Global Warming And Its Impact

? Global Warming and Its Impact Global warming is the slow increase in the average temperature of the earth’s atmosphere because an increased amount of the energy (heat) striking the earth from the sun is being trapped in the atmosphere and not radiated out into space. The earth’s atmosphere has always acted like a greenhouse to … Read more

Origin Of The Monsoon

? Origin of the Monsoon:   Classcial Theories: Halley’s Thermal concept: Indian monsoon is because of contrast between Indian Subcontinent and adjoining Indian Ocean. Halley’s theory, suggested in 1686, considers the summer monsoon to be a regional phenomenon. Aerological concept: This was suggested by R. Scherhag in 1948. According to this theory, monsoon circulation … Read more

Land Resources Management (1)

? Land Resources Management Land and water have been the basic elements of life support system on our planet since the dawn of civilization. All great civilizations, flourished where these resources were available in plenty and they declined or perished with the depletion of these resources. In recent years, the land resource has been … Read more

World Distribution Of Iron Ore Reserves

? World distribution of iron ore reserves China China now emerged as a leading iron ore-producing country in the world. Till 1975, its production of iron ore in the world was only 6.5 per cent, but in year 2000, China produced 24.3 per cent iron ore of the world. This percentage further increased to … Read more

Oceans And Continents

? Introduction to Continents and Ocean Basins Continents and ocean basins being fundamental relief features of the globe are considered as ‘relief features of the first order’. It is, therefore, desirable to inquire into their mode of possible origin and evolu­tion. Different views, concepts, hypotheses and theo­ries regarding the origin of the continents and … Read more

Oceans Currents

? Oceans: Currents Ocean current, stream made up of horizontal and vertical components of the circulation system of ocean waters that is produced by gravity, wind friction, and water density variation in different parts of the ocean. Ocean currents are similar to winds in the atmosphere in that they transfer significant amounts of heat … Read more

Migration And Metropolitan Regions

? Migration and Metropolitan Region Migration Migration has been defined as crossing of the boundary of a political or administrative unit for a certain minimum period of time. It includes the movements of refugees, displaced persons, uprooted people as well as economic migrants. Internal migration refers to a move from one area (a province, … Read more

Census Of India

? Census of India : Economic and Social features Rural and urban population Altogether, 833.5 million persons live in rural area as per Census 2011, which was more than two-third of the total population, while 377.1 million persons live in urban areas. Urban proportion has gone up from 17.3 per cent in 1951 to … Read more


? Landform Each landform has its unique physical shape, size, materials and is a result of the action of certain geomorphic processes and agent(s). Every landform has a beginning. Landforms once formed may change in their shape, size and nature slowly or fast due to continued action of geomorphic processes and agents. Due to … Read more

Climatic Regions Of India

? Climatic Regions of India : Koeppen’s Classification   Climate Type Climatic Region Annual Rainfall in the Region Amw(Monsoon type with shorter dry winter season) Western coastal region, south of Mumbai over 300 cm As(Monsoon type with dry season in high sun period) Coromandel coast = Coastal Tamil Nadu and adjoining … Read more

Distribution Of Natural Resources

? Distribution of natural resources World Distribution of forest reserves Forests cover 31 percent of the world’s land surface, just over 4 billion hectares. (One hectare = 2.47 acres.) This is down from the pre-industrial area of 5.9 billion hectares. According to data from the U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization, deforestation was at its … Read more

Broad Physical Feature

? Broad Physical Feature: Mountains, Plateaus, Plains, Lakes and Glaciers:-   Landforms are the natural features and shapes existent on the face of the earth. Landforms possess many different physical characteristics and are spread out throughout the planet. Together, landforms constitute a specific terrain and their physical arrangement in the landscape forms what is … Read more

El Nino

? El Nino El Niño is the name given to the occasional development of warm ocean surface waters along the coast of Ecuador and Peru. When this warming occurs the usual upwelling of cold, nutrient rich deep ocean water is significantly reduced. El Niño normally occurs around Christmas and usually lasts for a few weeks to a few … Read more

Oceans Tides

? Oceans  tides An ocean tide refers to the cyclic rise and fall of seawater. Tides are caused by slight variations in gravitational attraction between the Earth and the moon and the Sun in geometric relationship with locations on the Earth’s surface. Tides are periodic primarily because of the cyclical influence of the Earth’s … Read more


? Cyclones: Types and Mechanism Cyclone is a system of low atmospheric pressure in which the barometric gradient is steep. Cyclones represent circular fluid motion rotating in the same direction as the Earth. This means that the inward spiralling winds in a cyclone rotate anticlockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern … Read more


? Agroecology Agroecology shares much in common with other approaches to sustainable farming. Agroecology is farming that “centers on food production that makes the best use of nature’s goods and services while not damaging these resources.”  Farming thrives when it works with local ecosystems, for example, improving soil and plant quality through available biomass … Read more

