Synopsis of NCERTS

  Introduction Indian national movement: One of the biggest. Inspired many others. Gandhian Political Strategy very important. Elements of Gandhian Strategy can be seen in the Solidarity Movement in Poland by Lech Walesa WHY IS THE INDIAN NATIONAL MOVEMENT UNIQUE In the Indian national movement, the Gramscian perspective of war of position was successfully practiced. … Read more

Administrative Organization of the British

Army Army fulfilled four important functions: Instrument to conquer Indian powers Defended the British Empire in India against foreign rivals Safe-guarded against interinal revolt Chief instrument for extending and defending the British Empire in Asia and Africa. Bulk of the army consisted of Indians. In 1857, of the total strength of 311400, about 265900 were … Read more

Social and Cultural Awakening

  Raja Rammohan Roy: RRM Roy was a social reformer and intellectual in the early nineteenth century Bengal. He is most widely known for founding the Brahmo Samaj and his relentless campaign against the practice of Sati and child marriage. Debendranath Tagore: Brahmo Samaj: BS was founded in 1828 by Raja Ram Mohan Roy with … Read more

India in the Eighteenth Century

Bahadur Shah 1 (1707-12)   Muzam succeeded Aurungzeb after latter’s death in 1707 He acquired the title of Bahadur Shah. Though he was quite old (65) and his rule quite short there are many significant achievements he made He reversed the narrow minded and antagonistic policies of Aurungzeb Made agreements with Rajput states Granted sardeshmukhi to … Read more

Important Acts

The Govt. of India Act Gave assurance that there would be no more territorial possessions. Titles were 1858 bestowed  on  many  princes  &  the  right  of  adoption  was  accepted.  No         interference in religious matters. The Indian Council Provided  that  there  was  no  difference  between  the  central  &  provincial Act 1861 subjects. … Read more

Miscellaneous Facts:

  1.The Marathas were Scindia (Gwalior), Holkar (Indore), Gaekwar (Baroda), Bhonsle (Nagpur).   2.Sawai Jai Singh of Amer (Jaipur) had Euclid’s ‘Elements of Geometry) & several works on Trigonometry were translated into Sanskrit. Banda Bairagi was baptised as Banda Singh Bahadur by Guru Gobind Singh.   3.Alfonso d’ Albuquerque came to India as the Portuguese … Read more

FAMOUS SAYING

I wish for a peaceful term of India. I cannot forget that in the sky of India ,   Lord Canning serene as it is, a small cloud may arise ………..threaten to burst & overwhelm.     ‘a battle of blacks against the whites’ (on 1857 revolt)   J.W. Kaye The war which began for … Read more

Conspiracy Cases/ Revolutionary Act

  Nasik Conspiracy Case Anant Kanhare & Ganesh Savarkar short dead collector Jackson of Nasik with the revolver sent by V.D. Savarkar Muzaffarpur Shooting 1908. Khudi Ram & Prafulla Chaki tried to bomb Kingsford, the District Judge of Muzaffarpur but instead his wife & daughter died.  Khudiram a minor was hanged & Prafulla Chaki shot … Read more

Congress Sessions

  1885 W.C. Bannerjee Bombay   1886 Dadabhai Naroji Calcutta   1887 Badruddin Tyabji Madras   1888 George Yule Allahabad   1889 William Weederburn Bombay   1905 G.K. Gokhale Banaras – Issues like welcoming the prince of wales led to feud   1906 Dadabhai Naoroji Calcutta – Approval of issues of swadesi & national education. … Read more

Major Armed Uprising

Wahabi Shah Abdul Aziz & Saiyed Ahmad Raebarelvi. Objective was to reform the Muslim Movement society& convert ‘Dur-ul-Harb’ (Non-Islamic community) into ‘Dar-ul-Islam’.   Origianlly the movement was started in Arabia by Muhammad Ibn-Aba-e-Wahid.   Its main centre was Patna, Sittana (NW province). Kuka Bhai Ram Singh (Disciple of Bhai Balak Singh). It is also called … Read more

Social Reformers & Their Work AND Freedom fighters

      Rajaram Mohun   Laid stress on the study of English & established the Hindu College in Calcutta Roy   alongwith David Hare. Maharishi   The grandfather of Rabindranath Tagore. He inspired a number of thinkers like Devendranath   Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar & Akshay Kumar Datta who became Brahmo Samaj Tagore   members.  … Read more

Movements/Organizations

Aligarh Movement Sir Sayyed Ahmad Khan Deoband Represented  by  Mohammad  Qasim  Nanautavi  &  Rashid  Ahmad  Gangohi. Movement Nanautavi founded the ‘Dar-ul-Ullema’ madrasa at Deoband. This movement was   strictly  based  on  Islamic  tradition unlike liberal  Aligarh movement.   The  also   promulgated a fatwa against Sayyid Ahmad’s associations. In 1919, Mufti Liyaqat   Ullah  Sahib  founded  … Read more

