. Monolithic pillars and capitols made during this period are prime example of Mauryan art. The important places where the pillars have been found are Basarah-Bakhira, Lauriya-Nandangarh, Rampurva, Sankisa and Sarnath. These pillars were carved in two types of stone viz. the spotted red and white sandstone from the region of Mathura and buff-coloured fine … Read more DMPQ-Monolithic pillars are epitome of Mauryan architecture.” Elucidate.
When Napoleon named Joseph Bonaparte King of Spain and its colonies, which included Venezuela, Bolívar joined the resistance movement. The resistance group based in Caracas gained independence in 1810, and Bolívar traveled to Britain on a diplomatic mission. The fight for control of Caracas, Venezuela and most of South American continued on back home. Finally, … Read more DMPQ-Write an essay on Simon Bolivar’s role in latin America’s freedom.
Japan was the only country to remain outside colonial clutches. Japanese military generals called ‘shoguns’ ruled Japan for more than 200 years and emperor was mere figurehead. Japanese society was almost feudal and it was largely disconnected from the wider world. Japan awakened to the modern development in middle of 19th century only when its … Read more DMPQ-Write an essay on the rise of modern Japan.
Carbonari, a secret society was formed by people to liberate Italy from clutches of foreigners. Rulers of Naples and Piedmont also encouraged liberal tendencies. But these efforts were curbed by Metternich. French revolutions of 1830 and 1848 sparked feelings of liberation, but the smaller states couldn’t coordinate and Austria again suppressed movements and movement was … Read more DMPQ-Trace the events that led to the unification of Italy.
. Napoleon’s fetish for power led him to zenith and then to his doom. He made some terrible blunders like – Continental policy, invasion on Russia, attack on Spanish sovereignty and so on. The very economic system he was supposed to boost was badly damaged by wars. His European Wars hit the already developing France … Read more DMPQ- Napoleonic Empire was Doomed Because of Its Inherent and Self Defeating Contradictions.”
. Instead of being a radical abrupt change, the American Revolution was a culmination of evolutionary changes that resulted in an evolved way of life. With the social, political and economic spheres, the change occurred gradually and remained largely unnoticed. For example, in Political sphere, the 13 colonies already had a certain degree of independence, … Read more DMPQ- . “American Revolution was a Natural and Even Expected Event in The History of Colonial People Who Had Come of Age.” Comment.
. Of all the political parties that emerged immediately after independence the Socialist Party held the greatest promise. In Jayaprakash Narayan it had a leader next only to Jawaharlal Nehru in mass popularity. It had also several other brilliant leaders, for example, Acharya Narendra Dev, Achyut Patwardhan, Asoka Mehta, Dr Rammanohar Lohia and S.M. Joshi. … Read more DMPQ- . Throw light on the economic and political activities of Jaiprakash Narayan’s socialist party after independence.
Answer. In 1939 the Viceroy, Lord Linlithgow, declared India a party to war without consulting Indian political leaders or the elected provincial representatives. This caused considerable resentment in India and provoked the resignation en masse of elected Congress Party Provincial Governments in 1939 (which were elected in 1937), giving rise to the prospect of public … Read more DMPQ- Give a brief background about cripps mission. Mention the major features of cripps mission.
. Nehru died without naming a political heir and dissension and factionalism had become a part of Congress. Major contenders of PM post were Morarji Desai – a honest sound administrator, but unpopular for being self-righteous, inflexible and even right winger; and Lal Bahdur Shastri – a mild, tactful, likeable and personally incorruptible. The succession … Read more DMPQ- . Give a brief description of Lal Bahadur Shastri era.
Amidst all the confusion over war and Congress’ dilemma of joining the war, Muslim League passed a resolution in its 1940 session declaring that ‘Muslims are not a minority, but a separate nation’. This gave rise to ‘Two nation Theory’. It called for the creation of ‘independent states’ for Muslims in British India. The constituent … Read more DMPQ- Discuss how Lahore resolution became founding stone for the success of two nation theory.
Almost after Indira Gandhi’s swearing in as PM after 1971 elections, Bangladesh Crisis broke out. It was a direct challenge to the Two Nations Theory itself that people of one religion form one nation. Political and economic elites of West Pakistan had dominated the scene and people of East Pakistan had no mechanism to air … Read more DMPQ- Explain government of India’s role in the liberation of Bangladesh.
Gandhi had retired from Congress in 1934 and Congress under Jawahar’s leadership has acquired a taste of socialism and radicalism. Subhas was chosen unanimously in February 1938 session of Congress at Haripura to built upon that trend. In that session under the leadership of Bose, Congress passed a resolution to opposition to the impending imperialistic … Read more DMPQ- Explain how Tripuri congress session led to the foundation of Forward block.
