? Rise of Mahayana and Development of Art (Gandhara, Mathura and other Schools)     Mahayana Buddhism is sometimes called Northern Buddhism. It is mainly followed by monks and nuns, and is largely found throughout China, Japan, Korea, Mongolia, Nepal, Russia, Tibet, and Vietnam.   The reign of Kanishka is known for the rise of … Read more

Depletion Of Natural Resources

? Depletion of Natural Resources- Metals, Minerals — Conservation Policy All the materials and energy essential for the survival and welfare of living beings including humans-are provided by nature. They are called natural resources. A thing becomes resource only when it is used by humans to perform a function. Man lives in nature and … Read more

Ethics In Private And Public Relationships (1)

? Ethics in private and public relationships An inadequate way of resolving the problem consists in thinking that public ethics should be an exact equivalent of personal ethics. This is the type of solution that Aristotle gives to our problem. For Aristotle, the ethical perfection of man is developed and expressed completely and thoroughly … Read more

DMPQ:. Write a short note on Komagata Maru Incident.

The SS Komagata Maru was a chartered ship featured in a dramatic challenge to Canada’s former practice of excluding immigrants from India. This challenge took place in the spring and summer of 1914, on the eve of the First World War.  This challenge took place in the spring and summer of 1914, on the eve … Read more


? Photosynthesis Photosynthesis, the process by which green plants and certain other organisms transform light energy into chemical energy. During photosynthesis in green plants, light energy is captured and used to convert water, carbon dioxide, and minerals into oxygen and energy-rich organic compounds. It would be impossible to overestimate the importance of photosynthesis in … Read more


? Biopesticides Plants, growing in the wild or in cultivation, face numerous threats from insects, bacteria, viruses, and fungi, as well as from other plants. Biopesticides are inert substances or living organisms that can help protect plants from such threats. Chemical pesticides can offer similar protection but, by contrast, are neither alive nor made … Read more

DMPQ:What are the Major issues between India and China?

Issues are as follows: Border dispute between India and China: Issue of River sharing, Construction of dams on brahamputra river Growing China-Pak Nexus, Pakistan offering disputed area with India to CHINA for creation of OBOR, China Pakistan Economic Corridor China not supporting India at international level like not supporting India forNSG membership. Development of Strategic … Read more

Forest Based Industries

?   Introduction   India is very rich in forest resources, with a large area under forest. All kinds of trees are found here varying from the deciduous, tropical hardwood trees to the evergreen and coniferous trees.   Trees provide one with a wide range of products. From paper to paints, chemicals, housing and … Read more

DMPQ:There is on going tussle between Judiciary and executive. Discuss the key issues between judiciary and executive.

Judiciary and executive are two major component of our vibrant democracy. Their free and fair functioning lead to smooth functioning of a democratic country. The doctrine of separation of power and checks and balances has to be followed. But excessive check and balance lead to undue interference and this is the source of tussle.   … Read more

Social Research And Techniques

? Social Research and Techniques -Objective of Social Research, Use of scientific method to study of Social Phenomena, tools and techniques of data collection- Observation, Interview, Questionnaire, Schedule Man by nature is inquisitive, and humans have an extraordinary capacity to exercise rational judgment and probe the realities of the world around us. Inherent in … Read more

DMPQ: India is becoming a hub for non communicable diseases? Suggest the way to deal with the menace of non communicable disease.

Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), also known as chronic diseases, tend to be of long duration and are the result of a combination of genetic, physiological, environmental and behaviours factors. The main types of NCDs are cardiovascular diseases (like heart attacks and stroke), cancers, chronic respiratory diseases (such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma) and diabetes. … Read more

2.3 Objectivity (1)

? Objectivity: Meaning as a Philosophical concept   Objectivity, as a method of philosophy, is dependent upon the presupposition distinguishing references in the field of epistemology regarding the ontological status of a possible objective reality, and the state of being objective in regard to references towards whatever is considered as objective reality. In other … Read more

The Chandelas

? Facts related to Uttar Pradesh Yashovarman, also known as Lakshavarman, was a king of the Chandela dynasty of India. He ruled in the Jejakabhukti region (Bundelkhand in present-day Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh). The Khajuraho inscription also states that Yashovarman turned the rivers Ganga and Yamuna into his “pleasure-lakes”, and that the waters of these rivers became muddy when his might elephants bathed … Read more

Indian Freedom Struggle 7

? Subhas Chandra Bose  Subhas Chandra Bose was most dynamic leader of India`s struggle for independence. He is more familiar with his name Netaji. His contribution towards India`s Freedom struggle was of a revolutionary. Subhas Chandra Bose was born on 23rd Jan, 1897 in Cuttack, Orissa, India. From his childhood he was a bright … Read more

Fractions Or Rational Number

? Fractions Any unit can be divided into any numbers of equal parts, one or more of this parts is called fraction of that unit. e.g. one-forth (1/4), one-third (1/3), three-seventh (3/7) etc. The lower part indicates the number of equal parts into which the unit is divided, is called denominator. The upper part, which indicates the number … Read more

