Lord Cornwallis (1786 – 1793)

Lord Cornwallis (1786 – 1793) Introduction Lord Cornwallis, a warrior-statesman. He succeeded Warren Hastings as Governor-General in 1786. He belonged to an influential and aristocratic family which had wider political connections. He was also a close friend of Prime Minister Pitt. Dundas, the most influential member of the Board of Control was also one of … Read more

Lord William Bentick (1828-1835)

Lord William Bentick (1828-1835) Introduction Lord William Bentinck assumed the office of the Governor- General in 1828. Born in 1774 he commenced his career as a soldier and later at the young age of twenty two he became a Member of Parliament. He was appointed the Governor of Madras in 1803. He supported Sir Thomas … Read more

Warren Hastings (1773-1785)

  Warren Hastings (1773-1785) Became Governor in 1772 and Governor-General in 1773 through Regulating Act of 1773 His four councillors were Clavering, Francis, Monson and Barwell Abolished Dual system(1767-1772) of administration (1772) Auctioned the right to collect land revenue to the highest bidder (1772) Divided Bengal into districts and appointed Collectors (1772) Rohilla war(1774) and annexation … Read more

Lord Cornwallis (1786 – 1793)

Lord Cornwallis (1786 – 1793) Introduction Lord Cornwallis, a warrior-statesman. He succeeded Warren Hastings as Governor-General in 1786. He belonged to an influential and aristocratic family which had wider political connections. He was also a close friend of Prime Minister Pitt. Dundas, the most influential member of the Board of Control was also one of … Read more

Lord Wellesley (1789-1805)

Lord Wellesley (1789-1805) INTRODUCTION Lord Wellesley became the Governor General of India at a time when the British were involved in a life and death struggle with France all over the world. He soon realized that the political conditions in India were favorable for the expansion of the British Empire in India. Lord Wellesley adopted … Read more

Lord Ellenborough, 1842-44

  Lord Ellenborough, 1842-44   INTRODUCTION   Lord Ellenborough served as the Governor General of India from 28 February 1842 to 15 June 1844. He is credited with bringing the Afghan War to an end.  His tenure of office was marked by a successful expedition to Kabul which went a long way in enhancing the prestige … Read more

Lord Auckland, 1836-42

Lord Auckland, 1836-42   INTRODUCTION Lord Auckland was the Governor-General of India and had decided that Dost Mohammed could no longer be trusted after his invitation of Yan Vitkevich to Kabul in 1837. He sided with the pro-British Ranjit Singh in the border dispute over Peshawar. It was Lord Auckland’s issuing of the Simla Manifesto … Read more

Development Of Hindi And Urdu Language

?       Hindi and Urdu are two Hindustani Languages; spoken mostly in the northern and Central India and in Pakistan. Hindi and Urdu are two different languages but these languages have many common things. Both Hindi and Urdu are developed in a similar phase and adopted many changes. We will discuss about the … Read more

Social And Economic Conditions Under Colonial Period With Special Reference To Social Practices Of Beth

? , Begar and Reet Social conditions Indian society underwent many changes after the British came to India. In the 19th century, certain social practices like female infanticide, child marriage, sati, polygamy and a rigid caste system became more prevalent. These practices were against human dignity and values. Women were discriminated against at all stages … Read more

Development Of Railway During The British Rule

? Development of Railway:- The romance of train travel in India is legendary, but the task of constructing the railways in the first place was daunting. There were huge problems in dealing with such a vast and inhospitable country. The idea of introducing railways to India had been mooted as early as the 1830s. In … Read more

Development Of Press During The British Rule

? Development of Press, Railway, Press and Telegraph, Industries in British India   Development of Press:- The first press in India was established by the Portuguese in 1550, first book was published by Portuguese missionaries (1557). The next was established by British in 1684. James Augustus Hickey is considered as the "father of Indian press" as … Read more

Development Of Posts And Telegraph During The British Rule

? Development of Posts and Telegraph:-   Posts Britain’s involvement in the postal services of India began in the eighteenth century. Initially the service was administered by the East India Company who established post offices in Mumbai, Chennai and Calcutta (now Kolkata) between 1764 and 1766. East India Company and the British Post Office in … Read more

