Social forestry means the management and protection of forests and afforestation on barren lands with the purpose of helping in the environmental, social and rural development. The National Commission on Agriculture (1976) has classified social forestry into three categories. The main thrust of social forestry is to reduce pressure on the traditional forest areas by … Read more DMPQ-Briefly describe the major components of social forestry. Also mention the significance of it.
. The salient features of the Draft National Water Policy (2012) are presented below: Emphasis on the need for a national water framework law, comprehensive legislation for optimum development of inter-State rivers and river valleys, amendment of Irrigation Acts, Indian Easements Act, 1882, etc. Water, after meeting the pre-emptive needs for safe drinking water and … Read more DMPQ-. Discuss the salient features of India’s national water policy.
Global warming due to GHGs and Ozone depletion may have following adverse consequences: Faster snow melting and glacier depletion Melting of glaciers will put close to half of world’s population under threat from flooding in short term and draughts, water and power shortages in long run. Siachin Glacier has retreated by around 1 km in … Read more DMPQ-Throw light on the potential consequences we are witnessing because of global warming.
. India’s policy on climate change can be broadly divided into two phases – one in which it strictly adhered to ‘Historical Responsibility’ slogan and the other when it diluted it as it became a bigger economy and bigger polluter. India has become third largest emitter of GHG in absolute terms only behind China, which … Read more DMPQ-Discuss India’s climate change policy and also mention the changes brought in it overtime.
. The Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits has been negotiated under the aegis of CBD to fulfill one of the objectives of CBD i.e. to promote equitable sharing of benefits arising out of use of genetic resources. It was signed by CoP in Nagoya, Japan. Once … Read more DMPQ-Briefly discuss the significance of Nagoya protocol, 2010 in the conservation of biodiversity.
Kyoto protocol set ambitious goals for countries but couldn’t meet them. Reasons for the failure of Kyoto protocol are as follows: Though Kyoto was legal, it didn’t have provision of enforcing penalties, as a result developed countries failed to meet the target and also got away with that. Developing countries criticized this protocol from the … Read more DMPQ- Explain why Kyoto protocol couldn’t achieve it’s goals.
. In a bid to curb carbon emissions and global warming, Kyoto Protocol was signed among various countries and it entered into force in 2005 which marked the beginning of its first commitment period till 2012 (second commitment period was agreed from 2013-20). It was an extension of UNFCCC and a concrete plan to bring … Read more DMPQ- . Briefly discuss the Kyoto protocol. Also mention the two major instruments of this protocol.
. Like all industries, the generation of electricity produces waste. Whatever fuel is used, the waste produced in generating electricity must be managed in ways that safeguard human health and minimise the impact on the environment.For radioactive waste, this means isolating or diluting it such that the rate or concentration of any radionuclides returned to … Read more DMPQ-“Nuclear waste is quickly becoming the most dangerous challenges for the world.” Elucidate.
A signatory to the Stockholm Declaration (1972) on Environment, India enacted laws to control water (1974) and air (1981) pollution soon after. But it was only after the Bhopal gas leak disaster in 1984 that the country legislated an umbrella Act for environmental protection in 1986. Exemptions All inland waterways projects and expansion/widening of national … Read more DMPQ- . Throw light on the salient features of draft Environment Impact Assessment (EIA), 2020.
single-use plastics are goods that are made primarily from fossil fuel–based chemicals (petrochemicals) and are meant to be disposed of right after use—often, in mere minutes. Single-use plastics are most commonly used for packaging and serviceware, such as bottles, wrappers, straws, and bags. The bigger challenge is to put in place an efficient waste management … Read more DMPQ- What is single use plastic? Explain how management of single use plastic pollution is a severe challenge for India.
. Due to its low capital cost, groundwater is the most preferred source of water in India. According to an estimate, groundwater accounts for nearly 80 per cent of the rural domestic water needs, and 50 per cent of the urban water needs in India. However, a variety of land and water- based human activities … Read more DMPQ- “Groundwater pollution in India has become a serious problem in recent years.” Elucidate.
. Space launches can have a hefty carbon footprint due to the burning of solid rocket fuels. Many rockets are, however, propelled by liquid hydrogen fuel, which produces ‘clean’ water vapour exhaust, although the production of hydrogen itself can cause significant carbon emissions. Rocket engines release trace gases into the upper atmosphere that contribute to … Read more DMPQ- . “It has been said that space exploration is bad for environment.” Critically comment the statement.
. The Ministry revised the rules for management of solid waste in the municipal areas after 16 years. The new rules are now applicable beyond municipal areas and extend to urban agglomerations, census towns, notified industrial townships, areas under the control of Indian Railways, airports, airbase, port and harbour, defence establishments, special economic zones, state … Read more DMPQ-. How Solid waste management rules 2016 are going to solve India’s solid waste treatment problem?
