Meaning and Measurement of Economic Development

Economic Growth

  • Economic growth means an increase in real GDP. This increase in real GDP means there is an increase in the value of national output / national expenditure.
  • Economic growth is an important macro-economic objective because it enables increased living standards and helps create new jobs.

Measurement of Economic Growth

Economic growth is measured by changes in the gross domestic product (GDP). It measures a country’s entire economic output for the past year. That takes into account all goods and services that are produced in this country for sale, whether they are sold domestically or sold overseas. It only measures final production, so that the parts manufactured to make a product are not counted. Exports are counted because they are produced in this country. Imports are subtracted from economic growth. Economic growth is measured quarterly measured using real GDP to compensate for the effects of inflation. Here’s more on the GDP growth rate and how you can calculate it.

Measurements of economic growth do not include unpaid services. They include the care of one’s children, unpaid volunteer work, or illegal black-market activities.

Determinants of Economic Growth

  • Productivity.
  • Intensity (hours worked)
  • Demographic changes.
  • Political institutions, property rights, and rule of law.
  • Capital.
  • New products and services.
  • Growth phases and sector shares.

The Concept Of Economic Development

  • Economic development is the process by which a nation improves the economic, political, and social well-being of its people.

Differences between Economic Growth and Economic Development

  • Economic growth measures an increase in Real GDP (real output). GDP is a measure of the national income / national output and national expenditure. It basically measures the total volume of goods and services produced in an economy.

Economic Development looks at a wider range of statistics than just GDP per capita. Development is concerned with how people are actually affected. It looks at their actual living standards and the freedom they have to enjoy a good standard of living.

Elements/ Factors Contributing to Economic Development

  • Human Resource
  • Natural Resources
  • Capital Formation
  • Technological Development
  • Social and Political Factors

Economic Planning for India

Economic planning refers to the initiation, control and regulation of economic activity by the state with a view to achieve predetermined objectives within a given time-interval.

The principal function of planning, especially in a federal system, is to evolve a shared vision of and commitment to the national objectives and development strategy not only in the government at all levels, but also among all other economic agents.
NITI Aayog acts as the quintessential platform of the Government of India to bring States to act together in national interest, and thereby fosters Cooperative Federalism.

At the core of NITI Aayog’s creation are two hubs – Team India Hub and the Knowledge and Innovation Hub. The Team India Hub leads the engagement of states with the Central government, while the Knowledge and Innovation Hub builds NITI’s think-tank capabilities. These hubs reflect the two key tasks of the Aayog.

NITI Aayog is also developing itself as a State of the Art Resource Centre, with the necessary resources, knowledge and skills, that will enable it to act with speed, promote research and innovation, provide strategic policy vision for the government, and deal with contingent issues.

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