. The El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is an irregular cycle of change in wind and sea surface temperatures over the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean, affecting the climate of much of the tropics and subtropics. The warming phase of the sea temperature is known as El Nino and the cooling phase as La Nina. This sea … Read more DMPQ-How does ENSO (El-Nino southern oscillation) phenomenon effects Monsoon in India ?
The Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) or Thermal Equator is a broad trough of low pressure in equatorial latitudes (it always remains on the north of the equator due to effect of landmass). This is where the northeast and the southeast trade winds converge and this is a low pressure zone. This convergence zone lies … Read more DMPQ-What is Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). How does it effects India’s climate.
They can be of various types depending upon the process of precipitation, obstacles etc. Convectional Rain The, air on being heated, becomes light and rises up in convection currents. As it rises, it expands and loses heat and consequently, condensation takes place and cumulous clouds are formed. With thunder and lightening, heavy rainfall takes place … Read more DMPQ-. Explain different types of rain.
. Process of formation of the fronts is known as frontogenesis. There are four types of fronts: Cold Front When the cold air moves towards the warm air mass, its contact zone is called the cold front. As the cold front nears your region, the barometer falls. The cold air behind the front wedges under … Read more DMPQ-Discuss the different types of fronts formed during the process of frontogenesis.
. The trade winds, westerly and easterlies are the permanent winds. These blow constantly throughout the year in a particular direction and they are global in nature. These play an important role in, and in turn get influenced too, formation of Weather Cell. Headly Cell The air at the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) rises … Read more DMPQ- . Discuss the types of cells formed primary wind circulations.
. Most of the metallic minerals in India occur in the peninsular plateau region in the old crystalline rocks. Over 97 per cent of coal reserves occur in the valleys of Damodar, Sone, Mahanadi and Godavari. Areas of high rainfall lack in soluble minerals like Limestone, Gypsum and Salt. Northern Plains are poor in minerals … Read more DMPQ- Point out the major mineral belts of India.
. Some of the major cropping systems are: Sequential system Multiple crops are grown in a sequence using short duration crops and intense input management. In Maharashtra, a sequence of Rice, Beans and Ground nuts is followed. It is the most common cropping system in India. Mixed cropping It refers to crop mixture of two … Read more DMPQ- . Discuss the major crop patterns in India.
. India is a tropical country and has around 300 days availability of sunlight which is one of the highest in the world. Germany is a sub-tropical country, now produces almost 40% of its energy from renewable power. India has huge potential. Solar power has one unique advantage that it can be used to supply … Read more DMPQ- Give a brief description of current scenario of solar power production in India.
. Natural vegetation refers to a plant community that has been left undisturbed over a long time, so as to allow its individual species to adjust themselves to climate and soil conditions as fully as possible. Tropical evergreen forests are found in the western slope of the Western Ghats, hills of the northeastern region and … Read more DMPQ-What is natural vegetation? Under what climatic conditions are tropical evergreen forests develop?
Frequent inundation of agricultural land and human settlement, particularly in Assam, West Bengal, Bihar and Eastern Uttar Pradesh (flooding rivers), coastal areas of Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Gujarat (cyclone) and Punjab, Rajasthan, Northern Gujarat and Haryana (flash floods) have serious consequences on the national economy and society. Floods do not only destroy valuable … Read more DMPQ-How does flood effects India during monsoon and how Governments prepares to control it ?
. Unlike other disasters, the damages caused by earthquakes are more devastating. Since it also destroys most of the transport and communication links, providing timely relief to the victims becomes difficult. It is not possible to prevent the occurrence of an earthquake; hence, the next best option is to emphasis on disaster preparedness and mitigation … Read more DMPQ-Throw light on preparedness and mitigation procedure during and after earthquake disaster.
Tropical cyclones are violent storms that originate over oceans in tropical areas and move over to the coastal areas bringing about large scale destruction caused by violent winds, very heavy rainfall and storm surges. This is one of the most devastating natural calamities. They are known as Cyclones in the Indian Ocean, Hurricanes in the … Read more DMPQ-. Explain the phenomenon of origin of tropical cyclones.
The wind blows from high pressure to low pressure. The wind at the surface experiences friction. In addition, rotation of the earth also affects the wind movement. The force exerted by the rotation of the earth is known as the Coriolis force. Thus, the horizontal winds near the earth surface respond to the combined effect … Read more DMPQ-. Discuss the forces affecting velocity and direction of wind.
