Agricultural Crops of India

  Crop State Prod Prod Yield Rainfall Temp Soil % (Mil Kg/Ha cm Deg C T) Rice W. Bengal 15 87 1900 125-200 cm >23 C Deep Fertile UP 14 Clayey or loamy Andhra Pr 13 soil Punjab 11 Wheat UP 35 74 2700 80 cm 10-25 C Light loam   Punjab 20 Sandy Loam … Read more


Three Geological divisions: The peninsular block The Himalayas and other Peninsular Mountains Indo-Ganga-Brahmaputra Plain   Peninsualar block is made of gneisses (metamorphic) and granites (igneous). Six physiographic divisions: The Northern and North-eastern Mountains The Northern Plain The Peninsular Plateau The Indian Desert The Coastal Plains The Islands Northern and North-Eastern Mountains Approximate length of the … Read more

Multipurpose Projects & Hydro-Electric Projects in India

                        Project River State     56.   Damodar Valley Project Damodar West Bengal & Jharkhand. It includes Maithon                 & Tilaiya Dam on Barakar river in Bihar, Konar                 … Read more

Mineral Resources of India

    50. Iron Ore Chhattisgarh 24 % Dalli, Rajhra (Durg), Bailadila, Raoghat, Aridongri 51.   Goa (21%) Sanquelim, Sanguem, Quepem, Satari, Ponda, Bicholim 52.   Karnataka (20%) Bellary, Hospet, Sandur 53.   Jharkhand (17 %) Noamund, Gua 54.   Orissa (15 %) Gurumahisani, Sulaipat, Badampahar (Mayurbhanj),       Kiriburu, Meghahataburu, Bonai (Sundargarh). 55. … Read more

Drainage System of India

Drainage: Flow of water through well-defined channels. Network of such channels is called a drainage system . Drainage basin: An area drained by a river and its tributaries. Watershed: Boundary line separating one drainage basin from other. River basins are larger watersheds. Drainage pattern of an area depends on the geological time period, nature and … Read more

Environment and Ecological Issues

ECOLOGY   Ecology is  defined “as a scientific study of the relationship of the living organisms with each other and with their environment.” The classical texts of the Vedic period such as the Vedas, the Samhitas, the Brahmanas and the Aranyakas-Upanishads contain many references to ecological concepts .The Indian treatise on medicine, the Caraka- Samhita … Read more

Development of Industries : Types of Industries;factors of industrial location, distribution and changing pattern of selected industries [iron and steel, cotton textile, sugar and petro- chemicals); Weber’s theory of industrial location-lts relevance in the modern world.

  Based on the value addition and tangibility broadly we can have three types of industries – primary industries,secondary industries and tertiary industries. Primary industries are usually very simple industries involving processing of raw materials to give input goods for secondary industries. Here value addition is usually minimal and they are usually material oriented.Scale of … Read more

Non- metallic and conventional minerals [coal,petroleum and natural gas), (c) hydro electricity and non conventional sources of energy (Solar, Wind, bio-gas),(d) energy sources Their distribution and conservation.

  Petroleum, natural gas, coal, nitrogen, uranium and water power are examples of conventional sources of energy. They’re also called non-renewable sources of energy and are mainly fossil fuels, except water power. Rising growth of population has created a tremendous pressure on the conventional resources of energy and thus the concept of sustainable development get prominent … Read more

Minerals and Energy Resources : Distribution and utility of [a] metallic minerals (ion ore, copper, bauxite, manganese)

  Mineral is a naturally occurring, homogeneous inorganic solid substance having a definite chemical composition and characteristic crystalline structure, color, and hardness Minerals are valuable natural resources that are finite and non-renewable. The history of mineral extraction in India dates back to the days of the Harappan civilization. The wide availability of minerals in the … Read more

Scarcity of water, methods of conservation-rain water harvesting and watershed management, ground water management

  Scarcity of water   Water scarcity is possibly to pose the greatest challenge on account of its increased demand coupled with shrinking supplies due to over utilisation and pollution. Water is a cyclic resource with abundant supplies on the globe. Approximately, 71 per cent of the earth’s surface is covered with it but fresh … Read more

Utilization for industrial and other purposes, irrigation

    Industrial Uses The share of industrial sector is limited to 2 per cent of the surface water utilisation and 5 per cent of the ground-water. Rough estimates indicate that the present water use in the industrial sector is of the order of 15 km3 . The water use by thermal and nuclear power … Read more

Water Resources : Availability

  Water is a prime natural resource, a basic human need and a precious national asset. Planning, development and management of water resources need to be governed by national perspectives. India accounts for about 2.45 per cent of world’s surface area, 4 per cent of the world’s water resources and about 16 per cent of … Read more

Geographical condition and distribution of major crops, like,Rice, Wheat,Cotton, Jute, Sugarcane, Rubber, Tea and Coffee

  Rice The rice is cultivated on the largest areas in India. Historians believe that while the indica variety of rice was first domesticated in the area covering the foothills of the Eastern Himalayas (i.e. north-eastern India).Rice is a nutritional staple food which provides instant energy as its most important component is carbohydrate (starch). Rice … Read more

Development and Utilization Land Resources ie General land use, agricultural land use

  Land is a finite resource. Land availability is only about 20% of the earth’s surface. Land is crucial for all developmental activities, for natural resources, ecosystem services and for agriculture. Growing population, growing needs and demands for economic development, clean water, food and other products from natural resources, as well as degradation of land … Read more

Natural Resources of India

  What are natural resources ? Natural resources are useful raw materials that we get from the Earth. They occur naturally, which means that humans cannot make natural resources. Instead, we use and modify natural resources in ways that are beneficial to us. The materials used in human-made objects are natural resources. Some examples of natural … Read more

functional classification of urban settlements Problems of human settlement in India

The definition of function varies across the disciplines. In political science it refers to duties, in mathematics it means the relationship between two variables and in geography it is synonymous to occupation. Geographers have classified towns on the basis of their site, situation, size, rank, location and relative elevation. Functional classification of towns attempts to categorize towns … Read more

Urban morphology

  Urban morphology is the study of the form of human settlements and the process of their formation and transformation.Morphological studies often deal with development of forms and pattern of the present city or other urban areas through time. Urban morphology is the study of the physical form of a city, which consists of street … Read more

Types of Settlements : rural and urban

  Settlement can be defined as any form of human habitation which ranges from a single dwelling to large city. The word settlement has another connotation as well as this is a process of opening up and settling of a previously uninhabited area by the people. In geography this process is also known as occupancy. … Read more

Population, environment and development

  The rapid pace of population growth has led to the excessive utilization of natural resources. Huge population also leads to huge production of wastes. The resultant outcomes are loss of biodiversity, pollution of air, water and soil and increased pressure on arable land. All these have been putting great stress on the environment. If … Read more

Age: Sex, ratio, rural-urban composition

  Rural-Urban Composition: For the first time since Independence, the absolute increase in population is more in urban areas that in rural areas Rural Population in India: 68.84% Urban Population in India: 31.16% Level of urbanization increased from 27.81% in 2001 Census to 31.16% in 2011 Census The proportion of rural population declined from 72.19% … Read more