. Gradually, the Swarajist position had weakened because of widespread communal riots, and a split among Swarajists themselves on communal and Responsivist-Non-responsivist lines. The government strategy of dividing the Swarajists— the more militant from the moderate, the Hindus from the Muslims—was successful. The Swarajists lost the support of many Muslims when the party did not support the tenants’ cause against the zamindars in Bengal (most of the tenants were Muslims). Communal interests also entered the party. The death of C.R. Das in 1925 weakened it further.
The Responsivists among Swarajists—Lala Lajpat Rai, Madan Mohan Malaviya and N.C. Kelkar—advocated cooperation with the government and holding of office wherever possible. Besides they also wanted to protect the so-called Hindu interests. The communal elements accused leaders like Motilal Nehru, who did not favour joining the council, of being anti-Hindu even as Muslim communalists called the Swarajists anti-Muslim.
- With coalition partners, they out-voted the government several times, even on matters relating to budgetary grants, and passed adjournment motions.
- They agitated through powerful speeches on self- government, civil liberties and industrialisation.
- Vithalbhai Patel was elected speaker of Central Legislative Assembly in 1925.
- A noteworthy achievement was the defeat of the Public Safety Bill in 1928 which was aimed at empowering the Government to deport undesirable and subversive foreigners (because the Government was alarmed by the spread of socialist and communist ideas and believed that a crucial role was being played by the British and other foreign activists being sent by the Commintern).
- By their activities, they filled the political vacuum at a time when the national movement was recouping its strength.
- They exposed the hollowness of the Montford scheme.