- Jharkhand History : Munda Manki system
- The political organization and administrative unit of the Santals village are mostly governed by councils of elders who regulate the life of the people within the village and the order of the village outside world. The political organization and administrative is generally is democratic in nature. The Santals govern by their own laws and have their own method of treating different kinds of offences. The offices of the political organization were generally hereditary and passed patrilineally but now days the offices are not only hereditary but are conferred by selection of person. These officials are responsible to the community for their functions.
- The Santals have a well established political organization. It functions at the village, inter-village (pirh or pargana) and regional (disam) levels. The village is considered as the smallest and most important unit at the ground level. There is a traditional village council (atu mone hor) constituted of functionaries like Manjhi (secular village headman), Jog Manjhi (deputy village headman), Parmanik, (assistant to village headman), Gadet (secretary to village headman 7 messenger), Jog Parmanik (Deputy Parmanik), Naike (village head priest) and Kudam Naike (assistant to village priest). All the household heads are the members of the village council. Manjhi presides over the village council meetings and settles all the disputes relating to theft, conflict, divorce, partition of property, adoption of children, quarrels over land, violation of social customs, tradition, etc. at the village level. The meeting of the council generally takes place at the manjhi than.
- These officials have to perform their functions in accordance with the tribal system and that is why they are expected to be well acquainted with the Santal traditions, customs, religious beliefs and practices(J. Troisi, Tribal Religion: Religious Belief and Practices among the Santals, 56). These traits are still prevalent in the village, where the community live.
- International Mother Language Day: 21 February
- International Mother Language Day is celebrated every year on 21st February.
- The main purpose of celebrating this day is to promote the awareness of language and cultural diversity all across the world.
- It was first announced by UNESCO on November 17, 1999. Since then it is being celebrated every year.
- The idea to celebrate International Mother Language Day was the initiative of Bangladesh.
- In Bangladesh the 21 February is the anniversary of the day when Bangladeshis fought for recognition for the Bangla language.
- Saudi Arabia joins International Solar Alliance
- Saudi Arabia signed an agreement to become the 73rd member of the International Solar Alliance (ISA).
- The organisation now has a total of 122 member countries.
- The signing of the agreement took place after a bilateral meeting between Prime Minister Narendra Modi and Saudi Arabian Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman, who arrived on a state visit to India.
- Operation Digital Board launched to provide better digital education
- Government has launched Operation Digital Board on the lines of Operation Blackboard to provide better digital education in schools.
- Under the initiative seven lakh classrooms of 9th, 10th and 11th standards and two lakh classrooms of colleges and Universities will be equipped with digital boards in the next three years.
- Human Resource Development Minister Prakash Javadekar said that it will convert the monologue classrooms into interactive ones.
- It will also improve the quality of education and offer new opportunities and new ways of teaching and learning.
- OFB gets clearance for producing 114 long-range artillery gun ‘Dhanush’
- The Ordnance Factory Board (OFB) has received a bulk production clearance from the Indian Army and the Defence Ministry for production of 114 ‘Dhanush’ artillery guns.
- ‘Dhanush’ is the first long-range artillery gun to be produced in India.
- It is a major success story of the ‘Make in India’ initiative.
- It is the product of efforts by the OFB and the Army with various contributions.
- Government relaxes Angel Tax Norms for Start-ups
- The Union government has liberalised angel tax rules, exempting registered start-ups of a specified size from the tax.
- Investments of up to Rs. 25 crore in an eligible company will be exempt from the angel tax.
- In addition, investments made by a listed company with a networth of at least Rs. 100 crore or a turnover of at least Rs. 250 crore will also be exempt.
- Also an entity shall be considered a startup upto 10 years from its date of incorporation / registration instead of the existing period of 7 years.
· Union Minister of Commerce & Industry and Civil Aviation, Suresh Prabhu, launched SWAYATT in New Delhi
- Suresh Prabhu, Union Minister of Commerce & Industry and Civil Aviation launched SWAYATT in New Delhi.
- SWAYATT-an initiative to encourage Start-ups, Women and Youth Advantage Through eTransactions on Government e-Marketplace (GeM).
- It aims at creating a conducive atmosphere for interaction between key stakeholders within our entrepreneurial ecosystem and Government e-Marketplace which is the national procurement portal.
- A Startup Runway which is an initiative under the collaboration of GeM with Startup India, established to provide help to start-ups, registered with Startup India so that it can gain access to the public procurement market and sell innovative products and services to government buyers.
· PM Modi inaugurated supercomputer ‘PARAM Shivay’ at IIT-BHU
- Supercomputer named ‘PARAM Shivay‘ of 833 teraflop capacity is built for ?32.5 crore, at IIT-Banaras Hindu University (BHU).
- It will include 1 peta byte secondary storage.
- It was built under the ?4,500-croreNational Supercomputing Mission (NSM), under which 73 supercomputers would be installed.
- India’s first supercomputer called PARAM 8000was launched in 1991.
· Kerala Police inducts India’s first humanoid robot officer
- Kerala Chief Minister Pinarayi Vijayan inducted India’s first humanoid robot ‘KP-BOT‘, gendered female, into the Kerala Police force at the rank of Sub-Inspector (SI).
- It’ll receive the visitors & direct them to different places according to their needs.