Solar System

? The Solar System The solar system consists of the Sun and its eight main planets, their satellites, asteroids, comets, meteors and other dwarf planets. The Sun is at the one of the two Centers of the Solar system and the planets revolving around it in elliptical orbits. Let us take a look at … Read more

Interior Of The Earth

? Interior of the earth- composition and physical conditions   Core, mantle, and crust are divisions based on composition. The crust makes up less than 1 percent of Earth by mass, consisting of oceanic crust and continental crust is often more felsic rock. The mantle is hot and represents about 68 percent of Earth’s … Read more


? Population : Regional Pattern of Growth India’s population is young. Its birth and death rates are both near the global average. More than half the population is under age 30 and less than one-fourth is age 45 or older. Life expectancy is about 68 for men and 70 for women. A population explosion … Read more

Soil Conservation Planning On Watershed Basis

? Soil conservation planning on watershed basis Watershed development activity was taken up in the country prior to independence in the state of Maharashtra (then Bombay state) as a scarcity relief work during drought years in which contour binding programme for conservation of moisture and control of soil erosion was mostly undertaken, After independence, … Read more


? Fisheries: ‘Fisheries’ sector is becoming a subsector of Primary sector with consistently increasing contribution to the state economy. The state government envisages development in fisheries sector with a multi pronged strategy with essential focus on increasing fish production and thereby ensure sustainable development. Development of fisheries through effective value chain and boosting exports, … Read more

Population Growth And Economic Development

? Population growth and economic development The effect of population growth on a society’s per capita output level depends on the pattern of population growth as also its institutional (organ­isational) framework. In other words, it depends on the age composition of the population. The pattern of spending reflects the age distribution. An ageing population—one … Read more


? Earth’s Rotation and Revolution Primarily two motions: Rotation and Revolution. Rotation of Earth Earth rotates along its axis from west to east. It takes approximately 24 hrs to complete on rotation. Days and nights occur due to rotation of the earth. The circle that divides the day from night on the globe is … Read more

Scheduled Caste Population Composition Of India

? Scheduled Caste population composition of India Scheduled Castes are notified in 31 States/UTs of India and there are altogether 1,241 individual ethnic groups, etc. notified as Scheduled Castes in different States/UTs. There has been some changes in the List of SCs/STs in States/ UTs during the last decade. As per the 2011 Census … Read more

Approaches To Disaster Risk Reductions

? Approaches to Disaster Risk Reductions Disaster management meant different for different players. For many decades prior to Major catastrophes like Orissa Super Cyclone (1999), Gujarat Earth quake & West Bengal Floods (2000) disaster management for respective state governments was to emphasis on early warning, evacuation, post disaster compensation, rehabilitation, shelter construction, i.e., basically … Read more


? Eskimo Eskimo, any member of a group of peoples who, with the closely related Aleuts, constitute the chief element in the indigenous population of the Arctic and subarctic regions of Greenland, Canada, the United States, and far eastern Russia (Siberia). Early 21st-century population estimates indicated more than 135,000 individuals of Eskimo descent, with … Read more

Weather Forecast

? Weather forecast There are two ways for weather forcasting: Short-range forecasting Meteorologists can make somewhat longer-term forecasts (those for 6, 12, 24, or even 48 hours) with considerable skill because they are able to measure and predict atmospheric conditions for large areas by computer. Using models that apply their accumulated expert knowledge quickly, … Read more

Advance Infrastructure In Rural Areas (2)

? Advance Infrastructure in Rural Areas Good quality infrastructure is critical to sustainable growth, especially for rural areas. As over 60 per cent of the population lives in rural areas, with low levels of per capital income, there is need to impart greater attention in improving rural infrastructure. Currently the rural infrastructure is inadequate … Read more

Nuclear Energy

? Nuclear Energy Introduction Global energy demand continues to climb as the industrialized world’s energy use rises, millions pull themselves out of poverty in developing countries, and the world population expands. Thus, the debate over the energy supply of the future intensifies. This debate is complicated by ongoing global climate destabilization as a result … Read more


?                                            ANIMAL HUSBANDRY AND DAIRY Sustained efforts – Stabilized Primary sector  Technology in agriculture – bringing together global leaders in cutting edge technologies to aid small and marginal farmers  Drought – a thing of the past – Sustained growth in Agriculture and Allied sectors – Growth despite deficit rainfall  Soil Health … Read more

Development Of Railway

? Development of Railway:- The romance of train travel in India is legendary, but the task of constructing the railways in the first place was daunting. There were huge problems in dealing with such a vast and inhospitable country. The idea of introducing railways to India had been mooted as early as the 1830s. … Read more