. National Ambient Air Quality Standards envisaging 12 pollutants have been notified under the EPA, 1986 along with 115 emission/effluent standards for 104 different sectors of industries, besides 32 general standards. Government is executing a nation-wide programme of ambient air quality monitoring known as National Air Quality Monitoring Programme (NAMP). The network consists of six … Read more DMPQ-. Explain the measures taken by central and state governments to curb the menace of air pollution in India.
Project Tiger was launched in 1973 for conserving the tiger. From 9 tiger reserves since its formative years, the Project Tiger coverage has increased to 50, spread out in 18 of tiger range states. These reserves are constituted on a core / buffer strategy. The core areas have the legal status of a national park … Read more DMPQ-. “Project Tiger has played an important role to multiply the tiger population in India’. Elaborate.
The surface water percolates well when the rocks are permeable, thinly bedded and highly jointed and cracked. After vertically going down to some depth, the water under the ground flows horizontally through the bedding planes, joints or through the materials themselves. It is this downward and horizontal movement of water which causes the rocks to … Read more DMPQ- Discuss the process of landforms formed by the erosion of groundwater.
. Green GDP refers to a national accounting system of the utilization of the non-renewable natural resources of any country and is now being envisioned as a part of sustainable development. The objective is to utilize the resources optimally, efficiently and effectively in furthering the growth of economies and at the same time a realization … Read more DMPQ- What is the concept of Green GDP ? Throw light on sustainable goals set out to achieve the Green GDP .
According to Ramsar Convention, wetland is defined as, “areas of marsh, fen, peat land or water, whether natural or artificial, permanent or temporary, with water that is static or flowing, fresh, brackish or salt, including areas of marine water the depth of which at low tide does not exceed 6 metres”. Key Features of the … Read more DMPQ- Analyze the guidelines issued by Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEF&CC) for implementation of Wetlands (Conservation and Management) Rules, 2017.
. It is an Integrated Conservation Mission for river Ganga, approved as ‘Flagship Programme’ by the Union Government in 2014 with budget outlay of Rs.20,000 Crore. Main pillars of the mission River front development o Conservation of Aquatic life and biodiversity Improvement of coverage of sewerage infrastructure in habitations on banks of Ganga. River … Read more DMPQ- Throw a light on the mission pillars of Namami Gange mission. Also suggest some vital measures to make Ganga a clean river.
Environment Impact Assessment or EIA can be defined as the study to predict the effect of a proposed activity/project on the environment. A decision making tool, EIA compares various alternatives for a project and seeks to identify the one which represents the best combination of economic and environmental costs and benefits. EIA systematically examines both … Read more DMPQ- What is Environment impact assessment (EIA) ? What are issues related with EIA 2020 draft?
. A still larger issue now emerging is the environmental issues, erosion of forest cover, etc, around the infrastructure projects. The present issues being faced in Orissa and other states on projects which can not only alter the face of the state but also the nation in terms of economic development need deeper introspection. The … Read more DMPQ- “ We have recently witnessed many environmental challenges arising in India’s infrastructural projects.” Elucidate the statement by citing recent examples.
The International Solar Alliance (ISA) was conceived as a coalition of solar-resource-rich countries (which lie either completely or partly between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn) to address their special energy needs. The ISA will provide a dedicated platform for cooperation among solar-resource-rich countries, through which the global community, including governments, bilateral … Read more DMPQ- What is International Solar Alliance (ISA) ? Discuss it’s interests and objectives in achieving renewable energy goals.
. Single-use plastics, often also referred to as disposable plastics, are commonly used for plastic packaging and include items intended to be used only once before they are thrown away or recycled. These include, among other items, grocery bags, food packaging, bottles, straws, containers, stirrers, styrofoam cups or plates etc. Impacts of single use … Read more DMPQ- What is single use plastics? Explain how they are dangerous for environment?
Mangroves are salt-tolerant vegetation that grows in intertidal regions of rivers and estuaries. They are referred to as ‘tidal forests’ and belong to the category of ‘tropical wetland rainforest ecosystem’. Causes of Depletion of mangroves Sea level rise and coastal erosion Due to global warming, the sea levels are continuously rising. The rising sea levels … Read more DMPQ- . Discuss the causes of depletion of mangroves and Suggest some measures to protect them
. India due to its geography and scarce resources is more prone to Disasters. For disaster management India has enacted many guidelines and laws. It has signed Sendai Framework and earlier Hyogo Framework and continuously work towards protecting its vulnerable community. Measures taken in India for DRR after signing Sendai Framework India recently released first … Read more DMPQ- Discuss the various measures taken in India for Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) before and after signing ‘Sendai Framework for DRR.
