Epidemic Diseases

? Epidemic diseases Complete information on major types of epidemics in India India is endemic to many diseases such as Malaria, Kala-azar, Cholera, Tuberculosis. These erupt in epidemic form when conditions are favorable for their spread. Epidemics are disasters by themselves but these can emerge in the aftermath of other disasters as well. In … Read more

Tuberculosis Programme

? Tuberculosis Programme TB was declared as a global health emergency in 1993. In the same year, India established the RNTCP as a small pilot project. This project was scaled up nationwide between 1998–2006. The overall vision of RNTCP is “A TB free India”—a situation in which TB is no longer a major public … Read more

Blood Bank

? Blood bank Blood bank is a place where blood is collected from donors, typed, separated into components, stored, and prepared for transfusion to recipients. A blood bank may be a separate free-standing facility or part of a larger laboratory in a hospital. Separation of blood Typically, each donated unit of blood (whole blood) … Read more

Blood Group

? Blood group Blood group is an inherited feature on the surface of the red blood cells. A series of related blood types constitutes a blood group system, such as the Rh or ABO system. The frequencies of the ABO and Rh blood types vary from population to population. In the US, the most … Read more

Composition And Function Of Blood

? composition and function of blood Blood makes up about 8% of the human body weight. It contains erythrocytes, leucocytes, thrombocytes (platelets) and plasma. The volume percentage of all blood cells in the whole blood is about 45% of adults (hematocrit). The rest consists of liquid plasma (e.g. water, plasma proteins, electrolytes etc.). The … Read more

Nervous System Of Human Being

? Nervous system of human being The nervous system is a complex collection of nerves and specialized cells known as neurons that transmit signals between different parts of the body. It is essentially the body’s electrical wiring. Structurally, the nervous system has two components: the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. According … Read more

Factors Affecting Photosynthesis

? Factors affecting photosynthesis There are three main factors affecting photosynthesis and several corollary factors. The three main are:   Light irradiance and wavelength Carbon dioxide concentration Temperature. Total photosynthesis is limited by a range of environmental factors. These include the amount of light available, the amount of leaf area a plant has to … Read more

Reflex Action

? Reflex action In the body of an animal two types of activities take place: voluntary and involuntary. Voluntary action happens according to the will of the individual while there is not any control of will over involuntary action. Involuntary action may again be divided into two categories. The action of first category is … Read more

Types Of Asexual Reproduction

? Types of Asexual Reproduction Spores Some protozoans and many bacteria, plants and fungi reproduce via spores. Spores are structures naturally grown as part of an organism’s life cycle and designed for separation from the organism and dispersal via a medium such as air or water. When conditions are correct, the organism will release … Read more

Respiratory Quotient

? Respiratory quotient: Carbohydrates, fats and protein The respiratory quotient (or RQ or respiratory coefficient), is a dimensionless number used in calculations of basal metabolic rate (BMR) when estimated from carbon dioxide production. It is calculated from the ratio of carbon dioxide produced by the body to oxygen consumed by the body. Such measurements, … Read more

Nutrition

? Nutrition Nutrition, nourishment, or aliment, is the supply of materials – food – required by organisms and cells to stay alive. In science and human medicine, nutrition is the science or practice of consuming and utilizing foods. Nutrients are the substances that form foods. These may include the following:  Carbohydrates They provide us … Read more

Vector Borne Diseases

? Vector borne diseases Main vectors and diseases they transmit Vectors are living organisms that can transmit infectious diseases between humans or from animals to humans. Many of these vectors are bloodsucking insects, which ingest disease-producing microorganisms during a blood meal from an infected host (human or animal) and later inject it into a … Read more

Transport Of Water And Minerals In Plants And Animals

? Transport of water and minerals in plants and animals   Transport of water in plants The survival of plants is dependent on a number of factors which include water, minerals, gases, and nutrients they receive. The movement of gas, water, and nutrients in plants are carried out in components. They take in carbon … Read more

Photosynthesis

? Photosynthesis Photosynthesis, the process by which green plants and certain other organisms transform light energy into chemical energy. During photosynthesis in green plants, light energy is captured and used to convert water, carbon dioxide, and minerals into oxygen and energy-rich organic compounds. It would be impossible to overestimate the importance of photosynthesis in … Read more

Structure And Function Of Human Brain And Spinal Cord

? Structure and function of human Brain and spinal cord The brain is a complex organ made up of specialized nerve and supportive tissues. It’s surrounded by many bones that together form the skull. The part of the skull where the brain sits is called the cranium. The base, or lower part, of the … Read more

Osmoregulation

? Osmoregulation Osmoregulation is the process of maintaining salt and water balance (osmotic balance) across membranes within the body. The fluids inside and surrounding cells are composed of water, electrolytes, and nonelectrolytes. An electrolyte is a compound that dissociates into ions when dissolved in water. A nonelectrolyte, in contrast, does not dissociate into ions … Read more

