Thermal power program of India
More than 65% of India’s electricity generation capacity comes from thermal power plants, with 85% of the country’s thermal power generation being coal-based. The ten biggest thermal power stations operating in India are all coal-fired, with five of them owned and operated by state-run National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC).
Vindhyachal Thermal Power Station, Madhya Pradesh
The Vindhyachal Thermal Power Station in the Singrauli district of Madhya Pradesh, with an installed capacity of 4,760MW, is currently the biggest thermal power plant in India. It is a coal-based power plant owned and operated by NTPC. Construction of the plant, which comprised 12 generating units (six 210MW units and six 500MW units), had begun in 1982. The first unit was commissioned in 1987 while the sixth 500MW was commissioned in April 2013. An additional 500MW unit was commissioned in August 2015, increasing the plant’s gross capacity from 4,260MW to 4,760MW.
Mundra Thermal Power Station, Gujarat
The 4,620MW Mundra Thermal Power Station located in the Kutch district of Gujarat is currently the second biggest operating thermal power plant in India. It is a coal-fired power plant owned and operated by Adani Power.
The power plant consists of nine generating units (four 330MW units and five 660MW units). The first 330MW unit was commissioned in May 2009 and the last 660MW unit of the plant commissioned in March 2012. The coal used for the power plant is mainly imported from Indonesia. The plant’s water source is the seawater from the Gulf of Kutch.
Sasan Ultra Mega Power Plant, Madhya Pradesh
The Sasan Ultra Mega power plant, located in the Sasan village of the Singrauli district, Madhya Pradesh, has an installed capacity of 3,960MW. Owned and operated by Reliance Power, it is one of India’s biggest power plants integrated with a coal mine. The coal-fired power plant includes six 660MW units and was fully commissioned in April 2015. It utilises coal from the Moher and Moher-Amlohri coal mines and draws water from Govind Vallabh Pant Sagar reservoir for its operations. It supplies reliable and low-cost power to approximately 420 million people across seven states.
Tiroda Thermal Power Plant, Maharashtra
The Tiroda thermal power plant is a 3,300MW coal-based power generation plant in Maharashtra, India. Owned and operated by Adani Power Maharashtra, the power plant consists of five 660MW units. The first unit of the power plant was commissioned in August 2012, while the last unit commenced operations in October 2014. The power plant uses state-of-the-art supercritical technology and draws water from the Wainganga River for its operations.
Talcher Super Thermal Power Station, Odisha
The Talcher Super Thermal Power Station or NTPC Talcher Kaniha, located in the Angul district of Odisha, is a 3,000MW coal-fired power plant owned and operated by NTPC. NTPC Talcher Kaniha plant consists of six 500MW units. The first unit of the plant was commissioned in February 1995 and the last unit began operations in February 2005. Turbine manufacturers for the plant were ABB and BHEL.
Rihand Thermal Power Station, Uttar Pradesh
Rihand Thermal Power Station is located at Rihandnagar, Sonebhadra district, Uttar Pradesh. Owned and operated by NTPC, the coal-fired power plant has an installed capacity of 3,000MW. The plant consists of six units generating 500MW each. The first unit was commissioned in March 1988 while the sixth unit was commissioned in October 2013.
Coal for the Rihand thermal power station is sourced from Amlori, Amloric expansion, and the Dudhichua mines in Madhya Pradesh. Water is sourced from the Rihand Reservoir built on Son River. The plant supplies electricity to various states in the northern part of India, including Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Delhi, Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, and Chandigarh.
Sipat Thermal Power Plant, Chhattisgarh
The 2,980MW Sipat Super Thermal Power Plant in Sipat, Bilaspur district, Chhattisgarh, ranks as the eighth-largest thermal power station in India. It is a coal-based power plant owned and operated by NTPC. The power plant built in two stages is installed with six generating units (three 660MW supercritical units and three 500MW units). The first unit of the plant commenced commercial operations in August 2008, while the last unit was commissioned in June 2012.
NTPC Dadri, Uttar Pradesh
NTPC Dadri or National Capital Power Station (NCPS) owned and operated by NTPC is located in the Gautam Budh Nagar district of Uttar Pradesh, about 48km from the Indian capital New Delhi. The power station, with an installed capacity of 2637MW (1820MW- coal based and 817MW gas based), ranks as the sixth largest thermal plant in India. The power station consists of six coal-fired units (four 210MW units and two 490MW units) and six gas-based generating units (four 130.19MW gas turbines and two 154.51MW steam turbines). The first coal-fired unit was commissioned in October 1991 and the last unit was commissioned in July 2010. The gas-based generating units were commissioned between 1992 and 1997.
Hydroelectric programme in india
Hydropower is a renewable energy resource because it uses the Earth’s water cycle to generate electricity. Water evaporates from the Earth’s surface, forms clouds, precipitates back to earth, and flows toward the ocean. The movement of water as it flows downstream creates kinetic energy that can be converted into electricity. 2700 TWH is generated every year. Hydropower supplies at least 50% of electricity production in 66 countries and at least 90% in 24 countries. Out of the total power generation installed capacity in India of 1,76,990 MW (June, 2011), hydro power contributes about 21.5% i.e. 38,106 MW. A capacity addition of 78,700 MW is envisaged from different conventional sources during 2007-2012 (the 11th Plan), which includes 15,627 MW from large hydro projects. In addition to this, a capacity addition of 1400 MW was envisaged from small hydro up to 25 MW station capacity. The total hydroelectric power potential in the country is assessed at about 150,000 MW, equivalent to 84,000 MW at 60% load factor. The potential of small hydro power projects is estimated at about 15,000 MW.
A hydroelectric power plant consists of a high dam that is built across a large river to create a reservoir, and a station where the process of energy conversion to electricity takes place. The first step in the generation of energy in a hydropower plant is the collection of run-off of seasonal rain and snow in lakes, streams and rivers, during the hydrological cycle. The run-off flows to dams downstream. The water falls through a dam, into the hydropower plant and turns a large wheel called a turbine. The turbine converts the energy of falling water into mechanical energy to drive the generator After this process has taken place electricity is transferred to the communities through transmission lines and the water is released back into the lakes, streams or rivers. This is entirely not harmful, because no pollutants are added to the water while it flows through the hydropower plant.