India always wanted to have friendly relationships with China as both have borne the brunt of colonialism and it was evident in its recognition of Communist China right from the beginning in 1950, support of China in Korea war and support of China in UNSC seat. India also raised little objection over Chinese occupation over Tibet in 1950 and it even formally recognized it in 1954 as Panchsheel agreement was signed between the two and agreed on a mutual co-existence on the basis of it.
India even hailed Chinese leadership in Bandung conference in 1959. But in the same year, a big uprising happened in Tibet and thousands of Tibetan refugees along with the Dalai Lama sought refuge in India which was provided by India on humanitarian grounds on the condition that no political activities should be carried out from Indian soil.
China, however, didn’t take it so kindly and soon after that skirmishes took place on Indo-China border between soldiers of two sides and China for the first time laid a firm claim on disputed area of NEFA and Ladakh. In October 1962, Chinese forces launched a massive attack on NEFA (today’s Arunachal Pradesh) and soon occupied vast areas as Indian army showed little resistance. Indian PM Nehru sought Western help, but China voluntarily retreated as unpredictably as it has launched strike leaving a bruised ego and a broken friendship. Non- alignment and Panchsheel got a body blow and ironically India was hit not by a capitalist imperial country, but by a socialist friend. The US and the UK had responded positively and they could not be brushed aside in post-war scenario. Pakistan thought India was weakened and launched 1965 war.