Endocrine Glands

? Endocrine glands: harmone and their function The endocrine system is made up of glands that produce and secrete hormones, chemical substances produced in the body that regulate the activity of cells or organs. These hormones regulate the body’s growth, metabolism (the physical and chemical processes of the body), and sexual development and function. … Read more

Diseases Related To Heart

? Diseases related to heart There are many types of heart disease that affect different parts of the organ and occur in different ways. Congenital heart disease   This is a general term for some deformities of the heart that have been present since birth. Examples include:   Septal defects: There is a hole … Read more

Control Of Pests And Disease

? Control of Pests and Disease Agriculture is the single largest sector of India that provides the principal means of livelihood for over 58.4% of country’s population. It contributes approximately one-fifth of the total gross domestic product (GDP). Agriculture accounts for about 10% of the total export earnings and provides raw material to a … Read more

Diseases Related To Kidney

? Diseases related to kidney Abderhalden-Kaufmann-Lignac syndrome Autosomal recessive syndrome of disturbance of amino acid transport characterized by deposition of cystine crystals in numerous tissues of the body, particularly evident in the conjunctiva and cornea. Children in whom cystinosis is found are subnormal in development, with dwarfing, rickets, and osteoporosis. Renal tubular disease, aminoaciduria, … Read more

Excretion

? Excretion:In plants Excretion, the process by which animals and plants rid themselves of waste products and of the nitrogenous by-products of metabolism. Through excretion organisms control osmotic pressure—the balance between inorganic ions and water—and maintain acid-base balance. The process thus promotes homeostasis, the constancy of the organism’s internal environment. Plants have no special … Read more

Food Bio Technology

? Food bio technology Biotechnology is defined in accordance with the Convention on Biological Diversity, i.e. “any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use” Biotechnology as applied to food processing in most developing countries makes use of microbial inoculants to … Read more

Digestive System (1)

? Digestive System Introduction v  The respiratory and circulatory systems work together to provide cells with the oxygen they need for cellular respiration. v  Cells also need glucose for cellular respiration. Glucose is a simple sugar that comes from the food we eat. v  To get glucose from food, digestion must occur. This process … Read more

Control And Coordination

? Control and coordination:Plants and animals All the living organisms respond and react to changes in the environment around them. The changes in the environment to which the organisms respond and react are called stimuli such as light, heat, cold, sound, smell, touch etc. Coordination in plants Coordination refers to ordered working of different … Read more

Circulatory System (1)

? Circulatory System The circulatory system can be compared to a system of interconnected, one-way roads that range from superhighways to back alleys. Like a network of roads, the job of the circulatory system is to allow the transport of materials from one place to another. As described in Figure below, the materials carried … Read more

Human Eye

? Human eye Human eye, in humans, specialized sense organ capable of receiving visual images, which are then carried to the brain. The eye is protected from mechanical injury by being enclosed in a socket, or orbit, which is made up of portions of several of the bones of the skull to form a … Read more

Respiratory Quotient

? Respiratory quotient: Carbohydrates, fats and protein The respiratory quotient (or RQ or respiratory coefficient), is a dimensionless number used in calculations of basal metabolic rate (BMR) when estimated from carbon dioxide production. It is calculated from the ratio of carbon dioxide produced by the body to oxygen consumed by the body. Such measurements, like … Read more

Excretion

? :In plants , the process by which animals and plants rid themselves of waste products and of the nitrogenous by-products of metabolism. Through excretion organisms control osmotic pressure—the balance between inorganic ions and water—and maintain acid-base balance. The process thus promotes homeostasis, the constancy of the organism’s internal environment. Plants have no special organs … Read more

Nutrition

? , nourishment, or aliment, is the supply of materials – food – required by organisms and cells to stay alive. In science and human medicine, nutrition is the science or practice of consuming and utilizing foods. Nutrients are the substances that form foods. These may include the following:  Carbohydrates They provide us with energy … Read more

Blood Group

? is an inherited feature on the surface of the red blood cells. A series of related blood types constitutes a blood group system, such as the Rh or ABO system. The frequencies of the ABO and Rh blood types vary from population to population. In the US, the most common type is O+ (meaning … Read more

Excretory System

? Introduction If you exercise on a hot day, you are likely to lose a lot of water in sweat. Then, for the next several hours, you may notice that you do not pass urine as often as normal and that your urine is darker than usual. Do you know why this happens? Your body … Read more

Epidemic Diseases

? Complete information on major types of epidemics in India India is endemic to many diseases such as Malaria, Kala-azar, Cholera, Tuberculosis. These erupt in epidemic form when conditions are favorable for their spread. Epidemics are disasters by themselves but these can emerge in the aftermath of other disasters as well. In the recent past, … Read more

Reflex Action

? In the body of an animal two types of activities take place: voluntary and involuntary. Voluntary action happens according to the will of the individual while there is not any control of will over involuntary action. Involuntary action may again be divided into two categories. The action of first category is related to internal … Read more