2.5 Empathy (1)

? Empathy: Definition The term “empathy” is used to describe a wide range of experiences. Emotion researchers generally define empathy as the ability to sense other people’s emotions, coupled with the ability to imagine what someone else might be thinking or feeling. Contemporary researchers often differentiate between two types of empathy: “Affective empathy” refers to … Read more

Free And Compulsory Primary Education

? Free and Compulsory primary education The Indian Constitution is a social document and the supreme law of the land. The founding fathers of the Constitution have incorporated a well designed constitutional manifesto under Part-IV of the Constitution to achieve socio-economic Justice. The Directive Principles of State Policy are principles of good governance. Education … Read more

Matter In Our Surroundings

? Matter in our surroundings, Elements, Compounds, Mixtures Matter is any thing which has mass and occupies space. All solids, liquids and gases around us are made of matter. Scientist believe that matter is made of tiny particles that clump together. You cannot see these particles but you can see the matter, for example, … Read more

Hindutva And Patriotism

? Hindutva and Patriotism Hindutva Literally ‘Hindutva’ means a way of life or a state of mind that is based on the cultural and spiritual ethos based on the spiritual systems that evolved from India. Hindutva is a philosophy like Communism or Socialism. The difference is that, whereas communism and socialism are materialistic philosophies … Read more


?         United Nations Convention against Corruption The United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC) is a landmark, international anti-corruption treaty adopted by the UN General Assembly in October 2003. It represents a remarkable achievement: a global response to a global problem. With 181 countries bound by  UNCAC so far (as of 4 May 2017), … Read more

India In Global Indices

? India in Global Indices Global Innovation Index The Global Innovation Index (GII) is an annual ranking of countries by their capacity for, and success in, innovation. It is published by Cornell University, INSEAD, and the World Intellectual Property Organization, in partnership with other organisations and institutions, and is based on both subjective and … Read more

DMPQ- What is mob lynching and discuss the causes of Mob lynching.

Mob lynching is attacking some one, physically assaulting a person leading to death, by a group of people loosely connected to each other, on the basis of some false information, mostly on the basis of unconfirmed rumours like cow slaughter, beef eating, child lifting, theft, enticing women, etc.  Reasons for higher incidence of mob lynching … Read more

Rights Related To Health

? Rights related to Health “The right to the highest attainable standard of health” implies a clear set of legal obligations on states to ensure appropriate conditions for the enjoyment of health for all people without discrimination. The right to health is one of a set of internationally agreed human rights standards, and is … Read more

DMPQ- Write short note on Gandhi’s Contribution to Indian Independence Movement.

Gandhi brought Satyagraha to India in 1915, and was soon elected to the Indian National Congress political party. Rowlatt Act – He began to push for independence from the United Kingdom, and organized resistance to 1919 law that gave British authorities unauthorised powers to imprison suspected revolutionaries without trial. Britain responded brutally to the resistance, harmed … Read more

Food Preservatives

? Food preservatives Food preservatives constitute a group of compounds of widely different molecular structures; they are organic and inorganic substances with different functional groups and tendencies to form ions. There are no procedures that are generally applicable to the analysis of preservatives as a class of food additive; the procedures are specific to … Read more

DMPQ- Mention the constitutional provision related to the functioning of Election commission of India.

ECI is an autonomous constitutional authority responsible for administering union and state election in India. To be precise the ECI administered Lok sabha elections, rajya sabha elections, Legislative assembly elections and the office of President and Vice President in India. It is one of the important body which keeps democracy intact be having free and … Read more

Disaster Management

? Disaster Management History shows that India is exposed to national disasters. Cyclones, floods, earthquakes, droughts and floods are major threats. About 60 percent of the landmass is prone to earthquakes of various intensities, over 40 million hectares is prone to floods and 68 percent of the area is susceptible to drought. This not … Read more

DMPQ- Unemployment rate is highest in last 45 years. What are the reasons for higher rate of unemployment in India? Give solutions to this problem.

Unemployment rate is very high. The problem is structural and there are both long term and short term causes of the problem. The major reasons are: Weak aggregate demand of the country. Global economic is passing through rough patch. Low emphasis of our curriculum on skill development and training. Age old educational programme and curriculum. … Read more


? INTRODUCTION Among several features of globalization, one relates to increasing interactions among nations and removal of barriers to facilitate movement of goods, capital, labour and technology. It is a process that renders various activities and aspiration worldwide in scope or application. As a part of this process of increasing integration of the world, … Read more

DMPQ- What are the health problems related to the modern lifestyle which is rendering the reduction in quality of life? Suggest Solution.