. Third Round Table Conference happened in 1932, and no Congress leader participated. However its discussion and discussions of earlier Round Tables and Simon Commission recommendations led to the enactment of 1935 Act. Major features of the act are as follows: It introduced Federalism in India with Princely States and Provinces being its parts and … Read more DMPQ- Trace the salient features of Government of India act, 1935.
. In the wake of inconclusive Round Table Talks, British government had declared that, if a consensus was not reached on separate representation of minorities, a unilateral communal award will be made. Government kept its promise in form of Communal Award of 1932. The Communal Award was by the British Prime Minister Ramsay McDonald on … Read more DMPQ- Give a brief description of communal award (1932) and puna pact.
. The Congress had boycotted the first Round Table Conference (1930) which was actively attended by princely states, Ambedkar and other non-Congress parties. Ambedkar also raised the issue of separate electorate for Dalits and Jinnah demanded more safeguards for the Muslims (these two demands were reflected in Communal Award of 1932). After Gandhi-Irwin Pact, Gandhi … Read more DMPQ- Discuss the conditions in which second round table conference was conducted. Also mention the objectives of the conference.
. The Gandhi-Irwin pact was criticised by radical nationalists, for Gandhiji was unable to obtain from the Viceroy a commitment to political independence for Indians; he could obtain merely an assurance of talks towards that possible end. It was organised even as many Congress leaders opposed the Gandhi-Irwin pact, for the government had not accepted … Read more DMPQ- Discuss the significance of Karachi session of congress in India’s freedom struggle.
. Just after independence Justice Dhar Commission or Linguistic Provinces Commission of 1948 and another committee JVP Committee in the same year headed by Jawahar Lal, Vallabhai Patel and Pattabhi Sitaramayya advised against creation of states on linguistic lines and instead they recommended creation of states on the basis of administrative convenience for unity, security … Read more DMPQ- Explain how linguistic issues became a huge challenge during consolidation of India
. After non-action of government over Nehru Report and failure of government to agree upon any demand for even dominion status, Gandhiji was looking for a new plan amidst growing restlessness among the Congress and nation as a whole. Mahatma Gandhi found in salt a powerful symbol that could unite the nation. On 31 January … Read more DMPQ- . Discuss Gandhi’s 11 points and explain how they became background for civil disobedience movement.
Communalism in India was largely a result of divide and rule policy of the British and it was later strengthened by the two nation theory of Pakistan and hatred bred by it for all non-Muslims. It later gave birth to a counter force in terms of ideas of a potential Hindu State. Partition triggered off … Read more DMPQ- India was poised by communal tension on the eve of Independence.” Elucidate.
. The noncooperation movement spread from cities to rural areas and included peasants tribal areas as well. In Awadh, peasants were led by ‘Baba Ramchandra’ – a sanyasi who had earlier been to Fiji as an indentured labourer. The movement here was against talukdars and landlords who demanded from peasants exorbitantly high rents and a … Read more DMPQ- “Different regions of India had different interpretation of non-cooperation movement.” Explain.
. Expansion under Wellesley was perhaps one of the largest British expansions. He took over India at a time when France was engaged in a bitter war with Britain all over the world. He used many tactics for expansion from outright war to usurping the throne of erstwhile subsidiaries. Subsidiary Alliance was one such tool … Read more DMPQ- Discuss how Lord Wellesley’s Subsdiary Alliance policy helped the cause of expansion of British empire.
Mathur? art, style of Buddhist visual art that flourished in the trading and pilgrimage centre of Mathura, Uttar Pradesh, India, from the 2nd century BC to the 12th century AD; its most distinctive contributions were made during the Kush?n and Gupta periods (1st–6th century AD). Images in the mottled red sandstone from the nearby S?kri … Read more DMPQ-Highlight the salient features of Mathura school of art during 1st century A.D.
. The Simon Commission published a two-volume report in May 1930. It proposed the abolition of dyarchy and the establishment of representative government in the provinces which should be given autonomy. It said that the governor should have discretionary power in relation to internal security and administrative powers to protect the different communities. The number … Read more DMPQ-. Throw light on the Simon commission recommandations.
. The period saw the emergence of iconic Hindu deities like Vishnu, Kartikeya, Shiva Surya and many other gods and goddesses, carved in stone in temples and in temple architecture. After the Huna invaders destroyed most of the artworks from the Gupta period, the surviving ones seen to this day are the Gupta architecture of … Read more DMPQ-. “Sculpture and painting saw it’s peak during Gupta period.” Explain.
. The Indian response to the Simon Commission was immediate and nearly unanimous. What angered the Indians most was the exclusion of Indians from the commission and the basic notion behind the exclusion that foreigners would discuss and decide upon India’s fitness for self-government. This notion was seen as a violation of the principle of … Read more DMPQ-. How did different political groups respond to the Simon commission report ?
