Westernisation And Modernization

? Westernisation and modernization vs Traditionalism  Westernisation The role of Westernisation has been very significant in understanding the socio-cultural changes of modern India. British rule produced radical and lasting changes in the Indian society and culture. TheBritish brought with them, unlike the previous invaders, new technology, institutions, knowledge,beliefs, and values. These have become the … Read more

Issues Of Finance

? Issues of finance, ownership, operation and maintenance of all kinds of infrastructure Issues of finance For quite some time, the decline in asset quality under infrastructure financing has been a key area of concern for the banking sector in general and the Public Sector Banks in particular. Accordingly, several regulatory measures to de-stress … Read more

National Vocational Education Council

? National Vocational Education Council National council of vocational educational board is a national vocational education development organized mission promotes by planning commission government of India to ensure public organized co-operation effort implementation of the vocational education development plan. The constitution and functioning of public organized is approved unanimously by the planning commission government … Read more

Panchayat Financing And Devolution

? Panchayat: Financing, Resource mobilization and devolution Sources of Funds The Amendments left important matters such as implementation, service delivery (including local capacity building) and transfer of responsibilities and powers to rural local bodies at the discretion of the state legislatures. Consequently, while expenditure responsibilities of local bodies are extensively enhanced, there is no … Read more

Fuel Sector

?   Introduction   Power is one of the most critical components of infrastructure crucial for the economic growth and welfare of nations. The existence and development of adequate infrastructure is essential for sustained growth of the Indian economy.   India’s power sector is one of the most … Read more

MNREGA And Community Power Structure

? MNREGA and community power structure Several rural development programmes were initiated in India during 1950s and 1960s. These programmes, popularly known as community development programmes, regarded rural people as beneficiaries but not participants in the development process. They were centrally designed and were implemented by extension agents using a top-down mode of decision-making. … Read more

Current Account Deficit

? Current account deficit and Unfavorable balance of payment Current Account Deficit The current account deficit is a measurement of a country’s trade where the value of the goods and services it imports exceeds the value of the products it exports. The current account includes net income, such as interest and dividends, and transfers, … Read more

Current Trends And Challenges In The Indian Economy

? Current trends and challenges in the Indian Economy Good news is underway for India as its economy is poised to win back its tag of the fastest growing economy in the world. The recent upgrade of India’s rating by the US based credit rating agency Moody’s (Baa2 from Baa3) in recognition of the … Read more

Liability Based On Fault

? Liability based on fault Fault liability requires some basis to determine whether someone was negligent, i.e. at fault for the harm he caused. Briefly, that would require:   Duty Breach of that duty Proximate cause Actual cause Damages For example, if you were in a car accident, the fact that you were speeding … Read more

Industrial Sector

? Industrial Sector- Growth and recent trends Trends in Industrial growth Phase one Which had laid the basis for industrial development in the future. The second plan, basedon Mahalanobis model, emphasized the development of capital goods industries and basic industries. Accordingly huge investments were made in industries like iron andsteel, heavy engineering etc the … Read more

Development Of Industries

? Development of Industries:- Industrial Development in India during the British Rule:- 1. Subject Matter of Industrial Development 2. Early Efforts of Industrialization 3. Industries in the Inter-War Period (1919-38) 4. Industries during 1939-47 5. Reasons for Low Industrial Development in India.   Subject Matter of Industrial Development: Underdeveloped countries are greatly handicapped by shortage of capital … Read more

SKILL DEVELOPMENT

? SKILL DEVELOPMENT Introduction India is passing through the phase of demographic transition which could be the biggest opportunity or the biggest concern of the country depending upon the utilization of its huge work force. India adds 12 million people to its workforce annually, but very few have any formal skill training. Today, less … Read more

SEZs And Industrial Corridors Of India

? SEZs and Industrial Corridors of India SEZ The SEZ Corridor is an emerging corridor implementing a number of Special Economic Zones (SEZs) along the Grand Southern Trunk Road (NH 45) in Chennai. Started with the establishment of the Madras Export Processing Zone in 1984 (converted to a SEZ in 2003), the SEZ corridor … Read more

Government Of India Policy On Information Technology

? Government of India Policy on Information Technology (IT) Government provides IT resources to its employees to enhance their efficiency and productivity. These resources are meant as tools to access and process information related to their areas of work. These resources help Government officials to remain well informed and carry out their functions in … Read more

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY AND DAIRY

?                                            ANIMAL HUSBANDRY AND DAIRY Sustained efforts – Stabilized Primary sector  Technology in agriculture – bringing together global leaders in cutting edge technologies to aid small and marginal farmers  Drought – a thing of the past – Sustained growth in Agriculture and Allied sectors – Growth despite deficit rainfall  Soil Health … Read more

Debt And Investment In India

? Debt and Investment in India: Current Status Debt status Government liabilities  have been broadly classified as debt contracted against the Consolidated Fund of India (defined as Public Debt) and liabilities in the Public Account, called Other Liabilities. Public debt is further classified into internal and external debt. Internal debt consists of marketable debt … Read more

