DMPQ: Highlight the provisions of Food Safety And Standards Act, 2006.

Use of food additive or processing aid No article of food shall contain any food additive or processing aid unless it is in accordance with the provisions of this Act and regulations made thereunder. Explanation– For the purposes of this section, “processing aid” means any substance or material, not including apparatus or utensils, and not … Read more

DMPQ: Explain the modern theories of the origin of monsoon.

Dynamic Theory: Flohn (1951) according to Flohn, the monsoon is a global phenomenon due to global shift in pressure belts. The shift in pressure belts bring the ITC much more into the northern margin is around 30 degrees north over the Indian subcontinent. This brings the SE trades over the Indian subcontinent as south westerly … Read more

DMPQ: What are the advantages of Rain water Harvesting?

  The cost of recharge to sub-surface reservoir is lower than surface reservoirs. The aquifer serves as a distribution system also. No land is wasted for storage purpose and no population displacement is involved. Ground water is not directly exposed to evaporation and pollution. Storing water under ground is environment friendly. It increases the productivity … Read more

DMPQ: Write a short note on different types of Rural settelement.

Types of Rural Settlements: Geographers have suggested various schemes of classification. If we group settlements found all over the country, these can broadly be grouped under four categories: Compact/clustered/nucleated settlement Semi-compact/Semi-clustered/fragmented settlement Hemleted settlement Dispersed settlement   Compact Settlements: As the name suggests, these settlements have closely built up area. Therefore in such settlements all … Read more

DMPQ: Explain Tide. What are different types of tides?

Tides The ocean’s surface rises and falls predictably attributable to changes in gravitative forces originating from the Moon and also the Sun. These changes in ocean surface level are called tides and are proof of the influence celestial bodies wear our planet. As a result of the Sun is farther away than the Moon, the … Read more

DMPQ: Sustainable development goals 11 states that make cities inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable. Discuss the step taken by the government to upgrade the urban amenities and give some solutions to address the problem of urban surge. (Envt.)

According to Census 2011, 377.1 million Indian comprising 31.16 per cent of the country population live in urban areas. India’s urban populations is projected to grow to about 600 millions by 2031. Hence this urban surge has to be addressed through careful planning and policies. Indian govt. has launched various policies and scheme to deal … Read more

DMPQ: What are critical infrastructure? Explain with examples. ( Economy)

Critical infrastructure is a term used by the governments to describe assets that are essential for the functioning of a society and economy.  The term Critical infrastructure has been widely adopted to distinguish those infrastructure elements that, if significantly damaged or destroyed, would cause serious disruptions of the dependent system or organisation.   Storm, deluge … Read more

DMPQ: What is Organic farming

Concept of organic farming, seed certification Organic farming is an alternative agricultural system which originated early in the 20th century in reaction to rapidly changing farming practices. Organic farming continues to be developed by various organic agriculture organizations today. It relies on fertilizers of organic origin such as compost manure, green manure, and bone meal … Read more

DMPQ: Write in brief on the achievements of Green Revolution in India

The main achievements of Green Revolution may be summarized as under: The production and productivity of wheat, rice, maize, and bajra has increased substantially. India has become almost self-sufficient in the matter of staple foods. The double cropped area has increased; thereby intensification of the Indian agriculture has increased. In the areas where Green Revolution … Read more

DMPQ: What are three main functional types of cities of India ? Give examples.

The definition of function varies across the disciplines. In political science it refers to duties, in mathematics it means the relationship between two variables and in geography it is synonymous to occupation. Geographers have classified towns on the basis of their site, situation, size, rank, location and relative elevation. Functional classification of towns attempts to categorize towns … Read more

DMPQ:Discuss types of soils and their distribution in India

According to ICAR Indian soils are classified as:- Alluvial soils:-Alluvial soils are formed mainly due to silt deposited by Indo Gangetic Brahmaputra rivers. In coastal regions some alluvial deposits are formed due to wave action. Black soils:-The black soils are found mainly on the Deccan lava region covering large parts of Maharashtra, some parts of … Read more

DMPQ: Discuss the structure of Atmosphere.

The atmosphere can be divided into five layers according to the diversity of temperature and density. (a) Troposphere :-It is the lowest layer of the atmosphere. The height of this layer is about 18 kms on the equator and 8 kms on the poles. The main reason of higher height at the equator is due … Read more

DMPQ: What do you mean by Horse Latitudes ? Explain the location.

