ETHICS…General Studies- Paper 4 (Coaching Class Notes in Hindi)….????? ??? ??????? ?????? ???????- ????? ???? ??????? (?????) ?? ????

?? ??????? ?? ????? ???? ??????? (?????) ?? ??? ????? ??? ??????? ?????? ?? ????? ??? ??? ??? ???
???????? ?????? ?? ?? ????? ?? ??? ??? ??????? ?????? ?? ??? ????? ????????,???????? ?? ??? ???????? ?????? ??????? ?? ????? ???? ?? ??? ???? ??????? ??? ?
?????? ???? ?????????? ????? ????? ?? ??? ?????? ?? ??? ??????? ???? ???? ?? ??? ???? ??????? ? ??? ???? ?? ????? ??? ???? ???? ??????? ????? ???? ??, ??? ??????? ??? ?? 2014 ??? ?? ???? ???? ????? ???? ???? ???? ????? ?? ????? ????? ??????? ???? ?? ????? ?????? ,????? ???? ??? ??? ?? ???? ?? ? ???? ??? ??????? ?????? ?? ??? ????? ???? ???? ?? ??? ????

Read moreETHICS…General Studies- Paper 4 (Coaching Class Notes in Hindi)….????? ??? ??????? ?????? ???????- ????? ???? ??????? (?????) ?? ????

28 September -daily current affairs -The Hindu and Indian Express

Digital India Multinational companies such as Google apple Microsoft Qualcomm will play a major role in the digital India and will reduce the digital divide in the country. Google will set up WiFi stations and will push for typing in 10 different indic language including Gujarati Apple will push forward in setting up manufacturing base … Read more

General Studies- Paper 3 (Coaching Class Notes in Hindi)….????? ??? ??????? ?????? ???????- ????? ???? ??????? (?????) ?? ????

?? ??????? ?? ????? ???? ??????? (?????) ?? ??? ????? ??? ??????? ?????? ?? ????? ??? ??? ??? ???
???????? ?????? ?? ?? ????? ?? ??? ??? ??????? ?????? ?? ??? ????? ????????,???????? ?? ??? ???????? ?????? ??????? ?? ????? ???? ?? ??? ???? ??????? ??? ?
?????? ???? ?????????? ????? ????? ?? ??? ?????? ?? ??? ??????? ???? ???? ?? ??? ???? ??????? ? ??? ???? ?? ????? ??? ???? ???? ??????? ????? ???? ??, ??? ??????? ??? ?? 2014 ??? ?? ???? ???? ????? ???? ???? ???? ????? ?? ????? ????? ??????? ???? ?? ????? ?????? ,????? ???? ??? ??? ?? ???? ?? ? ???? ??? ??????? ?????? ?? ??? ????? ???? ???? ?? ??? ????

Read moreGeneral Studies- Paper 3 (Coaching Class Notes in Hindi)….????? ??? ??????? ?????? ???????- ????? ???? ??????? (?????) ?? ????

General Studies- Paper 3 (Coaching Class Notes in Hindi)….????? ??? ??????? ?????? ???????- ????? ???? ??????? (?????) ?? ????

?? ??????? ?? ????? ???? ??????? (?????) ?? ??? ????? ??? ??????? ?????? ?? ????? ??? ??? ??? ???
???????? ?????? ?? ?? ????? ?? ??? ??? ??????? ?????? ?? ??? ????? ????????,???????? ?? ??? ???????? ?????? ??????? ?? ????? ???? ?? ??? ???? ??????? ??? ?
?????? ???? ?????????? ????? ????? ?? ??? ?????? ?? ??? ??????? ???? ???? ?? ??? ???? ??????? ? ??? ???? ?? ????? ??? ???? ???? ??????? ????? ???? ??, ??? ??????? ??? ?? 2014 ??? ?? ???? ???? ????? ???? ???? ???? ????? ?? ????? ????? ??????? ???? ?? ????? ?????? ,????? ???? ??? ??? ?? ???? ?? ? ???? ??? ??????? ?????? ?? ??? ????? ???? ???? ?? ??? ????

Read moreGeneral Studies- Paper 3 (Coaching Class Notes in Hindi)….????? ??? ??????? ?????? ???????- ????? ???? ??????? (?????) ?? ????

General Studies- Paper 2 (Coaching Class Notes in Hindi)….????? ??? ??????? ?????? ???????- ????? ???? ??????? (?????) ?? ????

