The factors are as follows:
Latitude: The insolation largely depends on the latitude. The intensity of insolation
decreases from equator to poles. In addition to this the day length and seasons also
depends upon the latitude. Hence lower latitude records high temperature as compared
to higher latitudes.
Altitude: As we know that temperature decreases with altitude in troposphere. Thus,
worldwide mountainous areas experiences lower temperatures than the areas near sea
level lying on the same latitude.
Cloud cover: According to the meteorologists, everyday almost 50% of sky across globe
is covered with clouds. Cloudy days are relatively colder than sunny days while cloudy
nights are warmer than clear nights. The maximum cloud cover is recorded in equatorial
areas hence highest temperature is not recorded at equator while it is recorded in
tropical deserts having clear skies.
Distance from the Sea: Places near the sea gets sea breeze during day and land breeze
during night. Hence the temperatures are moderate in these regions while both diurnalrange of temperature and yearly range of temperature increases as we go away fromthe ocean. The temperatures in interior of the continent are more extreme.
Winds: The role of prevailing winds is quite significant in the distribution oftemperature. The cold winds blowing from higher latitude towards the lower latitudecauses a drop of temperature while local winds of Africa blowing towardsMediterranean like Khamsin, Sirocco, Gibli increase the temperature.
Topography: The temperature distribution also depends upon the topographic features
of the earth. For example the side of mountain facing the sun receives more heat than
the one opposite to it.
Ocean Currents: Ocean currents also affect the distribution of temperature on land andoceans. The warm ocean currents carries warm water from the tropics towards thehigher latitudes while cold currents bring cold water from higher latitudes to lowerlatitudes. At the same latitude, a coast encountering a cold current will have lessertemperature than the one encountering the warm current. For example, the GulfStream raises the temperature of the Norway coast by 5 degree C, while the LabradorCurrent reduces the temperature of Canada coast by 8 degree C.JPSC Notes brings Prelims and Mains programs for JPSC Prelims and JPSC Mains Exam preparation. Various Programs initiated by JPSC Notes are as follows:-
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