Horse latitudes or subtropical highs are subtropical latitudes between 30 and 35 degrees both north and south where Earth’s atmosphere is dominated by the subtropical high, an area of high pressure, which suppresses precipitation and cloud formation, and has variable winds mixed with calm winds. The consistently warm, dry, and sunny conditions of the horse … Read more

DMPQ: Explain the climate of Japan. (geography)

The climate of japan is modified by insularity and also by meeting of the cold and warm ocean currents. It receives adequate rainfall from both the south east monsoon in summer and the north west monsoon in winter. During the north west monsoon dry cold wind from mainland Asia blows. But they gather moisture on … Read more

What is shale gas and fracking? Problems associated with shale gas extraction.

Shales are fine-grained sedimentary rocks formed of organic-rich mud at the bottom of ancient seas.Subsequent sedimentation and the resultant heat and pressure transformed the mud into shale and also produced natural gas from the organic matter contained in it. Over long spans of geologic time, some of the gas migrated to adjacent sandstones and was trapped in … Read more

Give an account for the following: (map based questions) a) Great lakes b) Lake Baikal c) Lake Tanganyika d) Aral sea

(a)Great lakes  Great Lakes of North America are a series of interconnected freshwater lakes which connect to the Atlantic Ocean through the Saint Lawrence Seaway.Consisting of Lakes Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie, and Ontario . Superior, Huron, Michigan, Erie, and Ontario [In the order of largest to smallest].Lake Superior is the largest continental lake in the … Read more

DMPQ: . Give the account of the following. ( World geography) a) Andes b) Rocky c) Great dividing range d) Drakesnberg

Andes:  Longest continental mountain range in the world.  They are   found in South America. They formed due to ocean-continent collisions and subduction of oceanic crust beneath the south American plate. Mount Aconcagua is the highest peak.( 6962m) The rocky mountains:   They are fold mountains found in the western margi of the North American continent. They … Read more

DMPQ: What is sustainable agriculture? How it can be achieved?(5 marker)( science)

Sustainability means keeping an effort going continuously. So, sustainable agriculture means successful management of resources for agriculture to satisfy the changing human needs, while maintaining or enhancing the quality of environment and conserving natural resources. Sustainable agriculture can be achieved by adopting; Mixed farming Mixed cropping Crop rotation Crop selection Varietal improvement   Q3.               Coalitions government … Read more

DMPQ: What is poultry farming? What are the desirable traits developed Obtained after cross breeding? ( Science)

Poultry is the rearing of domesticated fowl (chicken), ducks, geese, turkey and some varieties of pigeon for their meat and eggs. The specialized meat-producing poultry birds are called broilers while egg-laying poultry birds are called layers. The tremendous rise in the availability of poultry products is called Silver Revolution. Variety improvement is done by cross-breeding … Read more

What is Mixed cropping? What is the criteria for the selection of crops during mixed cropping? Write down the advantages of mixed cropping? (science)

The practice of cultivating two or more crops simultaneously on the same piece of land is called mixed cropping. During mixed cropping, if one crop faces adverse conditions or pathogen attack then the other crop can be saved.The basic objective in mixed cropping is to minimize the risk and insure against the crop failure due to … Read more

To cope with climate challenge and to develop resilience of Indian agriculture covering crops, livestock and fisheries to climatic variability ICAR has started NICRA. Discuss the features of this project.( schemes)

Climate change is inevitable. The best strategy to deal with climate change is adoption of practices to make our farming more resilient. ICAR has launched a network of project called NICRA. It stands for National innovation on climate resilient agriculture. The salient features of NICRA are as follows:   It takes into account the critical … Read more

DMPQ: What is Horticulture? What are its advantage as a means of source of income for farmers? ( scemes)

Horticulture is the branch of agriculture concerned with intensively cultured plants directly used by man for food , for medicinal purpose or for aesthetic gratification.Horticulture is the science and art involved in the cultivation, propagation, processing and marketing of ornamental plants, flowers, turf, vegetables, fruits, and nuts.   The following are the benefits attached with … Read more

DMPQ: Organic farming is one of the solution for sustainable agriculture. In this context discuss the salient features of paramparagat Krishi vikas yojana. ( schemes)

Use of  excessive pesticide has rendered the soil in poor shape.  According to the economic survey the prescribed ratio for N:P:K is 4:2:1. But farmers pattern of use of fertilisers is way distorted. Hence Pramparagat Krishi Vikas Yojana has been launched by GOI for promotion of commercial organic production through certified organic farming. Features of … Read more

DMPQ: What is contract farming? What are its advantages? (economy)

Contract farming is a kind of system in which bulk purchaser enters into contract with farmers. It includes agro- processing, exporting and trading units.  They purchase a specified quantity of any agricultural commodity at pre agreed price. Sponsor provides all kind of production support to the contracted farmers. This include extension service also.     … Read more

DMPQ: What is Soil? Given an account on the types of soil in India?

