Synopsis of NCERTS

  Introduction Indian national movement: One of the biggest. Inspired many others. Gandhian Political Strategy very important. Elements of Gandhian Strategy can be seen in the Solidarity Movement in Poland by Lech Walesa WHY IS THE INDIAN NATIONAL MOVEMENT UNIQUE In the Indian national movement, the Gramscian perspective of war of position was successfully practiced. … Read more

Administrative Organization of the British

Army Army fulfilled four important functions: Instrument to conquer Indian powers Defended the British Empire in India against foreign rivals Safe-guarded against interinal revolt Chief instrument for extending and defending the British Empire in Asia and Africa. Bulk of the army consisted of Indians. In 1857, of the total strength of 311400, about 265900 were … Read more

Social and Cultural Awakening

  Raja Rammohan Roy: RRM Roy was a social reformer and intellectual in the early nineteenth century Bengal. He is most widely known for founding the Brahmo Samaj and his relentless campaign against the practice of Sati and child marriage. Debendranath Tagore: Brahmo Samaj: BS was founded in 1828 by Raja Ram Mohan Roy with … Read more

India in the Eighteenth Century

Bahadur Shah 1 (1707-12)   Muzam succeeded Aurungzeb after latter’s death in 1707 He acquired the title of Bahadur Shah. Though he was quite old (65) and his rule quite short there are many significant achievements he made He reversed the narrow minded and antagonistic policies of Aurungzeb Made agreements with Rajput states Granted sardeshmukhi to … Read more

Important Acts

The Govt. of India Act Gave assurance that there would be no more territorial possessions. Titles were 1858 bestowed  on  many  princes  &  the  right  of  adoption  was  accepted.  No         interference in religious matters. The Indian Council Provided  that  there  was  no  difference  between  the  central  &  provincial Act 1861 subjects. … Read more

Miscellaneous Facts:

  1.The Marathas were Scindia (Gwalior), Holkar (Indore), Gaekwar (Baroda), Bhonsle (Nagpur).   2.Sawai Jai Singh of Amer (Jaipur) had Euclid’s ‘Elements of Geometry) & several works on Trigonometry were translated into Sanskrit. Banda Bairagi was baptised as Banda Singh Bahadur by Guru Gobind Singh.   3.Alfonso d’ Albuquerque came to India as the Portuguese … Read more

FAMOUS SAYING

I wish for a peaceful term of India. I cannot forget that in the sky of India ,   Lord Canning serene as it is, a small cloud may arise ………..threaten to burst & overwhelm.     ‘a battle of blacks against the whites’ (on 1857 revolt)   J.W. Kaye The war which began for … Read more

Conspiracy Cases/ Revolutionary Act

  Nasik Conspiracy Case Anant Kanhare & Ganesh Savarkar short dead collector Jackson of Nasik with the revolver sent by V.D. Savarkar Muzaffarpur Shooting 1908. Khudi Ram & Prafulla Chaki tried to bomb Kingsford, the District Judge of Muzaffarpur but instead his wife & daughter died.  Khudiram a minor was hanged & Prafulla Chaki shot … Read more

Congress Sessions

  1885 W.C. Bannerjee Bombay   1886 Dadabhai Naroji Calcutta   1887 Badruddin Tyabji Madras   1888 George Yule Allahabad   1889 William Weederburn Bombay   1905 G.K. Gokhale Banaras – Issues like welcoming the prince of wales led to feud   1906 Dadabhai Naoroji Calcutta – Approval of issues of swadesi & national education. … Read more

Major Armed Uprising

Wahabi Shah Abdul Aziz & Saiyed Ahmad Raebarelvi. Objective was to reform the Muslim Movement society& convert ‘Dur-ul-Harb’ (Non-Islamic community) into ‘Dar-ul-Islam’.   Origianlly the movement was started in Arabia by Muhammad Ibn-Aba-e-Wahid.   Its main centre was Patna, Sittana (NW province). Kuka Bhai Ram Singh (Disciple of Bhai Balak Singh). It is also called … Read more

