Chalukyas

? The Chalukya dynasty was an Indian royal dynasty that ruled large parts of southern and central India between the 6th and the 12th centuries. During this period, they ruled as three related yet individual dynasties. The earliest dynasty, known as the "Badami ", ruled from Vatapi (modern Badami) from the middle of the 6th … Read more

Hindutva And Patriotism

? Hindutva Literally 'Hindutva' means a way of life or a state of mind that is based on the cultural and spiritual ethos based on the spiritual systems that evolved from India. Hindutva is a philosophy like Communism or Socialism. The difference is that, whereas communism and socialism are materialistic philosophies intended to secure economic … Read more

Pandyan Contributions

? Economic contribution External trade was carried on between South India and Hellenistic kingdom of Egypt and Arabia as well as the Malay Archipelago. The author of the Periplus of the Erythrean Sea (75 A.D.) gives the most valuable information about the trade between India and the Roman Empire. He mentions the port of Naura … Read more

Solanki Of Gujrat

? The Solanki dynasty ruled parts of what are now Gujarat and Kathiawar in India between 950-1300 CE. The kings of the dynasty used the self-designation Chaulukya, and are also known as the Chalukyas of Gujarat or as the Solanki Rajputs. The dynasty ended when Alauddin Khalji conquered Gujarat. Gujarat was a major centre of … Read more

Pre Medival

? Harsha or Harshvardhana (590-647) ruled Northern India for over forty years. He was the son of Prabhakar Vardhan and younger brother of Rajyavardhan, king of Thaneshwar. At the height of his power his kingdom spanned the Punjab, Bengal, Orissa and the entire Indo Gangetic plain. As a consequence to the coronation of Harshavardhana, dynasty … Read more

The Huna Invasion

? Facts related to Uttar Pradesh   In the beginning of the sixth century A.D. when the Gupta empire was disintegrating, they repeated their invasion under their ruler Toramana. Though there is no conclusive evidence that Toramana was a Huna yet, mostly he had been accepted so. This time the Hunas succeeded and occupied Kashmir, … Read more

Socialist Approach And Total Revolution

? Socialist approach In simple language socialism can be regarded as a movement against the inequality existing in the present social order. It is a plan for a new social order based on justice, equality, free from exploitation of man by man, a co-operative commonwealth of mankind. Though socialists differ among themselves on a number … Read more

Religious Sects

? : Shankaracharya, Ramanujacharya, Madhwacharya – Sri Basaveshvara, Veerashaivism and Vachana movement  The revival and expansion of Hinduism after the Gupta period took many forms. The chief gods were the Shiva and Vishnu and many magnificent temples were built to proclaim their supremacy. The rise of the worship of Shiva and Vishnu marked the growth … Read more

The Sakas

? Facts related to Uttar Pradesh Shakas had set up their Kshsatraps in Mathura. The brahmi inscription s of Mora(Mathura ) is associated with Sakas. conquered the area of Mathura over Indian kings around 60BCE. Some of their satraps were Hangamasha and Hagana, who were in turn followed by the Saka Great Satrap Rajuvula. The … Read more

The Chauhans

? Origins According to the Rajput bards, Chauhan is one of the four Agnikula or 'fire sprung' clans who were created by the Gods in the anali kund or 'fountain of fire' on Mount Abu to fight against the Asuras or demons. Chauhan is also one of the 36 ruling races of the Rajputs. Agnikula … Read more

The Chandelas

? Facts related to Uttar Pradesh Yashovarman, also known as Lakshavarman, was a king of the Chandela dynasty of India. He ruled in the Jejakabhukti region (Bundelkhand in present-day Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh). The Khajuraho inscription also states that Yashovarman turned the rivers Ganga and Yamuna into his "pleasure-lakes", and that the waters of these rivers became muddy when his might elephants bathed in … Read more

Monuments And Conservation

? Museums and Archives in Karnataka; Preservation and protection of historical monuments – work of Archaeological Survey of India – World Heritage Sites in Karnataka. The concept of museums in India may be traced back to the historic times, in which references to the chitrasala (picture gallery) do occur. The earliest necessity to house objects of … Read more

The Kushana Dynasty

? Facts related to Uttar Pradesh Under the rule of Kanishka, the Kushana empire reached its maximum territorial limits. This empire extended from the Central Asia to the northern India, while including Varanasi, Kaushambi and Sravasti in Uttar Pradesh region. The Kushanas patronized the Gandhara and the Mathura schools of sculptural art which are known for producing … Read more

