Social Reforms Movements in Muslim Community : Wahabi Movement & AliRarh Movement

The Muslims reformers in India launched many religious movements. Some tried to revive the religion and other tried to reform the religion. During the 19th century religion reforms movement were on the peak. Movements like Deoband Movement, Ahamadiya movement, Aligarh Movement; Wahabi Movement has influenced the masses and made them think about their religion and their status.

The leader of the Wahabi movement was Syed Ahmed Barelvi of Rae Bareilly who was greatly influenced by the teachings of Abdul Wahab of Arabia and Shah Waliullah, a Delhi saint. The movement wasprimarily religious in its origin. It soon assumed the character of a class struggle in some places, especially in Bengal. Irrespective of communal distinctions, peasants united against their landlords.There are six defining precepts in Wahabism, about which al-Wahab wrote in his book The Three Fundamentals. They are the Tawhid, (the unity of God), the Tawassul (Intercession), Ziyarat al-Qubur (visitations of graves and erections of tombs), Takfir (the charge of disbelief), Bid’ah (innovation), and Ijtihad and Taqlid(original legal opinions and the imitation of tradition).

Sayyid Ahmad Khan (1817–98)  called for the study of European science and technology.In 1866, he formed the British Indian Association. He pointed out that there was no fundamental contradiction between Quran and Natural Science and the new circumstances demanded dissemination of English language within an Islamic context. He founded the Mohammedan Anglo Oriental College at Aligarh in 1875 which went on to become the most important seminary for modern higher education among Muslims. At the elementary level, students followed the standard government curriculum in a carefully constructed Islamic environment. In 1878, the college classes were also started and non-Muslims were also enrolled. In 1886, Sayyid Ahmad Khan founded the Mohammadan Anglo Oriental Educational Conference.

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