. Virtual water (VW) is the water ‘embodied’ in a product, not in real sense, but in virtual sense. It refers to the water needed to produce a product. Every product has a unique water footprint defined as the total volume of fresh water used to produce the goods and services consumed by the individual … Read more DMPQ- What is the concept of virtual water trade ? discuss its significance and implications in India.
India has continuously demonstrated its responsibility towards acknowledging the emerging threats from climate change and implementing the climate actions on the basis of the principles of Equity and Common but Differentiated Responsibilities for improving efficiency of the economy and its engines of growth. The major policies and plans include: India under Paris Deal India has … Read more DMPQ- . Discuss the Indian government’s initiatives in recent years to deal with climate change.
Recently, various studies have pointed out that disasters due to climate change have been displacing more people than conflicts. This phenomenon is being referred to as Environmental Migration. According to Global Report on Internal Displacement (GRID, 2019), in 2018, of the total new 28 million internally displaced people in 148 countries, 61% were due to … Read more DMPQ- . What is environmental migration and environmental refugee? Discuss how increasing threat of climate is leading to phenomenon of environmental migration,
Food Security Rising temperatures, heat extremes, floods, droughts and rainfall variability can disrupt rainfed agricultural food production and adversely impact crop yield. For instance, as per a NITI Aayog document, of the total pulses, oilseeds and cotton produced in the country, 80% pulses, 73% oilseeds and 68% cotton come from rain-fed agriculture. Water Security Droughts … Read more DMPQ- . As per Global Climate Risk Index, India’s rank has worsened from 14th spot to 5th most vulnerable country to climate change. Discuss the implications of this report.
Solid Waste treatment and disposal utilizing plasma arc gasification process is an option for eco-friendly solid waste management in which large volume reduction of waste up to 95% is possible. The plasma gasification process uses electricity to generate high temperature plasma arc (above 3000°C) inside the plasma reactor which converts the waste into syngas. The … Read more DMPQ- Discuss the Sustainable Processing of Municipal Solid Waste.
Government of India has been conserving snow leopard and its habitat through the Project Snow Leopard (PSL). The PSL was launched in 2009. Government is committed to landscape restoration for snow leopard habitat conservation, and implementing participatory landscape-based management plans involving local stakeholders, the. The Minister said, India is also party to the Global Snow … Read more DMPQ- Write an essay on the steps taken in landscape restoration for snow leopard habitat conservation.
The Global Environment Facility (GEF) was established on the eve of the 1992 Rio Earth Summit to help tackle our planet’s most pressing environmental problems. Since then, the GEF has provided close to $20.5 billion in grants and mobilized an additional $112 billion in co-financing for more than 4,800 projects in 170 countries. The GEF provides funding to assist developing countries in … Read more DMPQ- Write a short note on Global environment facility.
Major findings are as follows: Area-wise Madhya Pradesh has the largest forest cover in the country followed by Arunachal Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Odisha and Maharashtra. In terms of forest cover as percentage of total geographical area, the top five States are Mizoram (85.41%), Arunachal Pradesh (79.63%), Meghalaya (76.33%), Manipur (75.46%) and Nagaland (75.31%). Total mangrove cover … Read more DMPQ- What are the major findings in Indian status of Forest report?
Basel Convention: The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal was adopted on 22 March 1989 by the Conference of Plenipotentiaries in Basel, Switzerland, in response to a public outcry following the discovery, in the 1980s, in Africa and other parts of the developing world of deposits of … Read more DMPQ- Basel , Rotterdam and Stockholm conventions.
The major components of a rainwater harvesting system are as follows: ? Collection system: Roof surface and gutters to capture the rainwater and send it to the storage system ? Inlet filter: Screen filter to catch large debris ? First flush diverter: Diverter that removes debris not captured by the inlet filter from the initial … Read more DMPQ- What are the major components of a rainwater harvesting system ?
Climate Smart Cities Assessment Framework (CSCAF 2.0) and Streets for People Challenge is for providing Roadmap for cities towards Combating Climate Change while planning / implementing their actions including investments CSCAF initiative intends to inculcate Climate-Sensitive Approach to Urban Planning and Development Framework with 28 indicators across five categories developed after review of Global Frameworks/ … Read more DMPQ- What is CSCAF 2.0?
All mines are temporary structures. They can remain active for many years, but they will eventually run out of minerals and cease operations. This does not automatically mean that the environment and wildlife will no longer suffer. Responsible owners would backfill the underground mine. However, not all mine operators would resort to this option because … Read more DMPQ- Explain the Long term effect on environment of the Mines.
