Low per capita income:
In India, the national income and per capita income is very low and it is considered as one of the basic features of underdevelopment. As per World Bank estimates, the per capita income of India stood at only $ 1900 in 2017.
Excessive dependence of agriculture and primary producing
Indian economy is characterised by too much dependence on agriculture and thus it is primary producing. Out of the total working population of our country, a very high proportion of it is engaged in agriculture and allied activities, which contributed a large share in the national income of our country.
In 2018, nearly 50 per cent of the total working population of our country was engaged in agriculture and allied activities and was contributing about 18.0 per cent of the total national income.
High rate of population growth
India is maintaining a very high rate of growth of population since 1950. Thus the pressure of population in our country is very heavy. This has resulted from a very high level of birth rates coupled with a falling level of death rates prevailing in our country.
In India, the rate of growth of population has been gradually increasing from 1.31 per cent annually during 1941-50 to 2.5 per cent annually during 1971-81 to 2.11 per cent annually during 1981-91 and then finally to 1.77 per cent during 2001-2011.
Thus whatever development that has been achieved in the country, it is being swallowed up by the increased population. Moreover, this high rate of growth of population necessitates a higher rate of economic growth just for maintaining the same standard of living.
Existence of chronic unemployment and under-employment
Rapid growth of population coupled with inadequate growth of secondary and tertiary occupations are responsible for the occurrence of chronic unemployment and under-employment problem in our country. In India, unemployment is structural one, unlike in developed countries, which is of cyclical type.
Here unemployment in India is the result of deficiency of capital. Indian industries are not getting adequate amount of capital for its necessary expansion so as to absorb the entire surplus labour force into it.
Poor rate of capital formation
Capital deficiency is one of the characteristic features of the Indian economy. Both the amount of capital available per head and the present rate of capital formation in India is very low. Consumption of crude steel and energy are the two important indicators of low capital per head in the under-developed countries like India.
Inequality in the distribution of wealth
Another important characteristic of the Indian economy is the mal-distribution of wealth. The report of the Reserve Bank of India reveals that nearly 20 per cent of the households owing less than Rs 1000 worth of assets possess only 0.7 per cent of the total assets.
Low level of technology
Prevalence of low level of technology is one of the important characteristics of an underdeveloped economy like India. The economy of our country is thus suffering from technological backwardness. Obsolete techniques of production are largely being applied in both the agricultural and industrial sectors of our country.
Under-utilisation of natural resources
In respect of natural endowments India is considered as a very rich country. Various types of natural resources, viz., land, water, minerals, forest and power resources are available in sufficient quantity in the various parts of the country.
But due to its various inherent problems like inaccessible region, primitive techniques, shortage of capital and small extent of the market such huge resources remained largely under-utilised. A huge quantity of mineral and forest resources of India still remains largely unexplored.
Lack of infrastructure
Lack of infrastructural facilities is one of the serious problems from which the Indian economy has been suffering till today. These infrastructural facilities include transportation and communication facilities, electricity generation and distribution, banking and credit facilities, economic organisation, health and educational institutes etc.
The two most vital sectors, i.e. agriculture and industry could not make much headway in the absence of proper infrastructural facilities in the country. Moreover, due to the absence of proper infrastructural facilities, development potential of different regions of the country largely remains under-utilised.
Low level of living
The standard of living of Indian people in general is considered as very low. Nearly 25 to 40 per cent of the population in India suffers from malnutrition. The average protein content in the Indian diet is about 49 grams only per day in comparison to that of more than double the level in the developed countries of the world.
Poor quality of human capital
Indian economy is suffering from its poor quality of human capital. Mass illiteracy is the root of this problem and illiteracy at the same time is retarding the process of economic growth of our country. As per 2011 census, 74 per cent of the total population of India is literate and the rest 26 per cent still remains illiterate.
Inadequate development of economic organization
Poor economic organisation is another important characteristic of the Indian economy. For attaining economic development at a satisfactory rate certain institutions are very much essential. As for example, for mobilisation of savings and to meet other financial needs, more particularly in the rural (areas, development of certain financial institutions are very much essential.