The Vedas For All

? – The Casteless society The Sanatana Dharma during Vedic era had never endorsed caste system. Thus restoration of true Sanatana Dharma alone would create a casteless society in India. The caste is always a British invention which enumerated based on occupation. But true definition of 'Jaati' as per Veda is completely different from what … Read more

Tribal Problems

? : Isolation Migration and Acculturation Various Problems of Tribal Communities in India As per the dictionary, problem means a question to be considered, solved, or answered in a particular way, difficult to deal or control. Social problems are those social conditions identified by scientific inquiry and values as detrimental to human well-being." Jerome G. … Read more

Nanda Dynasty

? , family that ruled Magadha, in northern India, between c. 343 and 321 BCE. The immediately preceded the dynasty of the Mauryas, and, as with all pre-Maurya dynasties, what is known about it is a mixture of fact and legend. Indigenous traditions, both Brahmanical and Jaina, suggest that the founder of the dynasty, Mahapadma … Read more

Kingdom Of Vijaynagar

?                                                      The kingdom of Vijaynagar founded by two brothers, Harihar and Bukka, on the south bank of the River Tungabhadra in 1336 AD. According to the legends, they had been the feudatories of the Kakatiyas of Warangal. Later they became ministers in the kingdom of Kampili. After the destruction of Kampili kingdom by … Read more

INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION AND THE EMERGENCE OF CAPITALISM

? INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION AND THE EMERGENCE OF CAPITALISM   The Industrial Revolution refers to the greatly increased output of machine-made goods that began in England during the 18th century. Before the Industrial Revolution, people wove textiles by hand. Beginning in the middle 1700s, machines did this and other jobs as well. The Industrial Revolution started … Read more

Effects Of Aasana And Pranayama On Health (2)

? Effects of Aasana and Pranayama on health Improves your flexibility Improved flexibility is one of the first and most obvious benefits of yoga. During your first class, you probably won't be able to touch your toes, never mind do a backbend. But if you stick with it, you'll notice a gradual loosening, and eventually, … Read more

Ancient Kingdom

?   Rajrishitulya kul Rajrishitulya kul dynasty ruled over the south Kaushal. They ruled from 5th to 6th century AD. From the bronze inscription it is known that they followed Gupt samvata. This shows that accepted the supremacy of the Gupta Dynasty. There are six known rulers of the Rajrishikulya Dynasty. They are all follows: … Read more

Distinction Between Indus Civilization And Vedic Civilization

? These two civilizations have not only played a major role in the development of ancient India, but have also left a lineage that still continues to shape our present Indian culture. Differences based on Following Major Headings PERIODICTY BASED DIFFERNENCES: Indus Valley Civilization: Till 20th century, historians thought that the Vedic society was the … Read more

Foreign Travelers

? India has always been the dream destination for people who want to explore one of the earliest civilizations in the world. Since time immemorial, India has received a number of keen travelers who came here and fell in love with its traditions and colors. Hiuen Tsang from China (629-645) One of the earliest and … Read more

Vijaynagar

?  Vijayanagara empire and their contribution to art, literature and culture –  socio-economic conditions, administration, fall of Vijayanagar empire                                 Vijayanagara empire The Vijayanagara Empire, an important South Indian empire was founded by Harihara Raya I and his brother Bukka Raya I. The capital of the empire was Vijayanagara, present days Hampi in Karnataka. … Read more

Vakataks

? Vakataka dynasty, Indian ruling house originating in the central Deccan in the mid-3rd century CE, the empire of which is believed to have extended from Malwa and Gujarat in the north to the Tungabhadra in the south and from the Arabian Sea in the west to the Bay of Bengal in the east. The … Read more

The Gahadavala

? Introduction. The Gahadvala or sometime spelled as Gadhwal is a Suryavanshi Kshatriya dynasty that ruled the kingdom of Kannauj for approximately a hundred years, beginning in the late eleventh century. Rajput Rathore claim being descendants of Gaharwars   Rebuilding the Kannuj Kingdom. The Kannauj kingdom was established in the tenth century by Som Chand, … Read more

The Mahajanapadas

?  The literal meaning of Mahajanapadas is great kingdoms. They flourished in the north/north western parts of India before the rise of Buddhism. Aryans have migrated into India long time back and there were regular friction between them and the non aryan tribes concerning, cattle, fodder, land etc. These tribes of Aryans were called as Janas … Read more