Normally, temperature decreases with increase in elevation. It is called normal lapse rate. At times, the situations is reversed and the normal lapse rate is inverted. It is called Inversion of temperature. Inversion is usually of short duration but quite common nonetheless. A long winter night with clear skies and still air is ideal situation … Read more DMPQ- What is temperature inversion and how does it effect atmosphere?
The Indian plate includes Peninsular India and the Australian continental portions. The subduction zone along the Himalayas forms the northern plate boundary in the form of continent— continent convergence. In the east, it extends through Rakinyoma Mountains of Myanmar towards the island arc along the Java Trench. The eastern margin is a spreading site … Read more DMPQ- How the movement of Indian plate has affected the structural changes of continents.
Based on relief, alignment of ranges and other geomorphological features, the Himalayas can be divided into the following sub-divisions: Kashmir or Northwestern Himalayas Kashmir or Northwestern Himalayas consist of a series of ranges such as the Karakoram, Ladakh, Zanskar, and Pir Panjal. Important glaciers of South Asia, i.e., the Baltoro and Siachen are found in … Read more DMPQ- Classify Himalayas on the bases on relief, alignment of ranges and other geomorphological features.
The following factors affect the distribution of temperature of ocean water: Latitudes The temperature of surface water decreases from equator towards the poles because the sun’s rays become more and more slanting and thus the amount of insolation decreases poleward accordingly. The temperature of surface water between 40°N and 40°S is lower than air temperature … Read more DMPQ- Discuss the factors affecting temperature distribution of Ocean water.
Every location on Earth receives sunlight at least part of the year. The amount of solar radiation that reaches any one spot on the Earth’s surface varies according to: Geographic location Time of day Season Local landscape Local weather. Because the Earth is round, the sun strikes the surface at different angles, ranging from 0° … Read more DMPQ- Discuss the factors affecting the amount of solar radiation received by surfaces.
The endogenic and exogenic forces causing physical stresses and chemical actions on earth materials and bringing about changes in the configuration of the surface of the earth are known as geomorphic processes. Diastrophism and volcanism are endogenic geomorphic processes. A process is a force applied on earth materials affecting the same. An agent is a … Read more DMPQ- . What is Geomorphic process ? Explain Diastrophism in detail.
Shield Volcanoes The second type may be familiar to you from news reports from Hawaii: the shield volcano. This type of volcano can be hundreds of miles across and 10,000 feet high. A shield volcano is characterized by gentle upper slopes (about 5 degrees) with somewhat steeper lower slopes (about 10 degrees). The shield volcanoes … Read more DMPQ- Classify the volcanos based on the forms they develop.
The summer solstice occurs at the moment the earth’s tilt toward from the sun is at a maximum. Therefore, on the day of the summer solstice, the sun appears at its highest elevation with a noontime position that changes very little for several days before and after the summer solstice. The summer solstice occurs when … Read more DMPQ- Differentiate between summer solstice, winter solstice and equinox.
. Various incentives are provided by the Government of India for promoting investment in the Food Processing sector. Some of the key incentives are outlined below: Establishment of a sustained and lasting linkage between the farmers and the processors based on mutual trust, understanding and benefits by utilizing the existing infrastructure of cooperative, village panchayats … Read more DMPQ- “In an effort to bolster food processing sector government has announced many many initiatives in recent years.” Explain.
The earlier Green Revolution was centred on wheat and now what is required is a comprehensive revolution, which covers the entire agriculture sector known as Rainbow Revolution and it essentially means the following: Agricultural activities to change from subsistence and livelihood activities to as a commercial venture with focus on productivity and profitability. Crop diversification, … Read more DMPQ- What is rainbow revolution ? Point out it’s importance for India’s Agriculture.
The theory of plate tectonics proposes that the earth’s lithosphere is divided into seven major and several minor plates. The movement of the plates results in the building up of stresses within the plates and the continental rocks above, which leads to folding, faulting and volcanic activity. The major plates are surrounded by fold mountains, … Read more DMPQ- Explain the concept and significance of plate tectonic theory .
Droughts and floods are the two accompanying features of Indian climate. According to some estimates, nearly 19 per cent of the total geographical area of the country and 12 percent of its total population suffer due to drought every year. About 30 percent of the country’s total area is identified as drought prone. Extreme Drought … Read more DMPQ- Map out the draught prone areas in India. Also mention the Institutional mechanism for draught management in India.
