JPSC Prelims Notes for Geography of World and India

Physical Geography (General Principles) :

(i) Origin and evolution ol earth, interior of earth, Wegner’s Continental Drift Theory; Plate tectonics.Volcanoes, Earthquakes and Tsunamis

(ii)Major types of rocks and their characteristics, evolution and characteristics of landformsin the Fluvial, Glacial, Arid and Karst regions

(iii) Geomorphic processes; Weathering, mass wasting, erosion and deposition,soil formation,Landscape cycles, ideas of Davis and Penck

(iv)Composition, Structure and Stratification of the atmosphere

(v) Insolation,heat budget of the earth.

(vi) Horizontal and vertical distribution of temperature, inversion of  temperature.

(vii) Air masses and fronts. Tropical and temperate cyclones.

(viii) Evaporation and Condensation: dew, frost, fog, mist and cloud, rainfall types.

(ix)Classification of climates, (Koppen and Thornthwaite), Greenhouse effect, global warming and climatic changes

(x) Hydrological cycle, distribution of temperature and solicits in the oceans and seas, waves,tides and currents, ocean floor relief features,


Physical and Human Geography of India ;

(xi) Structure, relief and physio-graphic divisions.Drainage Systems :Himalayan and the Peninsular.

(xii)Indian monsoon, mechanism, onset and retreat, climatic types (Koppen and Trcwartha).Green Revolution and its impact on major crops of India. Food scarcity

(xiii) Natural Vegetation-Forest types and distribution, wild life, conservation, biosphere reserves.

(xiv)Major types of Soils.(ICAR classification) and their distribution. Soil degradation and conservation

(xv) Natural Hazards : Floods, Droughts, Cyclones, Landslides,

(xvi) Population growth, distribution and density
(xvii)Age: Sex, ratio, rural-urban composition;

(xviii)Population, environment and development

(xix)Types of Settlements : rural and urban. Urban morphology; functional classification of urban settlements Problems of human settlement in India.

Natural Resources of India;

Development and Utilization Land Resources i General land use, agricultural land use,
(xx) geographical condition and distribution of major crops, like,Rice, Wheat,Cotton, Jute, Sugarcane, Rubber, Tea and Coffee,

(xxi) Water Resources : Availability and utilization for industrial and other purposes, irrigation, scarcity of water, methods of conscrvatlon-rain water harvesting and watershed management, ground water management.
(xxH)Minerals and Energy Resources : Distribution and utility of [a] metaiic minerals (ion ore, copper, bauxite, magnese), (b) non- metallic and conventional minerals [coal,petroleum and natural gas), (c) hydro electricity and non conventional sources of energy (Solar, Wind, bio-gas),(d) energy sources Their distribution and conservation.

(xxiii) Development of Industries : Types of Industries;factors of industrial location, distribution and changing pattern of selected industries [iron and steel, cotton textile, sugar and petro- chemicals); Weber’s theory of industrial locatlon-lts relevance in the modern world.

(xxiv) Transport, Communication and International Trade : Roads, railways and water ways. Bases of International trade, changing pattern of India’s ‘ foreign trade.

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