Agricultural Crops of India

  Crop State Prod Prod Yield Rainfall Temp Soil % (Mil Kg/Ha cm Deg C T) Rice W. Bengal 15 87 1900 125-200 cm >23 C Deep Fertile UP 14 Clayey or loamy Andhra Pr 13 soil Punjab 11 Wheat UP 35 74 2700 80 cm 10-25 C Light loam   Punjab 20 Sandy Loam … Read more

Landforms

Three Geological divisions: The peninsular block The Himalayas and other Peninsular Mountains Indo-Ganga-Brahmaputra Plain   Peninsualar block is made of gneisses (metamorphic) and granites (igneous). Six physiographic divisions: The Northern and North-eastern Mountains The Northern Plain The Peninsular Plateau The Indian Desert The Coastal Plains The Islands Northern and North-Eastern Mountains Approximate length of the … Read more

Mineral Resources of India

    50. Iron Ore Chhattisgarh 24 % Dalli, Rajhra (Durg), Bailadila, Raoghat, Aridongri 51.   Goa (21%) Sanquelim, Sanguem, Quepem, Satari, Ponda, Bicholim 52.   Karnataka (20%) Bellary, Hospet, Sandur 53.   Jharkhand (17 %) Noamund, Gua 54.   Orissa (15 %) Gurumahisani, Sulaipat, Badampahar (Mayurbhanj),       Kiriburu, Meghahataburu, Bonai (Sundargarh). 55. … Read more

Drainage System of India

Drainage: Flow of water through well-defined channels. Network of such channels is called a drainage system . Drainage basin: An area drained by a river and its tributaries. Watershed: Boundary line separating one drainage basin from other. River basins are larger watersheds. Drainage pattern of an area depends on the geological time period, nature and … Read more

Environment and Ecological Issues

ECOLOGY   Ecology is  defined “as a scientific study of the relationship of the living organisms with each other and with their environment.” The classical texts of the Vedic period such as the Vedas, the Samhitas, the Brahmanas and the Aranyakas-Upanishads contain many references to ecological concepts .The Indian treatise on medicine, the Caraka- Samhita … Read more

Development of Industries : Types of Industries;factors of industrial location, distribution and changing pattern of selected industries [iron and steel, cotton textile, sugar and petro- chemicals); Weber’s theory of industrial location-lts relevance in the modern world.

  Based on the value addition and tangibility broadly we can have three types of industries – primary industries,secondary industries and tertiary industries. Primary industries are usually very simple industries involving processing of raw materials to give input goods for secondary industries. Here value addition is usually minimal and they are usually material oriented.Scale of … Read more

Non- metallic and conventional minerals [coal,petroleum and natural gas), (c) hydro electricity and non conventional sources of energy (Solar, Wind, bio-gas),(d) energy sources Their distribution and conservation.

  Petroleum, natural gas, coal, nitrogen, uranium and water power are examples of conventional sources of energy. They’re also called non-renewable sources of energy and are mainly fossil fuels, except water power. Rising growth of population has created a tremendous pressure on the conventional resources of energy and thus the concept of sustainable development get prominent … Read more

Minerals and Energy Resources : Distribution and utility of [a] metallic minerals (ion ore, copper, bauxite, manganese)

  Mineral is a naturally occurring, homogeneous inorganic solid substance having a definite chemical composition and characteristic crystalline structure, color, and hardness Minerals are valuable natural resources that are finite and non-renewable. The history of mineral extraction in India dates back to the days of the Harappan civilization. The wide availability of minerals in the … Read more

Scarcity of water, methods of conservation-rain water harvesting and watershed management, ground water management

  Scarcity of water   Water scarcity is possibly to pose the greatest challenge on account of its increased demand coupled with shrinking supplies due to over utilisation and pollution. Water is a cyclic resource with abundant supplies on the globe. Approximately, 71 per cent of the earth’s surface is covered with it but fresh … Read more