Monsoon is that axis around which revolves the entire agricultural cycle of India. It is because about 64 per cent people of India depend on agriculture for their livelihood and agriculture itself is based on southwest monsoon. Except Himalayas all the parts of the country have temperature above the threashold level to grow the crops … Read more DMPQ- Explain the relationship between monsoon and economic life in India.
Pre-disaster preventive measures Re-framing buildings’ codes, guidelines, manuals and byelaws and their strict implementation .Tougher legislation for highly seismic areas. Incorporating earthquake resistant features in all buildings in high-risk areas. Making all public utilities like water supply systems, communication networks, electricity lines, earthquake-proof. Creating alternative arrangements to reduce damages to infrastructure facilities. Constructing earthquake-resistant community … Read more DMPQ- Discuss the pre-disaster preventive measures and post-disaster preventive measures in case of Earthquake.
Most of our knowledge about the interior of the earth is largely based on estimates and inferences. Yet, a part of the information is obtained through direct observations and analysis of materials. The most easily available solid earth material is surface rock or the rocks we get from mining areas. Gold mines in South Africa … Read more DMPQ- . Briefly discuss the direct sources of information about the interior part of earth.
. The temperature of air at any place is influenced by : The latitude of the place; The altitude of the place; distance from the sea, the airmass circulation; The presence of warm and cold ocean currents; Local aspects. The latitude The temperature of a place depends on the insolation received. It has been … Read more DMPQ- What are the factors that control temperature distribution on the surface of the earth?
. Weathering processes are responsible for breaking down the rocks into smaller fragments and preparing the way for formation of not only regolith and soils, but also erosion and mass movements. Biomes and biodiversity is basically a result of forests (vegetation) and forests depend upon the depth of weathering mantles. Erosion cannot be significant if … Read more DMPQ- Briefly explain the process of weathering.
Batholiths A large body of magmatic material that cools in the deeper depth of the crust develops in the form of large domes. They appear on the surface only after the denudational processes remove the overlying materials. They cover large areas, and at times, assume depth that may be several km. These are granitic bodies. … Read more DMPQ- Throw light on the intrusive volcanic landforms.
. In winter months, the weather conditions over India are generally influenced by the distribution of pressure in Central and Western Asia. A high pressure centre in the region lying to the north of the Himalayas develops during winter. This centre of high pressure gives rise to the flow of air at the low level … Read more DMPQ- Discuss the different aspects of winter weather in India.
The Matching of Continents (Jig-Saw-Fit) The shorelines of Africa and South America facing each other have a remarkable and unmistakable match. It may be noted that a map produced using a computer programme to find the best fit of the Atlantic margin was presented by Bullard in 1964. It proved to be quite perfect. The … Read more DMPQ- . Discuss the evidences in support of Continental drift theory.
Some air movements are the result of the systematic pressure gradients that arise from latitudinal changes in the Earth’s surface temperature. One notable example is the Hadley Cell, a movement of warm air from the tropics that rises, flows toward the poles and then cools and sinks at around 30 degrees north and south of … Read more DMPQ- . How does pressure belt’s movement affect the formation of various climatic regions across the globe?
An air mass is a large volume of air in the atmosphere that is mostly uniform in temperature and moisture. Air masses can extend thousands of kilometers across the surface of the Earth, and can reach from ground level to the stratosphere—16 kilometers (10 miles) into the atmosphere. The climates of most regions worldwide are … Read more DMPQ- What do you mean by Air Mass? How is it influence the local climate?
Atal Tunnel is the longest highway tunnel in the World. The 9.02 Km long tunnel connects Manali to Lahaul-Spiti valley throughout the year. Earlier the valley was cut off for about 6 months each year owing to heavy snowfall. The Tunnel is built with ultra-modern specifications in the Pir Panjal range of Himalayas at an … Read more DMPQ- ‘Atal Tunnel’ will ensure not only economic development of the region but also secure strategic borders of India. Evaluate.
Krishna-Godavari (KG) basin, an excellent source of fuel methane Methane hydrate deposits in this basin are a rich source that will ensure adequate supplies of methane, a natural gas The study using molecular and culturing techniques revealed maximum methanogenic diversity in the KG basin, which is one of the prominent reasons to confirm it to … Read more DMPQ- Krishna-Godavari (KG) basin can ensure energy security of the region. Comment.
Tropical Monsoon Tropical monsoon climates are most found in southern Asia and West Africa. A monsoon is a wind system that reverses its direction every six months. Monsoons usually flow from sea to land in the summer, and from land to sea in the winter. Summer monsoons bring large amounts of rainfall to tropical monsoon … Read more DMPQ- Differentiate between the Tropical Monsoon and Savana type of climate.