?? ??????? ?? ????? ???? ??????? (?????) ?? ??? ????? ??? ??????? ?????? ?? ????? ??? ??? ??? ???
???????? ?????? ?? ?? ????? ?? ??? ??? ??????? ?????? ?? ??? ????? ????????,???????? ?? ??? ???????? ?????? ??????? ?? ????? ???? ?? ??? ???? ??????? ??? ?
?????? ???? ?????????? ????? ????? ?? ??? ?????? ?? ??? ??????? ???? ???? ?? ??? ???? ??????? ? ??? ???? ?? ????? ??? ???? ???? ??????? ????? ???? ??, ??? ??????? ??? ?? 2014 ??? ?? ???? ???? ????? ???? ???? ???? ????? ?? ????? ????? ??????? ???? ?? ????? ?????? ,????? ???? ??? ??? ?? ???? ?? ? ???? ??? ??????? ?????? ?? ??? ????? ???? ???? ?? ??? ????

Read moreGeneral Studies- Paper 2 (Coaching Class Notes in Hindi)….????? ??? ??????? ?????? ???????- ????? ???? ??????? (?????) ?? ????

General Studies- Paper 1 (Coaching Class Notes in Hindi)

As I was a student of English medium, It was very difficult for me to identify good quality, free and non copyrighted study material for general studies. A very thanks to Facebook group admin Rajesh kumar for sharing the material with such generosity. I know the writting is not soo good , i would definately try to get my friends notes scanned who secured a decent rank in 2014 . It may take some time till then please   I am sharing the following links for various subjects such as:-

GEOGRAPHY TOPICS

Geography handwritten notes- ????? ????????? ?????

topic covered are:-

1-World physical geography-

  • Geo morphology(in both 1st and 2nd part)
  • Climatology(In second part)
  • Oceanography (in second part)

2-Agriculture-

Read moreGeneral Studies- Paper 1 (Coaching Class Notes in Hindi)

25 September- Current Affairs- The Hindu and Indian Express

National government planning to wind up JNNURM AMRUT -Atal Mission for Rejuvenation And Urban Transformation Union Ministry of mines Is planning to use Remote Sensing data for controlling illegal mines Earth observation satellites are already used to estimate the kind of mineral and the extent of the present in an area this information is used … Read more

24 September- current affairs- the hindu and Indian express

Skill India Mission National Sample Survey report 2011 -12  on education and vocational training stated that person in the age group of 15 years to 59 years have  2.2 % formal vocational training and 8.6 %  informal vocational training (which merely comprised the passing down of hereditary skills or on the job training) Rural males- … Read more

Harappan art 2500 1800 BC

  • Also known as the bronze age
  • Architecture refers to designing of and construction of buildings where are the sculpture is a three-dimensional work of art
  • In architecture ,various types of materials are used that is a stone , wood, glass, metal  etc .where as sculpture is made of single piece of material.
  • Architecture involves study of engineering And Engineering Mathematics and depends upon measurements, where as sculpture involves creativity and imagination , may not depend on measurements.

I-SEALS

  • Are a square or rectangular or circular or triangular piece of material mainly stone with an average size of 2”x2” .dominantly square seals were found on them ,we find pictographic scripts along with animal Impressions which are yet to be deciphered.
  • Seals are made up of steatite (a river soft stone ) . Evidences of Copper Gold and Ivory seals has also been found in some instances
  • 5 signs or symbols on an average are present on a seal
  • Direction of writing is right to left
  • Seals are decorated with animal motif such as Unicorn bull , rhinoceros ,tiger ,elephant, goat, buffalo, etc (except cow)
  • Inscription of human figure are present on both side of the seals,even in some cases they are present on all 3 sides.

Significance /purpose of seal

  • mainly used as unit of trade and Commerce
  • Also used as amulets for productive and spiritual purpose(mainly Copper),dead bodies found had a hole for wearing them
  • Also used as an educational tool
  • Example Pashupati seals and Unicorn seals

II -Terracotta figures (sculptures)

  • Terracotta are fired baked clay
  • These figures are handmade using punching methods
  • For example mother goddess ,toys cards with wheels, birds and animals etc

III-Bronze sculptures

  • Bronze casting was practised on a wide scale under Harappan art
  • The technique used for Casting is known as “lost wax technique”
  • Under this technique at first wax figures are covered with a coating of clay and allowed to dry. Then it is heated and molten wax is allowed to drain out through a tiny hole at the bottom of the clay cover .the hollow mould is then filled with bronze or any other metal . Once the metal is cooled the clay is removed
  • Evacuations where it was prominent
  1. Kalibangan presently Rajasthan
  2. Daimabad presently Maharashtra
  3. Harappa

Example -Bronze dancing girl

It is a naked girl wearing only ornaments which include bangles , armlets  & necklace the left hand is on the hip. It is made using lost wax technique

Others stone sculpture

  • Bearded priest
  • Male torso (red sandstone)

IV-  POTTERY

  • Red and black pottery(painted pottery)
  • It consists of mainly wheel made wares. Very few are handmade
  • The more common is plain pottery
  • Under red and black pottery red colour was used to paint the background and black colour to draw design of trees, birds, animals, human figures and other geometrical patterns

Uses of pottery

  • For household purpose (storage of water ,food grains )
  • For decoration -miniature vessel used for decoration
  • Used for perforated pottery
  • Large hole at the bottom and small holes all over the wall and was probably used for straining liquor .