Socio-Religious Reformers & their Organizations

                Atmiya Sabha (1815) Raja Rammohun Roy Brahmo Samaj (1828) Raja Rammohun Roy. Tattvabodhini Sabha (1839). Later merged with Mahrishi Devendranath Tagore. Brahmo Samaj in 1842   Indian national Social Conference M.G. Ranade Harijan Sevak Sangh Mahatma Gandhi Satya Shodhak Samaj (1873) Jyotirao Phule (fight caste oppression) Shri … Read more

Books/Articles & Authors (Modern)

      Ghulamgiri (challenged superiority of Brahmins)   Jyotiba Phule Tuhfat-ul-Muwahhidin (Gift to Monotheists in Persian)   Raja Rammohun Roy Dharma Tritiya Ratna, Ishvara & Life of Shivaji   Jyotiba Phule New Lamp for the Old (Series of Articles criticizing Congress)   Aurobindo Ghosh Doctrine of Passive Resistance (Articles in Bande Mataram)   Aurobindo … Read more

Land Settlements

          Zamindari System (19%) Bengal, Bihar, Banaras, division of NW provinces & northern Carinatic.         90 % of the revenue went to government & 10 % to Zamindar (British) Mahalwari System (30%) Major parts of NW provinces, Central provinces & Punjab. Responsibility         of paying … Read more

Important Treaties

Treaty of Pondicherry     After the II Carinatic war. Muhammad Ali, son of late Anwar-ud-din was         accepted as the Nawab of Carinatic.   Treaty of Mangalore     Signed between Tipu & British in 1784. Under this Tipu withdrew his army   1784     from Carinatic & English withdrew … Read more

Important Battles

1744-48 First Anglo-French Carinatic war. Madras returned to British by the treaty of Aix-la-   Chappalle. In battle of St. Thome, a small French Army defeated Nawab Anwar-ud-   din’s large one. 1748-54 Second Anglo French Carinatic war. The French sided with Muzaffar Jang (grandson of   Asaf Jah) & Chanda Sahib (in Carinatic) while … Read more

The Peshwas

            1713-20   Balaji Vishwanath Shahu appointed him as the Peshwa.     1720-40   Baji Rao I Baji Rao I succeded who was the most charismatic leader in             Maratha history after Shivaji.He conquered Malwa, Bundelkhand             & even … Read more

Other Contemporary States

              Bihar   After Saadat Khan, *Safdarjung* became the king  who was an impartial ruler &         carried out many reforms & was made the wazir of mughal empire. Shuja-ud-Daula         succeded him to throne. He was also made the wazir of mughal … Read more

Modern Period – Later Mughals

    1707-12 Bahadur Shah I 1712-13 Jahandar Shah 1713-19 Farukk Siyar 1719-48 Muhammad Shah Rangila 1748-54 Ahmad Shah 1754-59 Alamgir II 1759-1806 Shah Alam II 1806-1837 Akbar Shah II 1837-57 Bahadur Shah II     Later Mughal Rulers Bahadur Shah I After the death of Aurangzeb, prince Muazzam, Azam & Kam Bakhsh fought in … Read more

Ancient Indian Cultural System & Ideals

    Varina Vyavastha or Varina System   Vedas prescribe that all human beings should leave ignorance, get educated, select a profession for himself based on his “tatva” (basic traits) and education, take a vow to follow such a profession, and follow such a profession.   Vedas classifies all profession into three viz. “Knowledge based”, … Read more

Medieval India

              North India       Ghadvalas     Chandradeva*. Jaichandra fought Muhammad Ghur Chandellas of Jejakabhukti/Bundelkhand   *Vidyadhara* & Yashovarman   Paramaras of Malwa   Vakpati Munjal & *Bhoja*   Chahamanas/Chauhans of Sakambhari   Vigraharaja IV Visaladeva, *Prithviraj III* (Chauhan) Kalachuris of Tripuri   Kokalla, Gangeyadeva & *Karina* … Read more

Synopsis of NCERTS

  Introduction Indian national movement: One of the biggest. Inspired many others. Gandhian Political Strategy very important. Elements of Gandhian Strategy can be seen in the Solidarity Movement in Poland by Lech Walesa WHY IS THE INDIAN NATIONAL MOVEMENT UNIQUE In the Indian national movement, the Gramscian perspective of war of position was successfully practiced. … Read more