Water Resources : Availability

  Water is a prime natural resource, a basic human need and a precious national asset. Planning, development and management of water resources need to be governed by national perspectives. India accounts for about 2.45 per cent of world’s surface area, 4 per cent of the world’s water resources and about 16 per cent of … Read more

Geographical condition and distribution of major crops, like,Rice, Wheat,Cotton, Jute, Sugarcane, Rubber, Tea and Coffee

  Rice The rice is cultivated on the largest areas in India. Historians believe that while the indica variety of rice was first domesticated in the area covering the foothills of the Eastern Himalayas (i.e. north-eastern India).Rice is a nutritional staple food which provides instant energy as its most important component is carbohydrate (starch). Rice … Read more

Development and Utilization Land Resources ie General land use, agricultural land use

  Land is a finite resource. Land availability is only about 20% of the earth’s surface. Land is crucial for all developmental activities, for natural resources, ecosystem services and for agriculture. Growing population, growing needs and demands for economic development, clean water, food and other products from natural resources, as well as degradation of land … Read more

Natural Resources of India

  What are natural resources ? Natural resources are useful raw materials that we get from the Earth. They occur naturally, which means that humans cannot make natural resources. Instead, we use and modify natural resources in ways that are beneficial to us. The materials used in human-made objects are natural resources. Some examples of natural … Read more

functional classification of urban settlements Problems of human settlement in India

The definition of function varies across the disciplines. In political science it refers to duties, in mathematics it means the relationship between two variables and in geography it is synonymous to occupation. Geographers have classified towns on the basis of their site, situation, size, rank, location and relative elevation. Functional classification of towns attempts to categorize towns … Read more

Urban morphology

  Urban morphology is the study of the form of human settlements and the process of their formation and transformation.Morphological studies often deal with development of forms and pattern of the present city or other urban areas through time. Urban morphology is the study of the physical form of a city, which consists of street … Read more

Natural Hazards : Floods, Droughts, Cyclones, Landslides

  Natural Hazards of India Disaster A disaster is a sudden, calamitous event that seriously disrupts the functioning of a community or society and causes human, material and economic or environmental losses that exceed the community’s capacity to cope using its own resources. Vulnerability + Hazard =Disaster Vulnerability- it is defined as the diminished capacity of … Read more

Major types of Soils.(ICAR classification) and their distribution. Soil degradation and conservation

  Soil is defined as upper layer of the earth composed of loose surface material. It is a mixture of many substances including endless variety of minerals, remnants of plants and animals, water and air. It is the end product of continuing interaction between the parent material, local climate, plant and animal organisms and elevation … Read more

Food scarcity

  According to FAO Food Security  is “a situation in which all people at all times have access to adequate quantities of safe and nutritious food to lead a healthy and active life”. This definition requires three basic conditions to be met: 1) adequacy, i.e. supplies from domestic production, stocks and imports are sufficient to meet the … Read more

Drainage Systems Himalayan and the Peninsular

  Drainage: Flow of water through well-defined channels. Network of such channels is called a drainage system . Drainage basin: An area drained by a river and its tributaries. Watershed: Boundary line separating one drainage basin from other. River basins are larger watersheds. Drainage pattern of an area depends on the geological time period, nature … Read more

Structure, relief and physiographic divisions

  Three Geological divisions: The peninsular block The Himalayas and other Peninsular Mountains Indo-Ganga-Brahmaputra Plain   Peninsualar block is made of gneisses (metamorphic) and granites (igneous). Six physiographic divisions: The Northern and North-eastern Mountains The Northern Plain The Peninsular Plateau The Indian Desert The Coastal Plains The Islands Northern and North-Eastern Mountains Approximate length of … Read more

Structure, relief and physiographic divisions

  Three Geological divisions: The peninsular block The Himalayas and other Peninsular Mountains Indo-Ganga-Brahmaputra Plain   Peninsualar block is made of gneisses (metamorphic) and granites (igneous). Six physiographic divisions: The Northern and North-eastern Mountains The Northern Plain The Peninsular Plateau The Indian Desert The Coastal Plains The Islands Northern and North-Eastern Mountains Approximate length of … Read more