V-ORNAMENTS

  • They are made up of a large variety of material ranging from precious metals, gemstones, bone and even baked clay
  • Necklace armlets and finger rings were common and worn by both males and females .while women wore a earings and anklets evidences of dead bodies Burried along with ornaments have also been found.
  • Harrapans were also conscious of fashion ( as different hairstyles ,wearing of a beard etc have been found
  • Cinnabar was used as a Cosmetic lipstick, Face paints and even eyeliner were also known to them.
  • Spinning of cotton and wool was common among Harappan

VI- EXTENSIVE TOWN PLANNING

  • Houses were build of baked bricks, of fixed size.
  • Use of stone and wood in building has also been found
  • The concept of two storied houses were also present
  • Public Bath was a common feature example great bath at Mohenjo Daro ,it had galleries and rooms on all sides.
  • Granaries was another important creation which used to be located in Citadel .there construction was so intelligent that strategic conduct and platform can be found.
  • Drainage system of Harappa was note worthy .there was a temporary cover to drains,underground
  • Roads use to cut at right angles

 

Climate change – notes 2

  • National Environmental Appraisal and Monitoring Authority has been setup

India UK

UK-India Business Climate Leaders Group has been constituted. Comprising of leading CEOs the group will work on synergystic business for carbon reduction and joint work to evolve national emission reduction strategies.

FDI could be streamlined into low carbon initiatives.

Read moreClimate change – notes 2

Climate Change Notes 1

  • It is the long term change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns over periods of time
  • Though it has been happening naturally for millions of years, in recent years it has accelerated due to anthropogenic causes and has been causing global warming.

Read moreClimate Change Notes 1

Climate Change

 

  • National Environmental Appraisal and Monitoring Authority has been setup

 

 

India UK

UK-India Business Climate Leaders Group has been constituted. Comprising of leading CEOs the group will work on synergystic business for carbon reduction and joint work to evolve national emission reduction strategies.

FDI could be streamlined into low carbon initiatives.

Read moreClimate Change

12 sep Current Affairs

Meat ban and pseudo secularism

the municipal corporation of Greater Mumbai propose a ban on sale and consumption of meat.

Recently many states in India have imposed the ban on consumption and sale of beef, the issue has taken a dramatic move by linking the issue to Mugal Emperors such as Akhbar and Jahangeer banning the consumption of meat for some festive seasons.

India is a modern Democracy in making as till the basic human rights are violated for Majority or minority community India could not be called as a True Democracy.

We must move toward individual freedom not as a prison house of communal piety.

Read more12 sep Current Affairs

14 Sep Current Affairs

ALAMGIRPUR  , BAGHPAT-

  • In Uttar Pradesh is an archaeological site discovered in 1957.
  • It showed for the first time evidence of habitation pertaining to the Harappan period in the upper doab between Ganga and Yamuna
  • It recently faces destruction by The villages who have destructed the century old structure to expand their cultivable land
  • ASI found ceramic items like roof tiles, dishes, Terracotta cakes and figures of humped bull and snake .

Read more14 Sep Current Affairs

Wars and Treaties

War Year Treaty Gov General Battles et al
Anglo Marathas
First 1775-82 Began: Treaty of Surat

End: Treaty of Salbai

Warren Hastings Battle of Wadgaon
Second 1803-05 Began: treaty of Bassein Lord Wellesley Battle of Assaye
Third 1816-19 Treaty of Gwalior Marquess  of Hastings Battle of Pindari

End of Peshwa rule

Anglo French
First 1746-48 Treaty of Aix-la-Chepelle Reason: Austrian succession in Europe 1746: Battle of Adyar/San Thome
Second 1749-54 War of succession between Nasir Jung (English) and Muzaffar Jung (French) after death of Nizam 1749: Battle of Ambur

 