Social and Cultural Awakening

  Raja Rammohan Roy: RRM Roy was a social reformer and intellectual in the early nineteenth century Bengal. He is most widely known for founding the Brahmo Samaj and his relentless campaign against the practice of Sati and child marriage. Debendranath Tagore: Brahmo Samaj: BS was founded in 1828 by Raja Ram Mohan Roy with … Read more

Spread of Modern Education

1781: Hastings set up the Calcutta Madrasah for the study and teaching of Muslim law and related subjects 1791: Jonathan Duncan started a Sanskrit College at Varanasi for the study of Hindu law and philosophy. 1813: Charter of 1813 directed the Company to spend Rs. 1 lakh for promoting modern sciences in the country. This … Read more

Administrative Organization of the British

Army Army fulfilled four important functions: Instrument to conquer Indian powers Defended the British Empire in India against foreign rivals Safe-guarded against internal revolt Chief instrument for extending and defending the British Empire in Asia and Africa. Bulk of the army consisted of Indians. In 1857, of the total strength of 311400, about 265900 were … Read more

India in the Eighteenth Century

Bahadur Shah 1 (1707-12) Muzam succeeded Aurungzeb after latter’s death in 1707 He acquired the title of Bahadur Shah. Though he was quite old (65) and his rule quite short there are many significant achievements he made He reversed the narrow minded and antagonistic policies of Aurungzeb Made agreements with Rajput states Granted sardeshmukhi to … Read more

Miscellaneous Facts:

  1.The Marathas were Scindia (Gwalior), Holkar (Indore), Gaekwar (Baroda), Bhonsle (Nagpur).   2.Sawai Jai Singh of Amer (Jaipur) had Euclid’s ‘Elements of Geometry) & several works on Trigonometry were translated into Sanskrit. Banda Bairagi was baptised as Banda Singh Bahadur by Guru Gobind Singh.   3.Alfonso d’ Albuquerque came to India as the Portuguese … Read more

Conspiracy Cases/ Revolutionary Act

  Nasik Conspiracy Case Anant Kanhare & Ganesh Savarkar short dead collector Jackson of Nasik   with the revolver sent by V.D. Savarkar   Muzaffarpur Shooting 1908. Khudi Ram & Prafulla Chaki tried to bomb Kingsford, the District   Judge of Muzaffarpur but instead his wife & daughter died.  Khudiram a   minor was hanged … Read more

Famous Sayings

        I wish for a peaceful term of India. I cannot forget that in the sky of India ,   Lord Canning serene as it is, a small cloud may arise ………..threaten to burst & overwhelm.     ‘a battle of blacks against the whites’ (on 1857 revolt)   J.W. Kaye The … Read more

Congress Sessions

        1885 W.C. Bannerjee Bombay   1886 Dadabhai Naroji Calcutta   1887 Badruddin Tyabji Madras   1888 George Yule Allahabad   1889 William Weederburn Bombay   1905 G.K. Gokhale Banaras – Issues like welcoming the prince of wales led to feud   1906 Dadabhai Naoroji Calcutta – Approval of issues of swadesi … Read more

Newspapers/Magazines/Weeklies

    Harijan Bandhu, Harijan Sevak   Mahatma Gandhi Samvad Kaumudi, Mirat-al-Akhbar   Raja Ram Mohun Roy Tattvabodhini Patrika   Maharishi Devendranath Tagore Indian Mirror   Maharishi Devendranath Tagore Banga Darshan   Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay Maratha (English) & Kesari (Marathi) Lokmanya Bal Gangadhar Tilak The Punjabi, ‘The Pupil’ (English)   Lala Lajpat Rai New India … Read more

Major Armed Uprising

Wahabi Shah Abdul Aziz & Saiyed Ahmad Raebarelvi. Objective was to reform the Muslim Movement society& convert ‘Dur-ul-Harb’ (Non-Islamic community) into ‘Dar-ul-Islam’.   Origianlly the movement was started in Arabia by Muhammad Ibn-Aba-e-Wahid.   Its main centre was Patna, Sittana (NW province). Kuka Bhai Ram Singh (Disciple of Bhai Balak Singh). It is also called … Read more

Social Reformers & Their Work

  Rajaram Mohun   Laid stress on the study of English & established the Hindu College in Calcutta Roy   alongwith David Hare. Maharishi   The grandfather of Rabindranath Tagore. He inspired a number of thinkers like Devendranath   Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar & Akshay Kumar Datta who became Brahmo Samaj Tagore   members.  He  din’t  … Read more

Modern Period

  Later Mughals 1707-12 Bahadur Shah I 1712-13 Jahandar Shah 1713-19 Farukk Siyar 1719-48 Muhammad Shah Rangila 1748-54 Ahmad Shah 1754-59 Alamgir II 1759-1806 Shah Alam II 1806-1837 Akbar Shah II 1837-57 Bahadur Shah II     Later Mughal Rulers Bahadur Shah I After the death of Aurangzeb, prince Muazzam, Azam & Kam Bakhsh fought … Read more

