Soil Fertility status of Jharkhand
According to GIS based data, Soil fertility can be mapped. Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium are the major constituents, whichare considered important for soil fertility. Presence
Lohardaga and Simdega districts have less presence of Nitrogen in the soil as compared to other districts.
Palmau, Chatar, Kodarma, Giridh, Dumka, Godda, Sahibganj has less percent of Phosphorous as compared to other disctricts.
Kodarma, Lathehar, DevgharSimdega, Dumga has high presence of Potassium and Dhanbad has lowest presence of potassium content in the soil.
Application of Vermi Compost and Farm Yard Manure
Vermi Compost uses earthworm’s dung as manure whereas Farm yard manure indicates to all residual from farm yards including cattle dung, agricultural wastes.
Below are some of the application of Vermi-Compost and Farm Yard Manure
- It increased quality of soil by increasing the amount of various essential micro-nutrients
- Helps crop growing faster and healthier
- It do not worsen the quality of soil even after multiple uses
Nitrogen fixing Bacteria and their application
Nitrogen Fixing Bacteria
Nitrogen-fixing bacteria, microorganisms capable of transforming atmospheric nitrogen into fixed nitrogen (inorganic compounds usable by plants).
Two kinds of nitrogen-fixing bacteria are recognized.
- the free-living (nonsymbiotic) bacteria, includes the cyanobacteria(or blue-green algae) Anabaena and Nostoc and genera such as Azotobacter, Beijerinckia, and Clostridium.
- mutualistic (symbiotic) bacteria; examples include Rhizobium, associated with leguminous plants (e.g., various members of the pea family); Frankia, associated with certain dicotyledonous species (actinorhizal plants); and certain Azospirillum species, associated with cereal grasses.
The symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria invade the root hairs of host plants, where they multiply and stimulate formation of root nodules, enlargements of plant cells and bacteria in intimate association. Within the nodules the bacteria convert free nitrogen to ammonia, which the host plant utilizes for its development. To ensure sufficient nodule formation and optimum growth of legumes (e.g., alfalfa, beans, clovers, peas, soybeans), seeds are usually inoculated with commercial cultures of appropriate Rhizobium species, especially in soils poor or lacking in the required bacterium.
Application of Nitrogen Fixing Bacteria
- More than 90 percent of all nitrogen fixation is effected by these organisms, which thus play an important role in the nitrogen cycle.
- They increases the soil productivity and fertility
- Helps plants with necessary amount nitrogen compounds hence helping in growth of plant.
Concept of Organic farming
Organic farming is a method of farming system which primarily aimed at cultivating the land and raising crops in such a way, as to keep the soil alive and in good health by use of organic wastes. Example of organic wastes are crop, cow dungs etc.
Other biological materials along with beneficial microbes (bio-fertilizers) to release nutrients to crops for increased sustainable production in an eco friendly pollution free environment.
As per the definition of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) study team on organic farming “organic farming is a system which avoids or largely excludes the use of synthetic inputs (such as fertilizers, pesticides, hormones, feed additives etc) and to the maximum extent feasible rely upon crop rotations, crop residues, animal manures, off-farm organic waste, mineral grade rock additives and biological system of nutrient mobilization and plant protection”.
FAO suggested that “Organic agriculture is a unique production management system which promotes and enhances agro-ecosystem health, including biodiversity, biological cycles and soil biological activity, and this is accomplished by using on-farm agronomic, biological and mechanical methods in exclusion of all synthetic off-farm inputs”.
Need of organic farming
The scientists have realized that the ‘Green Revolution’ with high input use has reached a plateau and is now sustained with diminishing return of falling dividends. With the increase in population our compulsion would be not only to stabilize agricultural production but to increase it further in sustainable manner.
Thus, a natural balance needs to be maintained at all cost for existence of life and property. The obvious choice for that would be more relevant in the present era, when these agrochemicals which are produced from fossil fuel and are not renewable and are diminishing in availability. It may also cost heavily on our foreign exchange in future.
The key characteristics of organic farming include
- Providing crop nutrients indirectly using relatively insoluble nutrient sources which are made available to the plant by the action of soil micro-organisms
- Nitrogen self-sufficiency through the use of legumes and biological nitrogen fixation, as well as effective recycling of organic materials including crop residues and livestock manures
- Weed, disease and pest control relying primarily on crop rotations, natural predators, diversity, organic manure , resistant varieties and limited (preferably minimal) thermal, biological and chemical intervention. The extensive management of livestock, paying full regard to their evolutionary adaptations, behavioral needs and animal welfare issues with respect to nutrition, housing, health, breeding and rearing
- Careful attention to the impact of the farming system on the wider environment and the conservation of wildlife and natural habitats