Rise of Robert Clive

Third 1758-63 Treaty of Paris Reason: 7 years war in Europe 1760: Battle of Wandiwash (French defeat)
Anglo Mysore
First 1766-69
Second 1780-1784 Treaty of Mangalore Warren Hastings After death of Hyder Ali in 1782 Tipu led the war
Third 1789-92 Treaty of Seringapatnam Cornwallis Defeat of Tipu
Fourth 1799 Wellesley Battle of Seringapatnam. Death of Tipu.
Anglo Sikh War
First 1845-46 Treaty of Lahore Hardinge
Second 1848-49 Dalhousie Final Subjugation of the Sikhs

Read moreWars and Treaties

Mordern History

India in the Eighteenth Century

Bahadur Shah 1 (1707-12)

  • Muzam succeeded Aurungzeb after latter’s death in 1707
  • He acquired the title of Bahadur Shah.
  • Though he was quite old (65) and his rule quite short there are many significant achievements he made
  • He reversed the narrow minded and antagonistic policies of Aurungzeb
  • Made agreements with Rajput states
  • Granted sardeshmukhi to Marathas but  not Chauth
  • Released Shahuji (son of Sambhaji) from prison (who later fought with Tarabai)
  • Tried to make peace with Guru Gobind Sahib by giving him a high Mansab. After Guru’s death, Sikhs again revolted under the leadership of Banda Bahadur. This led to a prolonged war with the Sikhs.
  • Made peace with Chhatarsal, the Bundela chief and Churaman, the Jat chief.
  • State finances deteriorated

Read moreMordern History

INDIAN THEATRE

Origins

  • Origins of Indian theatre not very well known
  • Drawings on caves show that dance, music and drama were an intrinsic part of the life of the people
  • Sitabengona and Jogimara (Ramgarh, MP) have structures that are possibly the oldest theatres of the world
  • IVC: a seal shows a person beating drum while other disguised as a tiger
  • A few hymns of the Rig Veda are in the monologue and dialogue form
  • Natyashastra evolved some guidelines for drama

Read moreINDIAN THEATRE

Economic Terms

Depository Receipt

A depositary receipt (DR) is a type of negotiable (transferable) financial security that is traded on a local stock exchange but represents a security, usually in the form of equity, that is issued by a foreign publicly listed company. The DR, which is a physical certificate, allows investors to hold shares in equity of other countries. One of the most common types of DRs is the American depositary receipt (ADR), which has been offering companies, investors and traders global investment opportunities since the 1920s.

Read moreEconomic Terms

Public Economics

Public Economics

Study of economic efficiency, distribution and government economic policy.

Developed out of the original political economy of JS Mill and David Ricardo. It is a very important branch of economics because of the foundation it provides for practical policy analysis.

Read morePublic Economics

POVERTY

 

  • Following elements mainly affect the magnitude of the poverty ration
    • The nutrition norm in the base year
    • Price deflator used to update the poverty line
    • Pro rata adjustment in the number of households in different expenditure classes to determine the number of households below and above poverty line.
  • Agricultural wage earners, small and marginal farmers and casual workers engaged in non-agricultural activities constitute the bulk of the rural poor

Read morePOVERTY

CPI

The Central Statistics Office (CSO) of the Ministry of Statistics & Programme Implementation announced that the new series of Consumer Price Index(CPI)  numbers for Rural, Urban and Combined (Rural +Urban) on base 2010 ( January to December)=100 taking all segments of rural and urban population for the month of January, 2011 will be released by the  Central Statistics Office for the States/UTs and all- India on 18th February, 2011.These indices will be available for five major groups namely Food, beverages and tobacco; Fuel and light; Housing; Clothing, bedding and footwear, and Miscellaneous.

Read moreCPI

Infrastructure Debt Funds

Infrastructure Debt Funds In Sept 2011, RBI issued guidelines for permitting banks and NBFCs to set up IDFs to help meet long term financing for the sector IDFs would be set up either as MFs or NBFCs NBFC sponsoring IDF-MF should have a minimum net owned funds of Rs 300 crore and CAR of 15 … Read more

World Trade Organization

Contents

  • What is WTO? Structure? Agreeements?
  • Rounds of WTO
  • Doha Development Round
  • India’s role in WTO
  • India’s proposals to WTO
  • Trade in Goods
    • Agriculture
    • NAMA
    • Rules
    • SPS
    • TBT
  • Trade in Services
    • GATS
  • Intellectual Property (TRIPS)
  • TRIMS
  • Dispute settlement
  • Development
    • Trade and Development
    • Aid for Trade
    • Special & Differential Treatment
  • Environment
    • Trade and Environment
  • Trade facilitation
  • Other issues
    • E-Commerce
    • Competition policy
    • Investment
    • Government Procurement
    • Accession

Read moreWorld Trade Organization

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