Social Reformers & Their Work AND Freedom fighters

      Rajaram Mohun   Laid stress on the study of English & established the Hindu College in Calcutta Roy   alongwith David Hare. Maharishi   The grandfather of Rabindranath Tagore. He inspired a number of thinkers like Devendranath   Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar & Akshay Kumar Datta who became Brahmo Samaj Tagore   members.  … Read more

Movements/Organizations

Aligarh Movement Sir Sayyed Ahmad Khan Deoband Represented  by  Mohammad  Qasim  Nanautavi  &  Rashid  Ahmad  Gangohi. Movement Nanautavi founded the ‘Dar-ul-Ullema’ madrasa at Deoband. This movement was   strictly  based  on  Islamic  tradition unlike liberal  Aligarh movement.   The  also   promulgated a fatwa against Sayyid Ahmad’s associations. In 1919, Mufti Liyaqat   Ullah  Sahib  founded  … Read more

Socio-Religious Reformers & their Organizations

                Atmiya Sabha (1815) Raja Rammohun Roy Brahmo Samaj (1828) Raja Rammohun Roy. Tattvabodhini Sabha (1839). Later merged with Mahrishi Devendranath Tagore. Brahmo Samaj in 1842   Indian national Social Conference M.G. Ranade Harijan Sevak Sangh Mahatma Gandhi Satya Shodhak Samaj (1873) Jyotirao Phule (fight caste oppression) Shri … Read more

Books/Articles & Authors (Modern)

      Ghulamgiri (challenged superiority of Brahmins)   Jyotiba Phule Tuhfat-ul-Muwahhidin (Gift to Monotheists in Persian)   Raja Rammohun Roy Dharma Tritiya Ratna, Ishvara & Life of Shivaji   Jyotiba Phule New Lamp for the Old (Series of Articles criticizing Congress)   Aurobindo Ghosh Doctrine of Passive Resistance (Articles in Bande Mataram)   Aurobindo … Read more

Land Settlements

          Zamindari System (19%) Bengal, Bihar, Banaras, division of NW provinces & northern Carinatic.         90 % of the revenue went to government & 10 % to Zamindar (British) Mahalwari System (30%) Major parts of NW provinces, Central provinces & Punjab. Responsibility         of paying … Read more

Important Treaties

Treaty of Pondicherry     After the II Carinatic war. Muhammad Ali, son of late Anwar-ud-din was         accepted as the Nawab of Carinatic.   Treaty of Mangalore     Signed between Tipu & British in 1784. Under this Tipu withdrew his army   1784     from Carinatic & English withdrew … Read more

Important Battles

1744-48 First Anglo-French Carinatic war. Madras returned to British by the treaty of Aix-la-   Chappalle. In battle of St. Thome, a small French Army defeated Nawab Anwar-ud-   din’s large one. 1748-54 Second Anglo French Carinatic war. The French sided with Muzaffar Jang (grandson of   Asaf Jah) & Chanda Sahib (in Carinatic) while … Read more

The Peshwas

            1713-20   Balaji Vishwanath Shahu appointed him as the Peshwa.     1720-40   Baji Rao I Baji Rao I succeded who was the most charismatic leader in             Maratha history after Shivaji.He conquered Malwa, Bundelkhand             & even … Read more

Other Contemporary States

              Bihar   After Saadat Khan, *Safdarjung* became the king  who was an impartial ruler &         carried out many reforms & was made the wazir of mughal empire. Shuja-ud-Daula         succeded him to throne. He was also made the wazir of mughal … Read more

Modern Period – Later Mughals

    1707-12 Bahadur Shah I 1712-13 Jahandar Shah 1713-19 Farukk Siyar 1719-48 Muhammad Shah Rangila 1748-54 Ahmad Shah 1754-59 Alamgir II 1759-1806 Shah Alam II 1806-1837 Akbar Shah II 1837-57 Bahadur Shah II     Later Mughal Rulers Bahadur Shah I After the death of Aurangzeb, prince Muazzam, Azam & Kam Bakhsh fought in … Read more