMs was initiated by Jawaharlal Nehru, the first Prime Minister of India, based on the recommendation … Read more

AGRICULTURE DEVELOPMENT

? ORIGIN The Department of Agriculture has been created mainly to provide Agricultural Extension services to farmers and to transfer the latest technical knowledge to the farming community, introduction of high yielding varieties, laying demonstrations, imparting training to farmers to improve skills & knowledge to boost up the agricultural Production and productivity. The other … Read more

Banking

? Commercial mathematics Banking Banking can be defined literarily as the business activity of accepting and safeguarding money owned by individuals and entities and release of the money whenever the needs arise by the owner. It is the business of managing money and where money is involved everything must be carefully assessed, valued and … Read more

Regional Imbalances And Income Inequalitiies In India

? Regional imbalances and income inequalitiies in India: Steps taken by the Government to reduce it. Regional imbalance is the disparity in economic and social development of two regions. One region/city/area is stronger than another region/city/area. Regions develop when investments are made to set up industries, service sectors, educational institutions, health care facilities etc. Income inequality is the unequal … Read more

Issues Related To Disabled People Education

? Issues related to Disabled People Education People with disabilities have had to battle against centuries of biased assumptions, harmful stereotypes, and irrational fears. The stigmatization of disability resulted in the social and economic marginalization of generations with disabilities, and thus has left people with disabilities in a severe state of impoverishment for centuries. … Read more

Decentralization Bottom Up And Up Botom

? Decentralization:Top down planning and bottom up planning Decentralised planning is a kind of percolation of planning activities or process from the Centre to the sub- state levels, i.e., district, sub-division, block and village level. Since the inception of First Plan, the importance of decentralised planning was emphasised in order to achieve active people’s … Read more

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