Development Of Industries During The British Rule

? Development of Industries:- Industrial Development in India during the British Rule:- 1. Subject Matter of Industrial Development 2. Early Efforts of Industrialization 3. Industries in the Inter-War Period (1919-38) 4. Industries during 1939-47 5. Reasons for Low Industrial Development in India.   Subject Matter of Industrial Development: Underdeveloped countries are greatly handicapped by shortage of capital for … Read more

Depressed Class Missions, Non Brahmanical Movements And Justice Party

? Depressed Classes Mission, Non-Brahmin movement and Justice Party   One, of the earliest lower caste movements, which became the torch bearer for the future caste movements, was founded in Maharashtra in the 1870s by Jyotibha Phule, who with his books Gulamgiri (1872) and Sarvajanik Satyadharma Pustak and his organisation Satya Shodhak Samaj, proclaimed the … Read more

Mahatma Phule

? Jyotirao ‘Jyotiba’ Govindrao Phule was a prominent social reformer and thinker of the nineteenth century India. He led the movement against the prevailing caste-restrictions in India. He revolted against the domination of the Brahmins and struggled for the rights of peasants and other low-caste people. Mahatma Jyotiba Phule was also a pioneer for women … Read more

The European Trading Companies In India

? : Struggle for supremacy The Portuguese From time immemorial India had commercial relations with countries of the west. The commercial route then was not direct by sea. The merchants sailed over the Indian Ocean and the Red Sea and reached Europe through Arabia. But in the seventh cen­tury when Arabia became very strong as … Read more

Two Nation Theroy

? “Two-Nation” theory and Islamic revivalism “Two-Nation” theory Two Nation Theory's phenomenon basically sprigged up with the advent of Islam in the Sub-Continent. The sense was very unique about Pakistan's creation that it was generally based on ideological commitments in the light of Islam. The basic concept behind Two Nation Theory was Muslims and Hindus … Read more

Modern history of Jharkhand after Independence

Modern history of Jharkhand after Independence The modern tribal movement for regional autonomy is a phenomena after India got independence. Jharkhand movement too is such a phenomenon. The main aim of the Jharkhand movement was the creation of a separate “Adivasi state”. Before independence, it was the main issue. But after independence, decks were clear … Read more

The Asiatic Society of bengal

? founded in 1784, by Sir William Jones, a British lawyer and Orientalist, to encourage Oriental studies. ? it was the vehicle for his ideas about the importance of Hindu culture and learning and about the vital role of Sanskrit in the Aryan languages. ? Headquarters are in Kolkata. ? The society owns an art collection … Read more

Famous Personalities of Fredom Struggle of India

Keshab Chander Sen :- ? was an Indian Bengali Hindu philosopher and social reformer who attempted to incorporate Christian theology within the framework of Hindu thought.He was born on 19th November 1838 in Kolkata. He was a descendant of the medieval Sena kings of Bengal. ? He was so influenced by the ideas of Brahmo … Read more

The Indian National Army or Azad Hind Fauj

  ? was an armed force formed by Indian nationalists in 1942 in Southeast Asia during World War II. The aim of the army was to liberate India from the British occupation with Japanese assistance. Initially composed of Indian prisoners of war captured by Japan in the Malayan campaign and at Singapore, it later drew … Read more

Wavell Plan & Shimla Conference-

In May 1945, Lord Wavell, the Viceroy of India, went to London and discussed his ideas about the future of India with the British administration. The talks resulted in the formulation of a plan of action that was made public in June 1945. The plan is known as Wavell Plan. The Plan suggested reconstitution of … Read more

CR Formula

C. Rajagopalachari’s formula (or C. R. formula or Rajaji formula) was a proposal formulated by Chakravarthi Rajagopalachari to solve the political deadlock between the All India Muslim League and Indian National Congress on independence of India from the British. C. Rajagopalachari, a Congress leader from Madras, devised a proposal for the Congress to offer the … Read more

August Offer (1940)

