Sand miningis a practice that is used to extract sand, from various environments, such as beaches, inland dunes and dredged from ocean beds, and river beds of deltaic regions. The mining is in operation in all the continents of the Globe. Environmental problems occur when the rate of extraction of sand, gravel and other materials exceeds the rate of deposition.
Impact of Sand Mining:
- On River Environment : It leads to changes in its channel form, physical habitats and food webs – the river’s ecosystem. It also increases the velocity of flow in river which destroy flow-regime eventually erodes the river banks. It also lead to saline water intrusion.
- On Biological Environment
Sand mining is one of the main threats to the richbiodiversity alongside our perennial rivers andephemeral water courses. It can destroy riverinevegetation, cause erosion, pollute water sources andreduce the diversity of animals. The beach and dunesystem habitat along the coastal zones also victims.
Off-shore sand mining pumping biota with sand anddamaging coastal ecosystem.
- On Coastal Environment: Destruction of picturesque beaches, Destruction of sand dunes that act as a barrier against storms.
- Water table depletion and erosion in the quality of water