Internal Control

? Revision notes/ quick bytes Paper I, Part C: Accounting and Auditing: Internal Control   Internal Control: Internal control comprises of the plan of the organisation and all the coordinate methods and measures adopted within a business to safeguard its measures adopted within a business to safeguard its assets, check the accuracy and reliability … Read more

National Seed Policy

? National Seed Policy The Seed Act, 1966, seed control order 1983 and New Policy on Seeds Development, 1988, from the basis of promotion and regulation of the Indian Seed Industry. The “New Seed Policy” of 1988 ushered in a new area of growth and phenomenal development. Because, it allowed limited import of commercial … Read more

Pattern Of Revenue Expenditure

? Pattern of Revenue Expenditure In India, government expenditure – as per the provision in the Constitution – is divided into revenue expenditure and capital expenditure. However, the adoption of economic planning shifted emphasize on the division of expenditure into Plan and Non-Plan. The share of Non-Plan expenditure has remained close to 70% and … Read more

Social Welfare Programmes

? Social Welfare Programmes of India Social Welfare sector is responsible for the welfare, rehabilitation and development of the Persons with Disabilities, the Social Deviants, and the Other Disadvantaged who require special attention of the State because of the disabilities and vulnerabilities they suffer from. While there is no information about the size of … Read more

Social Audit

? RAS MAINS REVISION: Part III Auditing and Accounting     Social Audit: It is a tool through which government department can plan, manage and measure non-financial activities and monitor both internal and external consequences of the department social and commercial operation. OR Social Audit is an independent evaluation of the performance of an … Read more

Niti Ayog

? Niti Ayog – National Institution for Transforming India   The National Institution for Transforming India, also called NITI Aayog, was formed via a resolution of the Union Cabinet on January 1, 2015. NITI Aayog is the premier policy ‘Think Tank’ of the Government of India, providing both directional and policy inputs. While designing … Read more

Inputs Of Agriculture

? Inputs of agriculture Seed Seed is technically defined as ripened ovule containing embryo. Another definition says that the seed is a living embryo which is vital and basic input for attaining sustained growth in agricultural production in different agro-climatic conditions. The embryo in the seed remains almost suspended for sometimes and then revives … Read more

Planning And Capacity Building In Panchayati Raj System

? planning and capacity building in Panchayati raj system Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs) are rural local governments entrusted with the responsibilities to prepare plan and implement schemes for economic development and social justice in rural India. A number of Centrally Sponsored Schemes (CSS) assign important role to PRIs. In addition, PRIs are also involved … Read more

Advance Infrastructure In Rural Areas (1)

? Advance Infrastructure in Rural Areas Good quality infrastructure is critical to sustainable growth, especially for rural areas. As over 60 per cent of the population lives in rural areas, with low levels of per capital income, there is need to impart greater attention in improving rural infrastructure. Currently the rural infrastructure is inadequate … Read more

Export Promotion

? Export Promotion Government of India has liberalized the schemes for export oriented units and export processing Zones. Agriculture, Horticulture, poultry, fisheries and dairies have been included in the export oriented units. Export processing zones have been allowed to export through trading and star trading houses and can have equipment on lease. These units … Read more

Planning Mechanism And Experience In Panchayathi Raj Institutions

? Planning mechanism and experience in Panchayathi raj institutions Ever since India got freedom in 1947, efforts have been made to strengthen the panchayati raj system to create, in the rural people a sense of participation in the nation-building programme.   Article 40 under Directive Principles of State Policy of the Constitution directs the … Read more

Role Of Institutions In Promotion Of Education

? Role of Various Institutions (Central, State and Other Organizations) in Promotion of Education   Education is one of the important tasks undertaken by the present modem Governments. In 1921, the department of education came under the control of Indian Minister. Between 1921-1940, there was rapid expansion of educational institutions and enrolment of students. … Read more

Health Facilities In Rural Areas

?              Healthcare Facilities in Rural Areas   indigenous systems of medicine; drugs and pharmaceuticals. Public health being a State subject, the primary responsibility to provide improved access to healthcare services is that of the State Governments. However, under National Health Mission (NHM) financial support is provided to State/UT Governments to strengthen their healthcare … Read more

Calculation Of Interest On

? calculation of interest on/in savings account, fixed deposit account and recurring deposit account Saving account Interest rate calculation Formula  Daily interest = Amount (Daily balance) * Interest (3.5/100) / days in the year. Earlier method of interest rate calculation   Earlier, banks would pay interest at the rate of 3.5% p.a. on the … Read more

Tax Laws

? Tax Laws: Laws relating to income, Profits, Wealth Tax, Corporate Tax The Income-tax Act, 1961 The Income Tax Act, focusing on the rules and regulations of tax regulation, was initially put into existence in the year 1961. Under this act, everything related to taxation and more are mentioned which also includes collection and … Read more

Industrial Growth And Structure

? Industrial Growth and Structure – Public, Private and Joint Sectors Division of the Economy between Public Sector and Private Sector: The present economic structure of Indian economy is known as mixed economy, where there is a coexistence of both the public sector and the private sector. All the different types of industries are … Read more