Swachh Survekshan (Cleanliness survey) is an annual survey of cleanliness, hygiene and sanitation in cities and towns across India. It was launched as part of the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan, which aimed to make India clean and free of open defecation by 2 October 2019. The first survey was undertaken in 2016 and covered 73 cities … Read more DMPQ- Highlight the importance of Swachh Survekshan.
Ethanol is a green fuel and its blending with petrol also saves foreign exchange Government has 10% blending target for mixing ethanol with petrol by 2022 & 20% blending target by 2030 The liquid biofuel in greatest production is ethanol (ethyl alcohol), which is made by fermenting starch or sugar. Brazil and the United States … Read more DMPQ- Ethanol production is environment firiendly and also save foriegn exchange. Justify.
The National Highways Authority of India (NHAI), a public sector undertaking under the Ministry of Road Transport and Highways, has developed a mobile App called ‘Harit Path’ to monitor location, growth, species details, maintenance activities, targets and achievements of each of its field units for each and every plant under all plantation projects. ‘Harit Bharat … Read more DMPQ- ‘Harit Path’ mobile app can ensure in a suistanable developement of Highways in India. Justify.
? By studying environmental studies, it becomes easy to promote love and respect for nature. If you are a parent, you can encourage your child to opt for this subject so that he or she can show some love, affection, and respect for nature and can value the greenery, trees, flowers and other natural things … Read more DMPQ- What are the Benefits of Environmental Education?
Jal Jeevan Mission was launched to ensure HarGharJal (piped water supply) to all rural households by 2024 New Ministry. It focus on integrated demand and supply side management of water at the local level, including creation of local infrastructure for source sustainability like rainwater harvesting, groundwater recharge and management of household wastewater for reuse in … Read more DMPQ- Jal Jeevan Mission is an integral solution for Rural India. Justify.
Environmental ethics is a branch of ethics that studies the relation of human beings and the environment and how ethics play a role in this. Environmental ethics believe that humans are a part of society as well as other living creatures, which includes plants and animals. These items are a very important part of the … Read more DMPQ-Explain the concept of Environment Ethics.
PARIVESH is a web based, role based workflow application which has been developed for online submission and monitoring of the proposals submitted by the proponents for seeking Environment, Forest, Wildlife and CRZ Clearances from Central, State and district level authorities. It automates the entire tracking of proposals which includes online submission of a new proposal, … Read more DMPQ-PARIVESH
The main objective of this authority is to complement and strengthen the national effort in conservation of the rich biodiversity of the country, particularly the fauna as per the national zoo policy,1998. The functions of Central zoo authority are as follows: Specify the minimum standards for housing, upkeep and veterinary care of the animal … Read more DMPQ-What are the functions of Central zoo authority?
The National Biodiversity Authority (NBA) was established in 2003 by the Central Government to implement India’s Biological Diversity Act (2002). The NBA is a Statutory body and that performs facilitative, regulatory and advisory function for Government of India on issue of Conservation, sustainable use of biological resource and fair equitable sharing of benefits of use. … Read more DMPQ-Write a short note on National Biodiversity authority.
Plastic pollution has become one of the most pressing environmental issues, as rapidly increasing production of disposable plastic products overwhelms the world’s ability to deal with them. Plastic pollution is most visible in developing Asian and African nations, where garbage collection systems are often inefficient or nonexistent. But the developed world, especially in countries with … Read more DMPQ- Currently we are in age of Plastic crisis. Comment on the statement.
Forest fires are a regular phenomenon in our country often observed during the fire season. A number of 37,059 fires were detected in year 2018 using MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer) sensor data. Every year large areas of forests are affected by fires of varying intensity and extent. Based on the forest inventory records, 54.40% … Read more DMPQ-What is Forest fire? Enumerate the reasons for Forest Fires in India?
Warm-blooded creatures, like mammals and birds, try to keep the inside of their bodies at a constant temperature. They do this by generating their own heat when they are in a cooler environment, and by cooling themselves when they are in a hotter environment. To generate heat, warm-blooded animals convert the food that they eat … Read more DMPQ- What is the difference between Warm blooded creature and cold blooded creature?
Unlike other disasters, landslides are largely controlled by highly localised factors. Landslides of different types are frequent in geodynamically active domains in the Himalayan and Arakan-Yoma belt of the North-Eastern parts of the country. Landslide hazard zonation mapping has categorized the Himalayan region as Very High Vulnerability Zone. Factors that make the Himalayan region … Read more DMPQ- Why are Himalayan regions vulnerable to landslides?