Multipurpose Projects & Hydro-Electric Projects in India

Damodar Valley Project—- Damodar—– West Bengal & Jharkhand. It includes Maithon & Tilaiya Dam on Barakar river in Bihar, Konar Dam (Konar river) & Panchet Dam (Damodar). Rihand Dam —-Rihand —–Uttar Pradesh Nagarjunasagar Project —–Krishna—- Andhra Pradesh. Consists of two canals – Lal Bahadur Canal (Left) & Jawahar canal (Right). Tungabhadra Project Tungabhadra JV of … Read more

Mineral Resources of India:Non Metalic

Limestone M.P, Chattisgarh, Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan Dolomite Orissa (Birmitrapur in Sundergarh District-largest in India), M.P & Chattisgarh Phosphate Rajasthan (Udaipur) Uttaranchal (Dehradun), M.P. (Jhabua), U.P. (Lalitpur) Kaolin Kerala is largest producer. Mica Andhra Pradesh, Jharkhand (Kodarma-Large) & Rajasthan Gypsum Rajasthan & J & K. Steatite Rajasthan. It is also called soapstone/ Potstone. Magnesite Tamil Nadu … Read more

Mineral Resources of India:-Metallic Minerals

 Mineral  State  Mines/Districts Coal Jharkhand Jharia, Bokaro, Giridh, karanpura, Ramgarh, Daltonganj, Aurangabad, Hutar, Deogarh, Rajmahal Orissa Talcher, Rampur M.P (Former) Central Indian Coalfields -Singrauli, Sohagpur, Johilla, Umaria Satupura Coalfields – Pench, Kanhan, Pathkhera North Chhattisgarh – Chirmiri-Kaurasia, Bisrampur, Jhillmili, Sonhat, Lakhanpur, Sendurgarh, lakhanpur-Ramkola South Chhattisgarh-Hasdo-Arand, Korba, Mand-Raigarh West Bengal Raniganj, Darjeeling Andhra Pr. Singareni, Kothgundam, … Read more

Drainage System of India

Drainage: Flow of water through well-defined channels. Network of such channels is called a drainage system . Drainage basin: An area drained by a river and its tributaries. Watershed: Boundary line separating one drainage basin from other. River basins are larger watersheds. Drainage pattern of an area depends on the geological time period, nature and … Read more

Geological and Physiographic divisions of India

Three Geological divisions: The peninsular block The Himalayas and other Peninsular Mountains Indo-Ganga-Brahmaputra Plain   Peninsualar block is made of gneisses (metamorphic) and granites (igneous). Six physiographic divisions: The Northern and North-eastern Mountains The Northern Plain The Peninsular Plateau The Indian Desert The Coastal Plains The Islands Northern and North-Eastern Mountains Approximate length of the … Read more

Various National Missions and Programmes:-

MNREGA Jan Dhan Yojna Atal Pension Yojna Skill India Mission Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Gram Jyoti Yojana Pradhan Mantri Suraksha Bima Yojana Pradhan Mantri Jeevan Jyoti Bima Yojana Sukanya Samridhi Yojana Pradhan Mantri  Garib Kalyan Yojana Jan Aushadhi Yojana (JAY) Nai Manzil Scheme for minority students The Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana (PMAY) or Housing for all … Read more

Sustainable and Inclusive Growth

The term Sustainable growth became prominent after the World Conservation Strategy Presented in 1980 by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Brundland Report(1987) define sustainable development as the a process which seek to meet the needs and aspirations of the present generation without compromising the ability of the future generation … Read more

INDIAN AGRICULTURE—CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTS

INDIAN AGRICULTURE—CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTS Some of the important challenges Indian agriculture is facing at present are given below: Stunted Yield: Dry Farming: Inadequate Marketing Facilities: Inadequate Formal Sources of Credit: Mismanagement of Public Distribution System: Sustainability of Agriculture: Soil Erosion:

DRY FARMING IN INDIA

DRY FARMING IN INDIA The spread in the regions where the average annual rainfall is less than 75 cm. rainfall is scanty and uncertain, where hot and dry conditions prevail. It is not only that the average annual rainfall is low, the variability of rainfall in these areas varies between 25 to 60 per cent. … Read more

POULTRY FARMING and SILVER REVOLUTION IN INDIA

POULTRY FARMING (SILVER REVOLUTION) IN INDIA practice of raising poultry, such as chickens, turkeys, ducks, geese, as a subcategory of animal husbandry, for the purpose of farming meat or eggs for food. requires small capital and provides additional income and job opportunities to a large number of rural population in the shortest possible time. The … Read more

SERICULTURE IN INDIA

SERICULTURE IN INDIA Production Silkworm larvae are fed on mulberry leaves and after the fourth molt, they climb a twig placed near them and spin their silken cocoons. The silk is a continuous-filament fibre consisting of fibroin protein, secreted from two salivary glands in the head of each larva, and a gum called sericin, which … Read more

SECOND GREEN REVOLUTION

SECOND GREEN REVOLUTION The main objectives of the second Green Revolution are: (i) To raise agricultural productivity to promote food security (ii) More emphasis on bio-technology (iii) To promote sustainable agriculture (iv) To become self-sufficient in staple food, pulses, oil seeds, and industrial raw material (v) To increase the per capita income of the farmers … Read more

AQUA CULTURE

AQUA CULTURE the cultivation of aquatic organisms. aquaculture, also known as aquafarming, implies the cultivation of aquatic populations under controlled conditions. Mariculture refers to aquaculture practiced in marine environments. Particular kinds of aquaculture include agriculture (the production of kelp, seaweed, and other algae), fish farming, shrimp farming, shellfish farming, and growing of cultured pearls. Growth … Read more

WHITE REVOLUTION IN INDIA

WHITE REVOLUTION IN INDIA   The package programme adopted to increase the production of milk is known as White Revolution in India. The White Revolution in India occurred in 1970, when the National Dairy Development Board (NDDB) was established to organize the dairy development through the co-operative societies. Varghese Kuerin was the father of White … Read more

Green Revolution in India

Green Revolution in India A term coined to describe the emergence and diffusion of new seeds of cereals. Norman-e-Borlaug is the Father of Green Revolution in the world, while Dr. M.S. Swami Nathan is known as the Father of Green Revolution in India. The new cereals were the product of research work and concentrated plant … Read more

CHARACTERISTICS AND PROBLEMS OF INDIAN AGRICULTURE

CHARACTERISTICS AND PROBLEMS OF INDIAN AGRICULTURE Subsistent in Character Heavy Pressure of Population Predominance of Food Grains Mixed Cropping High Percentage of the Reporting Area under Cultivation Small Size of Holdings and Fragmentation of Fields Limited Intensive Agriculture Primitive Technology Indian Agriculture is Labour Intensive Rain-fed Agriculture Less Area under Leguminous and Fodder Crops Tradition … Read more

Physical factors: Terrain, topography, climate, and soil. which determine agriculture

Physical Factors: (a) Terrain, Topography, and Altitude dependent on the geo-ecological conditions; terrain, topography, slope and altitude. paddy cultivation requires leveled fields, tea plantations perform well in the undulating topography in which water does not remain standing. Orchards of coconut are found at low altitudes, preferably closer to the sea level, while the apple orchards … Read more

agriculture

the syllabus states that -mazor crops,cropping patterns in various parts of the country,different types of irrigation system,storage,transport and marketing of agricultural product,and issues related to constraints,e-tec hnology in the aid of farmers….the link for yojna January  2011 for agriculture is for dowloading dere would be a link as  download pdf also ncert geography land use … Read more

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