After the WWII began, British sought cooperation from India. August Offer offered three proposals. Firstly, it called for an immediate expansion of Viceroy’s Executive Council with the inclusion of India representatives; secondly, an advisory body with the members from British India and Indian princely states which were supposed to meet at consequent intervals was established … Read more

Civil Disobedience Movement and Gandhi-Irwin Pact, 1931

Started by Gandhi on 12th March 1930 with the Dandi March. Reached Dandi on April 6. Defiance of forest laws in Maharashtra, Central Province and Karnataka. Refusal to pay chaukidari tax in Eastern India. Wide participation of women Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan organized Khudai Khidmatgars (aka Red Shirts) Nagaland: Rani Gaidilieu First RTC, 1930 Congress … Read more

Simon Commission (1927)

Indian Statutory Commission chaired by Simon to go into the question of further constitutional reform All its seven members were Englishmen. Clement Attlee was one of the members. Lord Birkinhead was the secretary of state at that time At its Madras session in 1927 INC decided to boycott the commission “at every stage and in … Read more

Emergence of Socialism-

Emergence of socialism in the 1920s in the nationalist ranks JL Nehru and SC Bose Raised the question of internal class oppression by capitalists and landlords MN  Roy became the first Indian to be elected to the leadership of the Communist International Muzaffer Ahmed and SA Dange were tried in the Kanpur Conspiracy Case 1925: … Read more

Peasant Movements-

Three important peasant movements of the early twentieth century: Kisan Sabha and Eka movements in Avadh in UP Mappila rebellion in Malabar Bardoli Satyagrah in Gujarat The UP Kisan Sabha was set up in February 1918 through the efforts of Gauri Shankar Mishra and Indra Narain Dwivedi with the support of Madan Mohan Malviya. By … Read more

The Working Class Movements

There were some working class movements in second half of 19th century. However, they were impulsive and not very well organized. The early nationalists had a lukewarm attitude towards the question of workers. This war because initially Congress wanted to focus on issues which were of common concern to all the people of India. There … Read more

Non Co-operation and Khilafat Movement

Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms 1919: Dyarchy In a system called “dyarchy,” the nation-building departments of government — agriculture, education, public works, and the like — were placed under ministers who were individually responsible to the legislature. The departments that made up the “steel frame” of British rule — finance, revenue, and home affairs — were retained by … Read more

Gandhi’s early career and activism

Gandhi was the first Indian barrister to have come to South Africa. He was faced with various racial discriminations within days of his arrival in SA. He led the Indian struggle in SA. The first phase of Gandhi’s political activities from 1894-1906 may be classified as the ‘moderate’ phase. He set up the Natal Indian … Read more

Lucknow Pact (1916)

Nationalists saw that their disunity was affecting their cause Two important developments at the Lucknow Session of Congress The two wings of the Congress were again united The Congress and the Muslim League sank their old differences and put up common political demands before the government. INC and ML passed the same resolutions at their … Read more

Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms and Rowalt act

Provincial LC enlarged. More elected members Dyarchy Some subjects were reserved and remained under the direct control of the Governor; others such as education, public health and local self-government were called transferred subjects and were to be controlled by the ministers responsible to the legislature. At the centre, there were two houses of legislature. Response … Read more

World War I and Indian Nationalism-

Increasing number of Indians from Punjab were emigrating to North America. The British government thought that these emigrants would be affected by the idea of liberty. Hence, they tried to restrict emigration. Tarak Nath Das, an Indian student in Canada, started a paper called Free Hindustan. The Hindi Association was setup in Portland in May … Read more

Growth of Communalism

Definition Communalism is the belief that because a group of people follow a particular religion they have, as a result, common secular, that is, social, political and economic interests. Second stage: Secular interests of followers of one religion are dissimilar and divergent from the interests of the followers of another religion Third stage: The interests … Read more

Morley-Minto Reforms, 1909

Increased the number of elected members in the Imperial Legislative Council and the provincial council However, most of the elected members were elected indirectly The reformed councils still enjoyed no real power, being merely advisory bodies. Introduced separate electorates under which all Muslims were grouped in separate constituencies from which Muslims alone could be elected. … Read more