. The Chola period is a very significant span of time in that the south Indian art and architecture made marvelous achievement. The Chola dynasty was founded by vijayalaya Chola who controlled the vast geographical terrain of TamilNadu region that was earlier ruled by the Pallava kings of kanchipuram. Vjaylaxmi was a great builder of … Read more DMPQ-. “Temple architecture reached it’s peak during Chola period.” Elucidate.
Answer. Ideas of Marx and Socialist thinkers inspired many groups to come into existence as socialists and communists. These ideas also resulted in the rise of a left wing within the Congress, represented by Jawaharlal Nehru and Subhash Chandra Bose. These young nationalists, inspired by the Soviet Revolution and dissatisfied with Gandhian ideas and political … Read more DMPQ-. How did the spread of Marxist and Socialist Ideas effected India’s freedom struggle ?
. Susruta was a pioneer in the field of surgery. He considered surgery as “the highest division of the healing arts and least liable to fallacy”. He studied human anatomy with the help of a dead body. In Susruta Samhita, over 1100 diseases are mentioned including fevers of twenty-six kinds, jaundice of eight kinds and … Read more DMPQ-. Throw light on the contributions of Susruta and Charak in the field of ancient medical science.
. Gradually, the Swarajist position had weakened because of widespread communal riots, and a split among Swarajists themselves on communal and Responsivist-Non-responsivist lines. The government strategy of dividing the Swarajists— the more militant from the moderate, the Hindus from the Muslims—was successful. The Swarajists lost the support of many Muslims when the party did not … Read more DMPQ-. Trace the Swaraj party’s activities in Councils. Also mention their achievements.
. Aryabhatta was a fifth century mathematician, astronomer, astrologer and physicist. He was a pioneer in the field of mathematics. At the age of 23, he wrote Aryabhattiya, which is a summary of mathematics of his time. There are four sections in this scholarly work. In the first section he describes the method of denoting … Read more DMPQ-. Bring out the Contributions of Aryabhatt in the field of Science and mathematics.
After Gandhi’s arrest (March 1922), there was disintegration, disorganisation and demoralisation among nationalist ranks. A debate started among Congressmen on what to do during the transition period, i.e., the passive phase of the movement. One section led by C.R. Das, Motilal Nehru and Ajmal Khan wanted an end to the boycott of legislative councils so … Read more DMPQ- What was the reason behind the foundation of swaraj party ? what arguments swaraji leaders presented to convince congress leadership?
. The Mughal architecture began in the reign of Akbar. He erected many important buildings. The crowning achievements of his reign was the building of his new capital city of Fatehpur Sikri., 40 km from Agra. Fatehpur Sikri is a romance of stones. The Arch of the Buland Darwaja is the most imposing gateway in … Read more DMPQ- . Give a brief description of Architecture development during Akbar’s reign.
. The background to the two movements was provided by a series of events after the First World War which belied all hopes of the government’s generosity towards the Indian subjects. The year 1919, in particular, saw a strong feeling of discontent among all sections of Indians for various reasons: The economic situation of the … Read more DMPQ- . Point out the historical background in which Non-cooperation and Khilafat movement began.
. With the arrival of Turks during the thirteenth century came a new technique of architecture- the architectural styles of Persia, Arabia and Central Asia. The engineering features of these buildings were the domes, arches and minarets. The palaces, mosques and tombs built by the rulers had these features which were blended with the features … Read more DMPQ- Trace the evolution of architecture during Delhi sultanate period.
. Just six months before the Montford Reforms were to be put into effect, two bills were introduced in the Imperial Legislative Council. One of them was dropped, but the other—an extension to the Defence of India Regulations Act 1915—was passed in March 1919. It was what was officially called the Anarchical and Revolutionary Crimes … Read more DMPQ- The Rowlatt Act gave executive branch extraordinary powers to suppress any discordant voice against the legislative reforms.” Elucidate.
. The temple building activities that began during the Gupta rule continued to flourish in later periods. In southern India the Pallavas, Cholas, Pandyas, Hoyshalas and later the rulers of the Vijaynagar kingdom were great builders of temples. The Pallava rulers built the shore temple at Mahabalipuram. Pallavas also built other structural temples like Kailashnath … Read more DMPQ- . Discuss the origin and main features of free standing temple architecture in India.
. Gandhi was requested by Rajkumar Shukla, a local man, to look into the problems of the farmers in context of indigo planters of Champaran in Bihar. The European planters had been forcing the peasants to grow indigo on 3/20 part of the total land (called tinkathia system). When towards the end of the nineteenth … Read more DMPQ- “Champaran Satyagraha (1917) was Gandhi’s first Civil Disobedience movement in India.” Elucidate.