The Gupta Dynasty

? Facts related to Uttar Pradesh There is controversy among scholars about the original homeland of the Guptas. Jayaswal has pointed out that the Guptas were originally inhabitants of Prayaga (Allahabad), Uttar Pradesh, in north India, as the vassal of the Nagas or Bhaarshivas. Thereafter they rose in prominence. Early Gupta coins and inscriptions have been mainly found in Uttar Pradesh. The Guptas … Read more

Comparative Study Of Indian And Western Philosophy

? Comparative Study of Indian and Western Philosophy Philosophy is the root of all knowledge. It is considered as mother of all sciences. Philosophy has interpreted man and his various activities in a comprehensive manner. It helps to coordinate the various activities of the individuals and the society. It helps us to understand the significance … Read more

Magadh With Special Emphasis On Uttar Pradesh

? Magadh with reference to Uttar Pradesh All the states were perpetually at war with each other. Kaushal annexed Kashi  and Avanti grabbed Vats. Later on Kausha and Vats in turn were subjugated one by one by Magadh, which became most powerful in the entire region. Magadh was ruled in succession by Haryank, Shishunag and … Read more

Kadambas2

? From Kadambas to Hoysalas: contributions in the field of        architecture, sculpture, literature and religion.     The origins of the rise of the Karnataka region as an independent state trace back to the fourth-century A.D.  with the  birth of the Kadamba Dynasty of Banavasi after the disintegration of  Satavahana power in deccan.  The founder of this ancient … Read more

Yoga Philosophy

? (Yog Darshan), Astang Yoga Yoga An AYUSH system of medicine includes Indian systems of medicine and Homeopathy. AYUSH is an acronym for Ayurveda, Yoga & Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha & Sowa Rigpa, and Homoeopathy. Yoga is essentially spiritual and it is an art and science of healthy living which focuses on bringing harmony between body … Read more

World Heritage Sites In India

? Mahabodhi Temple The Mahabodhi Temple, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is an ancient, but much rebuilt and restored, Buddhist temple in Bodh Gaya, marking the location where the Buddha is said to have attained enlightenment. Bodh Gaya (in Gaya district) is about 96 km (60 mi) from Patna, Bihar state, India. Humayun's Tomb Humayun's … Read more

10.The Cholas

? The founder of the Chola Empire was Vijayalaya, who was first feudatory of the Pallavas of Kanchi. He captured Tanjore in 850 A.D. He established a temple of goddess Nishumbhasudini (Durga) there. Aditya I succeeded Vijayalaya. Aditya helped his overlord the Pallava king Aparajita against the Pandyas but soon defeated him and annexed the … Read more

11.Cultural Achievements Of Pallavas

? Civilization and Culture of the Pallavas The Pallava rule formed a golden epoch in the cultural history of south India. The period under the Pallavas was marked by considerable literary activities and cultural revival. The Pallavas warmly patronized Sanskrit language and most of the literary records of the time were composed in that language. … Read more

1. Indus Valley Civilization

? Indus Valley Civilization   Indus Valley Civilization was the first major civilization in south Asia, which spread across a vast area of land in present day India and Pakistan (around 12 lakh sq.km). The time period of mature Indus Valley Civilization is estimated between BC. 2700- BC.1900 i.e. for 800 years. But early Indus Valley Civilization … Read more

Cultural Achievements of the Pallavas

Civilization and Culture of the Pallavas The Pallava rule formed a golden epoch in the cultural history of south India. The period under the Pallavas was marked by considerable literary activities and cultural revival. The Pallavas warmly patronized Sanskrit language and most of the literary records of the time were composed in that language. Due … Read more

The Cholas: Maritime activities in Sourth-east Asian counturies. Chola administration, art & architecture.

The founder of the Chola Empire was Vijayalaya, who was first feudatory of the Pallavas of Kanchi. He captured Tanjore in 850 A.D. He established a temple of goddess Nishumbhasudini (Durga) there. Aditya I succeeded Vijayalaya. Aditya helped his overlord the Pallava king Aparajita against the Pandyas but soon defeated him and annexed the whole … Read more

Harsha-Vardhan : The last great Hindu ruler of Northern India; cultural achievements during his period.