Fisheries

? Fisheries: ‘Fisheries’ sector is becoming a subsector of Primary sector with consistently increasing contribution to the state economy. The state government envisages development in fisheries sector with a multi pronged strategy with essential focus on increasing fish production and thereby ensure sustainable development. Development of fisheries through effective value chain and boosting exports, … Read more

Agriculture In India

? Agriculture in India plays a pivotal role in providing livelihood, ensuring food security, reducing poverty and sustaining growth.  Overview of agriculture sector in India Agriculture & GVA: India is witnessing a general decline in share of agriculture in Gross Value Added (GVA). However, growth rate of agriculture & allied sectors have been fluctuating … Read more

Market Economy And Its Social Consequences

? Market Economy and its social consequences In primitive societies the usual system of exchanging goods vas barter system. At that time the idea of profit did not exist, ‘people accumulated goods not for making profit during the days of scarcity but to gain prestige. The system of trading often consisted if giving and … Read more

Industries And Industrial Estates Of Hyderabad

? Industries and industrial estates of Hyderabad Hyderabad is a historic beautiful City and is the Capital of Telangana. The city is called “Pearl City” and famous for its twinkling pearls and glass embedded bangles. The city was founded during Qutub Shahi dynasty and was called Bhagyanagar. The present Hyderabad district came into existence … Read more

FDI And Infrastructure Development

? FDI and Infrastructure Development One of the many areas in which foreign direct investment can benefit a country or any entity, for that matter, is that of development of infrastructure. It has been observed over the years, that a lot of countries as well as other recipients of direct investment from overseas entities … Read more

Recomendations Of The 14th Finance Commission

? Recomendations of the 14th Finance commission Article 280 of the Constitution of India requires the Constitution of a Finance Commission every five years, or earlier.  For the period from 1st April, 2015 to 31st March, 2020,  the 14th Finance Commission (FFC) was constituted by the orders of President on 2nd January, 2013 and … Read more

Rural Development Initiatives

? Rural development initiatives :Karnataka Urban Ashraya/Vajpayee Urban Housing Scheme This is State Sponsored scheme implemented for urban poor and it was introduced by the Government in the year 1991-92. The annual income of the beneficiary is Rs.32,000/-. The beneficiaries are selected by the Ashraya Committee comprising both official and non official members appointed … Read more

Child Labour

? Child labour The term “child labour” is often defined as work that deprives children of their childhood, their potential and their dignity, and that is harmful to physical and mental development. It refers to work that: is mentally, physically, socially or morally dangerous and harmful to children; and interferes with their schooling by: … Read more

Pricing Of Public Utilities And Government Policy

? Pricing of public utilities and government policy Priority to public There are a number of principles which govern the pricing of public utility services. There are public utilities like education, sewage, roads, etc. which may be supplied free to the public and their costs should be covered through general taxation. Dalton calls it … Read more

Open University

? Open University The Open University (OU) is a public distance learning and research university, and the biggest university in the UK for undergraduate education. The majority of the OU’s undergraduate students are based in the United Kingdom and principally study off-campus; many of its courses (both undergraduate and postgraduate) can also be studied … Read more

Vocational Education

? Vocational Education: As a tool of HR development Human resource development, in short, means invest­ment in human capital. Human capital means people can act as capital assets which yield a stream of economic benefits over their working life.  An improvement in the mental capability, skill, and physical capacity of the people constitutes an … Read more

Green GDP

? Green GDP Green Gross Domestic Product also known as Green GDP, accounts for the environmental consequences of a country’s traditional GDP. It acts as an index of the growth of economy with the environmental implications of that growth which is related to a country’s conventional GDP. Green GDP tells us the biodiversity that … Read more

Population Growth And Economic Development

? Population growth and economic development The effect of population growth on a society’s per capita output level depends on the pattern of population growth as also its institutional (organ­isational) framework. In other words, it depends on the age composition of the population. The pattern of spending reflects the age distribution. An ageing population—one … Read more

Coperative Society

? Co-operative movement in India and M.P The cooperative movement in India has its origin in agriculture and allied sectors. The first Cooperative Credit Societies Act was enacted in 1904.Subsequently a more comprehensive legislation called the Cooperative Societies Act was enacted. This Act provided for the creation of the post of registrar of cooperative … Read more

Problems Of Agricultural Labour

? Problems of Agricultural Labour Agricultural labourers who are mostly landless and form a significant section of rural society mainly depend on wage employment in agriculture. Majority of them belong to scheduled castes and scheduled tribes and among the worst exploited section of society.  Unlike the industrial worker who are well organised agricultural labourers … Read more

Government Market Borrowings

? Government market borrowings, loans and grants There are two types of borrowings : Internal borrowings External borrowings There is third mean of public loan i.e. other liabilities Internal borrowings Internal debt or domestic debt is the part of the total government debt in a country that is owed to lenders within the country. … Read more

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