Jharkhand: The Parha and the Manki Mundua system. 

This was the basis of the social union among the Adivasis in Jharkhand. Kingship developed amongst the Adivasis as a result of the necessity to protect their natural and livelihood resources from alien predations and to pay taxes to more powerful emperors. The kings would appoint someone from

amongst their kin to be an agent to collect tax. The revenue thus collected was then used for paying the taxes to the emperor. The Nagbashi Rajas, the Jaria garh Raja, the Ratu Raja, etc., were amongst some of these small kings. They would collect malgujari from the people to pay to the Emperors. This system of kings can be seen in the Oraon areas, in the western region of Jharkhand.

This kingship system was resisted by the Adivasis. The Hos resisted the malgujari. and so too did the Santhals and the Mundas.

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