Emperor Harshavardhana, better known as Harsha, lived from 590 to 647 CE and was the third ruler of the Vardhana Empire, the last great empire in ancient India before the Islamic Invasion. He ruled from 606 CE to 647 CE. After Harshavardhana’s death, however, the Vardhana dynasty came to an end and its empire dissolved. India, the land beyond the … Read more

The Guptas : Extent of empire; development of language and Literature, art St architecture during the Gupta period.

The Gupta Empire stretched across northern, central and parts of southern India between c. 320 and 550 CE. The period is noted for its achievements in the arts, architecture, sciences, religion, and philosophy. Chandragupta I (320 – 335 CE) started a rapid expansion of the Gupta Empire and soon established himself as the first sovereign ruler of the empire. It marked the end of 500 hundred … Read more

The Kushanas : Kanishka : Extent of empire, His religious policy; Development of Art, Architecture and Letters during the Kushana period

The Kushanas: Short introduction In the early 2nd century BC, a tribe on the Central Asian frontier of China called Hsiung-nu defeated a neighboring one known as Yueh-chih. After more conflict, the survivors of the Yueh-chih were dislocated west, passing down the Ili river valley and along the southern shore of lake Issyk Kul. This … Read more

The Mauryas : Extent of empire, Kalinga War and its Impact; Asoka’s Dhamma, Foreign Policy, Development of Art & Architecture during the Mauryan period

  Foundation of the Mauryan Empire: The foundation of the Maurya Empire in 321 B.C. by Chandragupta Maurya was a unique event in history. Particularly in view of the fact that it was found shortly after Alexander’s victorious campaigns in North-West India during 327 B.C. – 325 B.C. There is no unanimity with regard to … Read more

The Rise of the Magadhan empire

  In the sixth country B.C. North India was divided into sixteen kingdoms out of which Avanti, Vatsa, Kosala and Magadha rose into prominence by aggrandizing upon other weaker states.These four states involved themselves in internecine quarrel in which Magadha emerged as the most powerful state and acquired mastery in the political domain of India. … Read more

The Lichavi and their republican constitution

The History of Licchavis The Lichchhavis (also Lichchavi, Licchavi) were an important member of the Vajjian confederacy. The early Indian traditions describe the Lichchhavis as Kshatriyas. Scholars reject the theory of foreign origin of the Lichchhavis on the strength of these traditions. But they were degraded to the status of fallen Kshatriyas due to their … Read more

Antiquity and stratification of the Vedic literature; Society, economy and religion during Early (Rig-Vedic) period.

Although the Rig Veda deals with devotional work of religious nature, yet it gives a vivid picture of the early Vedic civilization. The Vedic Civilization is best understood from the social life, political organisation, economic life and religious beliefs. The Kula or family was the basic unit of Rig-Vedic society. The Kula was headed by … Read more

Origin of the Aryans

    The Aryans came to India in several waves. The earliest wave is represented by the Rig Vedic people who appeared in the subcontinent in about 1500 BC. They came into conflict with the indigenous inhabitants called the Dravidians mentioned as Dasa or Dasyus in Rig Veda. The Rig Veda mentions the defeat of … Read more

Important Ancient Terms

Lohit Ayas Copper Syam Ayas Iron Vanik Traders Gramini Village Head Bhagadugha Tax collector Sthapati Chief Judge Takshan Carpenter Niska Unit of currency Satamana Unit of currency Pana Term used for coin Shresthi Guilds Vihara Buddhist Monastery Chaitya Sacred Enclosure Pradeshika Head of district Administration Nagarka City administration Jesthaka Chief of a Guild Prathamakulika Chief … Read more

Major Monuments of Ancient Period

1. Udaygiri Caves During Chandragupta’s reign at Vidisha, M.P. 2. Angorwatt Temples Suryavarman Ii 3. Vikramashila University Pala King Dharampala 4. Kailash Temple (Ellora) Rashtrakuta king Krishna I 5. Dilwara Temple Tejapala 6. Rathas of Mamallapuram Mahendravarman I (Pallava King) 7. Khajuraho temples Chandelas 8. Martanda temple (Kashmir) Lalitaditya Muktapida 9. Gommateswara  (Son of Rishabnath) … Read more

Different Schools of Indian Philosophy

          Nastika Shools of Indian System of Philosophy   Charvaka   Believes only in materialism. No life beyond death, no soul no god. Jaina     The names of two tirthankaras, Rishabhanath & Aristhanemia finds mention in Rig Veda. 540 BC   Twenty third was Parsva, son of Ishvaku king Asvasena. … Read more

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