Soil is defined as upper layer of the earth composed of loose surface material. It is a mixture of many substances including endless variety of minerals, remnants of plants and animals, water and air. It is the end product of continuing interaction between the parent material, local climate, plant and animal organisms and elevation of … Read more

DMPQ: Discuss the structure and stratification of the atmosphere?( geography)

Variations of temperature, pressure and density are much larger in vertical directions than in horizontal. This strong vertical variations result in the atmosphere being stratified in layers that have small horizontal variability compare to the variations in the vertical. The atmosphere can be divided into five layers according to the diversity of temperature and density. … Read more

DMPQ: What are different types of plate boundaries?( World Phy. Geo)

There are three types of plate boundaries: Divergent Plate boundaries: where plates move away from each other. : These are oceanic ridges where new oceanic lithosphere is created by upwelling mantle that melts, resulting in basaltic magmas which intrude and erupt at the oceanic ridge to create new oceanic lithosphere and crust. As new oceanic … Read more

DMPQ: Explain ‘Geysers’ and ‘Hot springs’?

Geysers are fountains of hot water and superheated steam that may spout up to a height of 150 feet from the earth beneath. The phenomenon are associated with a thermal or volcanic region in which b the water below is being heated beyond boiling point. The jet of water is emitted with an explosion, and … Read more

DMPQ: What is continental drift theory? Write down the evidence for continental drift?

The continental drift hypothesis was developed in the early part of the 20th century, mostly by Alfred Wegener. Wegener said that continents move around on Earth’s surface and that they were once joined together as a single supercontinent. While Wegener was alive, scientists did not believe that the continents could move. Alfred Wegener proposed that … Read more

DMPQ: What are the reasons for seasonality?

Seasonality refers to both the seasonal variation of the suns position above the horizon and the changing daylength.  There are five reasons for seasons which are discussed here under: Earth’s revolution in its orbit around the sun: Earth completes its annual orbit in 365.24 days at a speed averaging 107,280 in a counter clockwise … Read more

DMPQ: What are sedimentary rocks? What are the its different types? List down the features of sedimentary rocks.

Sedimentary or detrital rocks :   They Formed as a result of denudation (weathering and erosion).These deposits through compaction turn into rocks. This process is called lithification. Sedimentary rocks Cover 75 per cent of the earth’s crust but volumetrically occupy only 5 per cent. They are layered or stratified of varying thickness. Example: sandstone, shale etc. … Read more

DMPQ: Please gave an account of the following in 50 words. a) fissure vent b) Chinook c) Fohn

A fissure vent, also known as a volcanic fissure or eruption fissure, is a linear volcanic vent through which lava erupts, usually without any explosive activity. The vent is often a few meters wide and may be many kilometers long. Chinook : It is a local winds in steppe region. On the eastern slopes of the Rockies in Canada and U.S.A. a … Read more

DMPQ: Differentiate between the Composite and the shield Lava.

Composite lava are highly viscous with a high melting point. They are light colored and have low density, and have a high percentage of silica. They flow slowly and seldom travel far before solidifying. The resultant cone is therefore steep sided.  The rapid solidifying of lava in the vent obstruct the flow of the out-pouring … Read more

DMPQ: Distribution of volcanoes around the world.

Most known volcanic activity and the earthquakes occur along converging plate margins and mid-oceanic ridges. There is a strikingly close agreement between volcanic and earthquake zones of the earth. The major regions of volcanoes around the world are: Pacific ring of fire:  Pacific Ring of Fire’ is estimated to include two-thirds of the world’s volcanoes.  The major regions … Read more

DMPQ: What is Earthquake? List down the causes of Earthquake?

An earthquake is the shaking or trembling of the earth’s surface, caused by the sudden movement of a part of the earth’s crust. They result from the sudden release of energy in the Earth’s crust that creates seismic waves or earthquake waves.   Causes of the earthquake are as follows:   Sudden slipping of rock … Read more

DMPQ: Discuss the steppe type of climate.

( in answer writing when such kind of explanation is asked follow this approach) Distribution:     Lies in the interior of the earth crust. They basically lies in the zone of  westerly wind belt. Grasslands are practically treeless due to continentality. They are called by different names in different parts of the world Prairies North … Read more

JPSC Mains Test Series 2022

Subscribe our Test Series program to get access to 20 Quality mock tests for JPSC Preparation.

Click Here for Mains Test Series and Notes

Click Here for Printed Notes (With COD)

Hope we have satisfied your need for JPSC Prelims and Mains Preparation

Kindly review us to serve even better

[jetpack_subscription_form title=”Subscribe to JPSC Notes” subscribe_text=”Never Miss any JPSC important update!” subscribe_button=”Sign Me Up” show_subscribers_total=”1″]