Dvaita philosophy was put forward by Madhavacharya, a medieval India bhakti saint. He was a Vaishnavite whose soul aim was to disprove the theory of Maya or unreality of the world and establish the doctrine of Bhakti or love and faith on a secure basis.
In contrast to Shankara’s Non-dualism and Ramanuja’s qualified Non-dualism, Madhavacharya put forward five eternal distinctions or individualities viz.
(i) Distinction between god and an individual spirit
(ii) God and the inanimate world
(iii) The individual spirit and the inanimate world
(iv) One individual spirit and another
(v) One inanimate object and another.
The followers of Madhava sect follow the method of Vaisheshikas and divide all existing things into categories of substance, qualities etc.
God or the Supreme being possesses an infinite number of qualities and his functions are eight viz. (i) creation (ii) protection (iii) dissolution (iv) controlling all things (v) giving knowledge (vi) manifestation of himself (vii) tying beings down to the world (viii) redemption.
Lakshmi is independent of God as she is eternal and blessed like the supreme soul and is his consort. All knowledge emanates from Paramatma, whatever the means by which it is achieved.
Direct perception is plaussible for everyone and can be aquired by different means like Vairagya, equanimity, self-control, acquaintance with the lore, attendance on Gupj or perceptor and acquisition of knowledge from him, reflection on what has been taught, devotion and love of God.
Dvaita, doctrine is simply theistic and recognized the Supreme God with Narayan or he is generally classified as Vishnu. The great saint earned the title of Poorna Prajna. His philosophy is realistic in absolute sense.
He popularize ‘Yathar-Vada’. According to him there are seven senses which help us to know, Manas and Saksin are the remaining two instruments and through which things are known. The concept of Saksin as the seventh principle is a unique feature of Dvaita philosophy.