Source Of Energy

? Conventional and New Source of Energy   Energy is one of the most important component of economic infrastructure. It is the basic input required to sustain economic growth. There is direct relation between the level of economic development and per capita energy consumption.   Two Main Sources of Energy:   … Read more


? Distribution of major natural resources of World-Water, Soils,  Forests in reference to South and South-East Asia     Distribution of key natural resources across the world (including South Asia and the Indian subcontinent) Natural resources are highly valued because human beings are dependent on them to fulfil their fundamental needs that changes with … Read more

Role Of Agriculture In Indian Economic Development

? Role of agriculture in Indian economic development-interrelationship between agriculture, industry and service sectors Role of agriculture in Indian economic development Contribution to National Income From the very beginning, agriculture is contributing a major portion to our national income. In 1950-51, agriculture and allied activities contributed about 59 per cent of the total national … Read more

Natural Hazards And Natural Disasters

? Natural Hazards and Natural Disasters A natural hazard is a threat of a naturally occurring event will have a negative effect on humans. This negative effect is what we call a natural disaster.  In other words when the hazardous threat actually happens and harms humans, we call the event a natural disaster. Natural … Read more

Cottage And Village Industries In India

? Cottage and Village industries in India problems and prospects Cottage Industry is a form of small scale industry where the productivity of the good£ takes place in the houses of the workers, and the workforce include the members of the family. The equipment’s used to generate products are not the hi-tech ones but … Read more

Energy Resources

? Sources of Energy: Conventional and Nonconventional Sources – Energy is one of the most important component of economic infrastructure. It is the basic input required to sustain economic growth. There is direct relation between the level of economic development and per capita energy consumption. Simply speaking more developed a country, higher … Read more

Seasonal Climatic Conditions In India

? Seasonal Climatic conditions in India Climate in India varies significantly from the permanently snow-capped Himalayas in the north to the tropics in the south. The country has four seasons. December to February is relatively dry and cool, March to May is dry and hot, from June to September predominating southwest maritime winds bring … Read more

Salinity Of Oceans

? Salinity of oceans Salinity is defined as the ratio between the weight of the dissolved materials and the weight of the sample sea water. Generally, salinity is defined as ‘the total amount of solid material in grams contained in one kilogram of sea water and is expressed as part per thousand (%o) e.g., … Read more

Oceanic Resources Of India And Their Potential

? Oceanic resources of India and their potential Oceans are the world’s single largest ecosystem, covering nearly three-fourths of the earth’s surface, thereby providing a massive arena for emerging complex and interconnected development issues such as climate change, livelihoods, commerce, and security. According to estimates by the Global Ocean Commission, ocean resources contribute five … Read more

Variation In The Population In Various Countries

? Variation in the population in various countries The Growth of Human Population: Four Major Periods or Stages An early period of hunters and gatherers   This period ranges between the first evolutions of humans on this planet to the beginning of agriculture. During this period, it is estimated that the total population was … Read more

Earth And Its Geological Time Scale

? Earth and its Geological time scale:-   Origin of the Earth:- EARLY THEORIES:- A large number of hypotheses were put forth by different philosophers and scientists regarding the origin of the earth. One of the earlier and popular arguments was by German philosopher Immanuel Kant. Mathematician Laplace revised it in 1796. It is … Read more

Water Resources

? Water Resources  Rainfall: With an average annual rainfall of 1,170 mm, India is one of the wettest countries in the world. At one extreme are areas like Cherrapunji, in the northeast, which is drenched each year with 11,000 mm of rainfall, and at the other extreme are places like Jaisalmer, in the west, … Read more

Canadian Pacific Railway

? Canadian pacific railway The Canadian Pacific Railway company was incorporated in 1881. Its original purpose was the construction of a transcontinental railway, a promise to British Columbia upon its entry into Confederation. The railway — completed in 1885 — connected Eastern Canada to BC and played an important role in the development of … Read more

Management Of Land And Water Resources (1)

? Management of land and water resources LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN INDIA Land and water have been the basic elements of life support system on our planet since the dawn of civilization. All great civilizations, flourished where these resources were available in plenty and they declined or perished with the depletion of these resources. … Read more

Horticulture And Forestry

?   Horticulture : The agrarian state of Andhra Pradesh is heading towards a value addition platform from the conventional production approach. ‘Horticulture’ sector has been recognized as an essential component for food and nutritional security in the State. Efforts are being made to make Andhra Pradesh maintain its supremacy in the production of … Read more

Solar Energy

? Solar Energy : Source, Solar heating devices, solar cooker solar cell   Sunlight is Earth’s most abundant energy source and is delivered free of charge. Indeed, the energy from sunlight reaching the land surface of the earth  is thousands of times greater than the world’s current total annual consumption of energy. Yet harnessing sunlight’s energy … Read more

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