With the increase in Urbanisation and modernisation there is an increase in pollution, unhealthy lifestyle, environmental toxins which in turn increases the risk of disease.  The major health problems associated with modern lifestyle are as follows: Rise in pollution due to unplanned Pollution related problems like Asthama, Lung related disease etc. are on rise. Life … Read more


? QUESTION TAG   Golden Rules of Question Tags in English Grammar The sentence and the question tag  must be in the same tense. For negative question tag, use the Contracted form of ‘helping verb’ and ‘not’ .E.g didn’t, hadn’t, won’t etc If the Sentence is positive, the question tag must be negative and vice versa. Always use pronoun in the question tag. … Read more

Types Of Respiration

? Types of respiration External Respiration One method for obtaining oxygen from the environment is through external respiration or breathing. In animal organisms, the process of external respiration is performed in a number of different ways. Animals that lack specialized organs for respiration rely on diffusion across external tissue surfaces to obtain oxygen. Others … Read more


? Nepotism Nepotism describes a variety of practices related to favoritism; it can mean simply hiring one’s own family members, or it can mean hiring and advancing unqualified or under-qualified family members based simply on the familial relationship. The word nepotism stems from the Latin word for “nephew,” especially the nephews of the prelates … Read more

Rural #U2013 Urban Continuum

? Rural – Urban continuum Rural- urban continuum, the merging of town and country, a term used in recognition of the fact that in general there is rarely, either physically or socially, a sharp division, a clearly marked boundary between the two, with one part of the population wholly urban, the other wholly rural. … Read more

Budgetry Reforms

? BUDGETARY REFORMS     Government bodies raise money by imposing taxes on citizens and then use those funds to pursue various programs such as education, defence, infrastructure and research and development. A government’s budget describes all of its sources of income and where it spends that income, and budget reform is the process … Read more

Religious Sects

? Religious sects: Shankaracharya, Ramanujacharya, Madhwacharya – Sri Basaveshvara, Veerashaivism and Vachana movement  The revival and expansion of Hinduism after the Gupta period took many forms. The chief gods were the Shiva and Vishnu and many magnificent temples were built to proclaim their supremacy. The rise of the worship of Shiva and Vishnu marked … Read more

Pre Historic Period Races And Culture

? Prehistoric period :- Races and culture The distant past when there was no paper or language or the written word, and hence no books or written document, is called as the Prehistoric period. It was difficult to understand how Prehistoric people lived until scholars began excavations in Prehistoric sites.Piecing together of information deduced … Read more

Backward Class Movement

? Backward Class movement Some of the most important backward class movement in India are as follows:   Satya Shodhak Samaj Shri Narayana Dharma Paripalana Yogam Movement Justice Party The Self-respect Movement. Satya Shodhak Samaj In Western India, Jyotirao Govindrao Phule struggled for the upliftment of lower castes through his Satya Shodhak Samaj. Belonging … Read more

DMPQ- Write a short note on Hydrofluoro carbon?

Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) are a group of industrial chemicals primarily used for cooling and refrigeration. HFCs were developed to replace stratospheric ozone-depleting substances that are currently being phased out under the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. Many HFCs are very powerful greenhouse gases and a substantial number are short-lived climate pollutants with … Read more

Mesolithic Period Food Producers

? Mesolithic Period- Food producers The period of the earth’s history called the Stone Age was filled with remarkable achievements, made by early humans who roamed the globe following large animals around for food and for clothing. These early nomadic humans called hunter-gatherers needed tools and weapons that would be strong enough to take … Read more

Agro Ecology And Its Relevance To Man

? Agro-ecology and its relevance to man The term agroecology can be used in multiple ways, as a science, as a movement and as a practice. Broadly stated, it is the study of the role of agriculture in the world. Agroecology provides an interdisciplinary framework with which to study the activity of agriculture. In … Read more

Changes In Administrative Structure During British Period (1)

? Changes in Administrative structure during British period In the beginning, the Company left the administration of its possessions in India in Indian hands, confining its activities to supervision. But soon found `that British aims were not adequately served by following old methods of administration. Consequently, the Company took all aspects of administration in … Read more

DMPQ- Oceanic land forms are not plain but possess equivalent diversity as that of Continents. Comment

There are mountains, basins, plateaus, ridges, canyons and trenches beneath the ocean water too. These relief features found on the ocean floor are called Submarine Relief. The ocean basins are broadly divided into four major subdivisions. They are; Continental Shelf: They slope seaward from coast to a point where the slope becomes very steep. This shallow submerged extension … Read more

DMPQ- Constitution of India is a perfect blend of rigidity and flexibility. Do you agree with the statement?

Yes, Constitution of India is a perfect blind of rigidity and flexibility. More than 100 Constitutional amendment since its inception is testimony to that. It is neither too rigid as that of US constitution and nor that flexible as that of British. The Provisions of the constitution can be changed by different kinds of majority … Read more

JPSC Mains Test Series 2022

Subscribe our Test Series program to get access to 20 Quality mock tests for JPSC Preparation.

Click Here for Mains Test Series and Notes

Click Here for Printed Notes (With COD)

Hope we have satisfied your need for JPSC Prelims and Mains Preparation

Kindly review us to serve even better

[jetpack_subscription_form title=”Subscribe to JPSC Notes” subscribe_text=”Never Miss any JPSC important update!” subscribe_button=”Sign Me Up” show_subscribers_total=”1″]