Diseases Related To Heart

? There are many types of heart disease that affect different parts of the organ and occur in different ways. Congenital heart disease   This is a general term for some deformities of the heart that have been present since birth. Examples include:   Septal defects: There is a hole between the two chambers of … Read more

Diseases Related To Kidney

? Abderhalden-Kaufmann-Lignac syndrome Autosomal recessive syndrome of disturbance of amino acid transport characterized by deposition of cystine crystals in numerous tissues of the body, particularly evident in the conjunctiva and cornea. Children in whom cystinosis is found are subnormal in development, with dwarfing, rickets, and osteoporosis. Renal tubular disease, aminoaciduria, glycosuria, and hypokalemia are usually … Read more

Control And Coordination

? :Plants and animals All the living organisms respond and react to changes in the environment around them. The changes in the environment to which the organisms respond and react are called stimuli such as light, heat, cold, sound, smell, touch etc. Coordination in plants Coordination refers to ordered working of different but interrelated parts … Read more

Blood Bank

? is a place where blood is collected from donors, typed, separated into components, stored, and prepared for transfusion to recipients. A blood bank may be a separate free-standing facility or part of a larger laboratory in a hospital. Separation of blood Typically, each donated unit of blood (whole blood) is separated into multiple components, … Read more

Endocrine Glands

? : harmone and their function The endocrine system is made up of glands that produce and secrete hormones, chemical substances produced in the body that regulate the activity of cells or organs. These hormones regulate the body's growth, metabolism (the physical and chemical processes of the body), and sexual development and function. The hormones … Read more

Nervous System Of Human Being

? The nervous system is a complex collection of nerves and specialized cells known as neurons that transmit signals between different parts of the body. It is essentially the body's electrical wiring. Structurally, the nervous system has two components: the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. According to the National Institutes of Health, … Read more

Human Eye

? , in humans, specialized sense organ capable of receiving visual images, which are then carried to the brain. The eye is protected from mechanical injury by being enclosed in a socket, or orbit, which is made up of portions of several of the bones of the skull to form a four-sided pyramid, the apex … Read more

Reproduction And Growth

? – type of reproduction Living things grow and they reproduce. Growth is a way to generate the materials for reproduction. Reproduction is a way to make new organisms that can grow. Thus, the apparent "goal" of every organism is to fill the available world with its offspring, that is, with "self". It has been … Read more

Osmoregulation

? is the process of maintaining salt and water balance (osmotic balance) across membranes within the body. The fluids inside and surrounding cells are composed of water, electrolytes, and nonelectrolytes. An electrolyte is a compound that dissociates into ions when dissolved in water. A nonelectrolyte, in contrast, does not dissociate into ions in water. The … Read more

Tuberculosis Programme

? Tuberculosis Programme TB was declared as a global health emergency in 1993. In the same year, India established the RNTCP as a small pilot project. This project was scaled up nationwide between 1998–2006. The overall vision of RNTCP is “A TB free India”—a situation in which TB is no longer a major public health … Read more

Transport Of Water And Minerals In Plants And Animals

?   Transport of water in plants The survival of plants is dependent on a number of factors which include water, minerals, gases, and nutrients they receive. The movement of gas, water, and nutrients in plants are carried out in components. They take in carbon dioxide from the air through the stomata present in their … Read more

Structure Of Flower And Reproduction Process

? The Female Reproductive Organ: The Carpel The female parts of a flower consist of an ovary, which contains one or more ovules, a style and the stigma. The ovary is at the base of the flower.  From the ovary, extends a tubular structure called the style and on the top of the style is … Read more

Structure And Function Of Human Brain And Spinal Cord

? The brain is a complex organ made up of specialized nerve and supportive tissues. It’s surrounded by many bones that together form the skull. The part of the skull where the brain sits is called the cranium. The base, or lower part, of the brain is connected to the spinal cord. Together, the brain … Read more

Respiration

? is defined as the movement of oxygen from the outside environment to the cells within tissues, and the transport of carbon dioxide in the opposite direction. The physiological definition of respiration is differs from the biochemical definition, which refers to cellular respiration, a metabolic process by which an organism obtains energy (in the form … Read more

Types Of Asexual Reproduction

? Spores Some protozoans and many bacteria, plants and fungi reproduce via spores. Spores are structures naturally grown as part of an organism's life cycle and designed for separation from the organism and dispersal via a medium such as air or water. When conditions are correct, the organism will release its spores, which are each … Read more

Food Safety And Microbial Standards, Food Quality Standards,

? Food safety and Microbial standards, Food quality standards Food safety-Indicators of food microbial Quality and safety-Coliforms, Enterococci, Bifidobacteria, Coliphages/Enteroviruses, predictive Microbiology/ Microbial modeling Microbial Standards of Processed and preserved Foods The Center for disease control (CDC) investigates each documented outbreak of food borne disease and attempts to determine not only the specific microorganisms and … Read more

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