? Unlike durable crops such as cereals, pulses and oilseeds, fresh fruits and vegetables are highly perishable, and must be marketed immediately after harvesting without primary processing. Fruit and vegetables generate large quantities of valuable waste that ends up as garbage. ? However, if they are gainfully utilized at the proper time they can become … Read more DMPQ- Explain the Primary Processing of Food Products.
The world is entering in the twenty-first century so that every sector of the economy should prepare itself to face the challenges of the coming century. There will be need to produce more than what is being produced and there would be greater demand for food, fiber and other commodities. The land area is limited … Read more DMPQ- Explain the importance of Farm Power.
Grid management on regional basis started in sixties. Initially, State grids were inter-connected to form regional grid and India was demarcated into 5 regions namely Northern, Eastern, Western, North Eastern and Southern region. In October 1991 North Eastern and Eastern grids were connected. In March 2003 WR and ER-NER were interconnected . August 2006 North … Read more DMPQ- – Write a note on the Evolution of National Grid.
‘Nuakhai Juhar’, is one of the most ancient festivals celebrated in Odisha, Chhattisgarh and areas of neighbouring states to welcome the new crop of the season. Nuakhai Juhar is the agricultural festival is also called Nuakhai Parab or Nuakahi Bhetghat. Nuakhai is a combination of two words signifies eating of new rice as ‘nua’ means … Read more DMPQ- Highlight the importance of Nuakhai Juhar for agricultural communities.
Hydropower is a renewable energy resource because it uses the Earth’s water cycle to generate electricity. Water evaporates from the Earth’s surface, forms clouds, precipitates back to earth, and flows toward the ocean. The movement of water as it flows downstream creates kinetic energy that can be converted into electricity. 2700 TWH is generated every … Read more DMPQ- Write a short note on Hydroelectric programme in India.
Irrigation should be schedule when the soil temperature is moderate. In hotter season it is better to irrigate the field during the late afternoon or at night so that both soil and plant get sufficient time to absorb water before dry and desiccating weather prevails the next day. During the very cold season water should … Read more DMPQ- Explain the importance of Irrigation Schedule in Agriculture.
The scheme will support farmers, PACS, FPOs, Agri-entrepreneurs, etc. in building community farming assets and post-harvest agriculture infrastructure. These assets will enable farmers to get greater value for their produce as they will be able to store and sell at higher prices, reduce wastage, and increase processing and value addition. The Centre will bear this … Read more DMPQ- Evaluate the need of Agriculture Infrastructure Fund in contemporary India.
Poverty Poverty is one of the foremost problems faced by India for ages. Poverty becomes a root cause of the widespread illiteracy in India. Families who struggle for their daily bread cannot afford education for their children. Apparently these people tend to make their children work to cope with the financial problems. Lack of School … Read more DMPQ- Mention the causes behind Illiteracy in India.
Importance of North Indian Plains: Agricultural Productivity is high and it helps to sustain high population density. Plains are suitable for cereal crops and it ensures food security. Support to Food Processing Industries and FMCG companies. Cultural importance as the land is marked by Hindu cultural centres like Haridwar, Prayagraj, Ayodhya. It also represents the … Read more DMPQ- Explain the importance of North Indians Plains.
The hill ranges of the Western Ghats, a global biodiversity hotspot, extend along the west coast of India from the river Tapti in the north to the southern tip of India. Their positioning makes the Western Ghats biologically rich and biogeographically unique – a veritable treasure house of biodiversity. The region has a spectacular … Read more DMPQ- Explain the significance of Western Ghats.
Apart from incessant rainfall during the monsoon, there are many contributory factors, natural and man-made. At the crux is the very nature of the river Brahmaputra —dynamic and unstable. Its 580,000 sq km basin spreads over four countries: China, India, Bangladesh and Bhutan, with diverse environments. The Brahmaputra features among the world’s top five rivers … Read more DMPQ- Why Assam and Bihar state are more prone to floods?
India Meteorological Department (IMD) uses temperature data from surface observatories to track heat waves. IMD also uses various numerical weather prediction models to track and predict occurrence and intensity of Heat Waves. The following criteria are used for defining severity of the heat wave: When normal Tmax is less than or equal to 40°C and … Read more DMPQ-What is a heat wave and what might be the reasons for high frequency of heat waves?