The Indian Government had undertaken industrial policy reforms since 1980, but the most radical reforms have occurred since 1991, after the severe economic crisis in fiscal year 1990-91. These reforms mainly aimed at enhancing the efficiency and international competitiveness in Indian industry. Growth in the industrial sector is one of the vital figures that affect the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in India.
India’s industrial policy of 1991 towards liberalisation, deregulation, market orientation has been hailed as ushering in a new era of freedom from government controls, licence raj and red carpetism and one which promises greater prosperity for the Indian people.
Objectives of the Industrial Policy of the Government are –
- to maintain a sustained growth in productivity;
- to enhance gainful employment;
- to achieve optimal utilisation of human resources;
- to attain international competitiveness and
- to transform India into a major partner and player in the global arena.
Department of Industrial Policy & Promotion is responsible for formulation and implementation of promotional and developmental measures for growth of the industrial sector, keeping in view the national priorities and socio-economic objectives. While individual Administrative Ministries look after the production, distribution, development and planning aspects of specific industries allocated to them, Department of Industrial Policy & Promotion is responsible for the overall Industrial Policy.
Merits of the Industrial policy :
1.To raise the level of industrial efficiency, time consuming hurdles of regulations, licenses and restrictions would either be done away with or made industry friendly. Inflow of FDI and foreign technology transfers would be encouraged.
2.Additions to the supply of investible resources and technology would result in increased industrial production and productivity.
3.With the abolition of licensing system in most industries except 5, the wave of liberalization would boost the entrepreneurial skills in the economy.
4.Pruning/de reservatioin of Industries for the public sector would boost professionalism in this secotr. Increased autonomy would usher in dynamism for the betterment.
5.NIP-1991 made a special mention about the role and importance of small scale industries. The state would initiate measures to promote and strengthen small, tiny and village industries, which have large potential to deal with the problems like unemployment, regional disparities, income inequalities and inflation.
6.As the government of the country is obliged to protect the interest of workers, this policy would lay special emphasis to enhance the welfare and upgrade the economic and social status of the worker. To ensure long-lasting and cordial relations between the workers and the management, they (workers) would participate in the management decisions of the enterprises.