Revolutionary Terrorism and Bhagat Singh

Revolutionary young men did not try to generate a mass revolution. Instead they followed the strategy of assassinating unpopular officials 1904: VD Savarkar organized Abhinav Bharat Newspapers like The Sandhya and Yugaantar in Bengal and the Kal in Maharashtra advocated revolutionary ideology Kingsford Incident: In 1908, Khudiram Bose and Prafulla Chaki threw bomb at a … Read more

Freedom of Press

On 29th January 1780, the Hickey’s Bengal Gazette or the Calcutta General Advertizer was published. It was the first English newspaper to be printed in the Indian sub-continent. The press was the chief instrument of forming a nationalist ideology The resolutions and proceedings of the Congress were propagated through press. Trivia: nearly one third of … Read more

Rise of National Movement and Indian National Congress

Why did national movement arise? Indian nationalism rose to meet the challenges of foreign domination The British rule and its direct and indirect consequences provided the material and the moral and intellectual conditions for the development of a national movement in India. Clash of interest between the interests of the Indian people with British interests … Read more

Civil Rebellions and Tribal Uprisings

The backbone of the rebellions, their mass base and striking power came from the rack-rented peasants, ruined artisans and demobilized soldiers CAUSES The major cause of the civil rebellions was the rapid changes the British introduced in the economy, administration and land revenue system. The revenues were enhanced by increasing taxes. Thousands of zamindars and … Read more

Spread of Modern Education

1781: Hastings set up the Calcutta Madrasah for the study and teaching of Muslim law and related subjects 1791: Jonathan Duncan started a Sanskrit College at Varanasi for the study of Hindu law and philosophy. 1813: Charter of 1813 directed the Company to spend Rs. 1 lakh for promoting modern sciences in the country. This … Read more

Administrative Organization of the British

Army Army fulfilled four important functions: Instrument to conquer Indian powers Defended the British Empire in India against foreign rivals Safe-guarded against internal revolt Chief instrument for extending and defending the British Empire in Asia and Africa. Bulk of the army consisted of Indians. In 1857, of the total strength of 311400, about 265900 were … Read more

India in the Eighteenth Century

Bahadur Shah 1 (1707-12) Muzam succeeded Aurungzeb after latter’s death in 1707 He acquired the title of Bahadur Shah. Though he was quite old (65) and his rule quite short there are many significant achievements he made He reversed the narrow minded and antagonistic policies of Aurungzeb Made agreements with Rajput states Granted sardeshmukhi to … Read more

The years of Stagnation and Emergence of socialism

  Gandhiji was arrested in 1922 and sentenced to 6 years of imprisonment. The result was the spread of disintegration, disorganization and demoralization in the nationalist ranks. After a defeat of their resolution of ‘either mending or ending’ in the Congress, CR Das and Motilal Nehru resigned and formed the Congress-Khilafat Swaraj Party in December … Read more

Struggles for Gurudwara Reform and Temple Entry

  The Akali movement The movement arose with the objective of freeing the Gurudwaras from the control of ignorant and corrupt priests (mahants). Apart from the mahants, after the British annexation of Punjab in 1849, some control over the Gurudwaras was exercised by Government-nominated managers and custodians, who often collaborated with mahants. The government gave … Read more

Non Co-operation and Khilafat Movement

Non Co-operation Movement Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms 1919: Dyarchy In a system called “dyarchy,” the nation-building departments of government — agriculture, education, public works, and the like — were placed under ministers who were individually responsible to the legislature. The departments that made up the “steel frame” of British rule — finance, revenue, and home affairs — … Read more

Gandhi’s early career and activism

Gandhi was the first Indian barrister to have come to South Africa. He was faced with various racial discriminations within days of his arrival in SA. He led the Indian struggle in SA. The first phase of Gandhi’s political activities from 1894-1906 may be classified as the ‘moderate’ phase. He set up the Natal Indian … Read more

Partition of Bengal and The Swadeshi Movement

Partition of Bengal   With the partition of Bengal, Indian National Movement entered its second stage On 20 July, 1905, Lord Curzon issued an order dividing the province of Bengal into two parts: Eastern Bengal and Assam with a population of 31 mn and the rest of Bengal with a population of 54 mn. Reason … Read more

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