. The excavations at Harappa and Mohenjodaro and several other sites of the Indus Valley Civilisation revealed the existence of a very modern urban civilisation with expert town planning and engineering skills. Main features of Harappan remains are: The settlements could be traced as far back as third millennium BC. Some important settlements were excavated … Read more DMPQ- Throw light on the salient features of Harappan architecture.
. The Indians in South Africa consisted of three categories—one, the indentured Indian labour, mainly from south India, who had migrated to South Africa after 1890 to work on sugar plantations; two, the merchants—mostly Meman Muslims who had followed the labourers; and three, the ex-indentured labourers who had settled down with their children in South … Read more DMPQ- . Discuss the Gandhi’s struggle in South Africa for the rights of Indian workers.
. Presently, all the three art forms i.e. dance, music and drama are flourishing in the country. Several music institution like Gandharva Mahavidyalaya and Prayag Sangeet Samiiti have been imparting training in classical music and dance for more than fifty years. A number of schools, colleges and universities in India have adopted these art forms … Read more DMPQ- Give a brief description of contemporary state of India’s performing arts.
. The reforms had many drawbacks: Franchise was very limited. The electorate was extended to some one-and-a-half million for the central legislature, while the population of India was around 260 million, as per one estimate. At the centre, the legislature had no control over the viceroy and his executive council. Division of subjects was not … Read more DMPQ- Trace the drawbacks of Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms and Government of India Act, 1919.
Indigeneous tradition as well as modern research trace the origin of Indian drama to the Vedas. In the Ramayana we hear of drama troupes of women while Kautilyas Arthshastra mentions musicians, dancers and dramatic shows. Drama is a performing art, which has also been practised since times immemorial. Drama could spring from a child’s play. … Read more DMPQ- . Trace the origin of Drama in India. Also mention the regional versions of Dram in India.
Post-War Economic Hardships India contributed in men and money towards the British war efforts. Thousands of Indian men died in the war on various fronts. The food supplies and ammunition and the army’s keep came from the money raised by taxing Indians. When the war ended, all sections of the Indian population were experiencing hardships … Read more DMPQ- . Point out the reasons for the resurgence of nationalism in India after first world war.
. It is difficult to say at what point of time dance originated, but it is obvious that dance came into existence as an effort to express joy. Gradually dances came to be divided as folk and classical. The classical form of dance was performed in temples as well as in royal courts. The dance … Read more DMPQ- Trace the origin of different forms of classical dance in India.
The importance of Komagata Maru Incident lies in the fact that it created an explosive situation in the Punjab. Komagata Maru was the name of a ship which was carrying 370 passengers, mainly Sikh and Punjabi Muslim would-be immigrants, from Singapore to Vancouver. They were turned back by Canadian authorities after two months of privation … Read more DMPQ- “Komagata Maru Incident and the publication of Ghadar paper were evidences of expension of Indian nationalism outside of the country.” Elucidate.
Hindustani classical music may be traced back to the period of the Delhi Sultanate and to Amir Khusrau (AD 1253-1325) who encouraged the practice of musical performance with particular instruments. He is believed to have invented the sitar and the tabla and is said to have introduced new ragas. Most of the Hindustani musicians trace … Read more DMPQ- Bring out the differences between Hindustani classical music and Carnatic classical music.
. The reforms of 1909 afforded no answer to the Indian political problem. Lord Morley made it clear that colonial self-government (as demanded by the Congress) was not suitable for India, and he was against the introduction of parliamentary or responsible government in India. He said, “If it could be said that this chapter of … Read more DMPQ- Evaluate critically the impact of Morley-Minto Reforms of 1909.
. The literal meaning of Kalamkari is a painting done by kalam (pen). This art got enriched as it came down from one generation to another. These paintings are made in Andhra Pradesh. It is hand painted as well as block printing with vegetable dyes applied on cloth. Vegetable dyes are used for colour in … Read more DMPQ- Discuss the important features of Kalamkari painting.
. The British government in India had been hostile to the Congress from the beginning. Even after the Moderates, who dominated the Congress from the beginning, began distancing themselves from the militant nationalist trend which had become visible during the last decade of the nineteenth century itself, government hostility did not stop. This was because, … Read more DMPQ- Describe the British reaction against national movement after the introduction of swadesi movement and increasing influence of extremist leaders.
. Mithila painting also known as Madhubani folk art is the traditional art of the Mithila region of Bihar. They are produced by village women who make three dimensional images using vegetable colour with few earthen colours and finished in black lines on cow dung treated paper. These pictures tell tales especially about Sita’s exile, … Read more DMPQ- Describe the salient features of Mithila school of paintings.