Medieval India

              North India       Ghadvalas     Chandradeva*. Jaichandra fought Muhammad Ghur Chandellas of Jejakabhukti/Bundelkhand   *Vidyadhara* & Yashovarman   Paramaras of Malwa   Vakpati Munjal & *Bhoja*   Chahamanas/Chauhans of Sakambhari   Vigraharaja IV Visaladeva, *Prithviraj III* (Chauhan) Kalachuris of Tripuri   Kokalla, Gangeyadeva & *Karna* … Read more

Ancient Indian History(Quick Revision)

    Pre-Harappan Period     Lower Paleolithic   Hand axe & cleaver industries Pahalgam, Belan valley (U.P),       (600,000 – 60,000 BC)     Bhimbetka, Adamgarh, 16 R Singi Talav       Middle Paleolithic   Tools made on flakes Bhimbetka, Nevasa, Pushkar, Rohiri       (150,000 – 40,000 BC)   … Read more

The Kushanas: Short introduction

  In the early 2nd century BC, a tribe on the Central Asian frontier of China called Hsiung-nu defeated a neighboring one known as Yueh-chih. After more conflict, the survivors of the Yueh-chih were dislocated west, passing down the Ili river valley and along the southern shore of lake Issyk Kul. This movement also pushed … Read more

Art, Sculpture and Architecture in Kushana Empire

  The Kushana period witnessed a remarkable development in art, sculpture and architecture. The Gandhara School of Art and Sculp­ture marked a happy blending of the Graceo-Romano-Buddhist style and techniques. The distinguishing features of the Gandhara Sculp­ture owed their origin to Greek and Roman styles yet the art essen­tially was Indian in spirit. The Gandhara … Read more

The Gupta Empire

The Gupta Empire stretched across northern, central and parts of southern India between c. 320 and 550 CE. The period is noted for its achievements in the arts, architecture, sciences, religion, and philosophy. Chandragupta I (320 – 335 CE) started a rapid expansion of the Gupta Empire and soon established himself as the first sovereign ruler of the empire. It marked the end of 500 hundred … Read more

vardhan empire

Harsh Vardhan Emperor Harshavardhana, better known as Harsha, lived from 590 to 647 CE and was the third ruler of the Vardhana Empire, the last great empire in ancient India before the Islamic Invasion. He ruled from 606 CE to 647 CE. After Harshavardhana’s death, however, the Vardhana dynasty came to an end and its empire dissolved. India, the land … Read more

Cholas

    The founder of the Chola Empire was Vijayalaya, who was first feudatory of the Pallavas of Kanchi. He captured Tanjore in 850 A.D. He established a temple of goddess Nishumbhasudini (Durga) there. Aditya I succeeded Vijayalaya. Aditya helped his overlord the Pallava king Aparajita against the Pandyas but soon defeated him and annexed … Read more

Civilization and Culture of the Pallavas

  The Pallava rule formed a golden epoch in the cultural history of south India. The period under the Pallavas was marked by considerable literary activities and cultural revival. The Pallavas warmly patronized Sanskrit language and most of the literary records of the time were composed in that language. Due to the cultural renaissance and … Read more

Magdhan

    In the sixth country B.C. North India was divided into sixteen kingdoms out of which Avanti, Vatsa, Kosala and Magadha rose into prominence by aggrandizing upon other weaker states.These four states involved themselves in internecine quarrel in which Magadha emerged as the most powerful state and acquired mastery in the political domain of … Read more

The History of Licchavis

  The Lichchhavis (also Lichchavi, Licchavi) were an important member of the Vajjian confederacy. The early Indian traditions describe the Lichchhavis as Kshatriyas. Scholars reject the theory of foreign origin of the Lichchhavis on the strength of these traditions. But they were degraded to the status of fallen Kshatriyas due to their championship of non-Brahmanical … Read more

Origin of Aryans

  The Aryans came to India in several waves. The earliest wave is represented by the Rig Vedic people who appeared in the subcontinent in about 1500 BC. They came into conflict with the indigenous inhabitants called the Dravidians mentioned as Dasa or Dasyus in Rig Veda. The Rig Veda mentions the defeat of Sambara … Read more

Indus Valley Civilization

  Indus Valley Civilization was the first major civilization in south Asia, which spread across a vast area of land in present day India and Pakistan (around 12 lakh sq.km). The time period of mature Indus Valley Civilization is estimated between BC. 2700- BC.1900 i.e. for 800 years. But early Indus Valley Civilization had existed even before … Read more

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