Surface Tension

? Surface tension Surface tension, property of a liquid surface displayed by its acting as if it were a stretched elastic membrane. This phenomenon can be observed in the nearly spherical shape of small drops of liquids and of soap bubbles. Because of this property, certain insects can stand on the surface of water. … Read more

Chromosomes

? Chromosomes Chromosome, the microscopic threadlike part of the cell that carries hereditary information in the form of genes. A defining feature of any chromosome is its compactness. For instance, the 46 chromosomes found in human cells have a combined length of 200 nm (1 nm = 10? 9 metre); if the chromosomes were … Read more

Civilian And Military Uses Of Nuclear Energy

? Civilian and military uses of Nuclear energy Civilian uses Plant mutation breeding Plant mutation breeding is the process of exposing the seeds or cuttings of a given plant to radiation, such as gamma rays, to cause mutations. The irradiated material is then cultivated to generate a plantlet. Plantlets are selected and multiplied if … Read more

Allotropes Of Carbon

? Allotropes of carbon Allotropy is the property of some chemical elements to exist in two or more different forms, or allotropes, when found in nature. There are several allotropes of carbon. Diamond Diamond is probably the most well known carbon allotrope. The carbon atoms are arranged in a lattice, which is a variation … Read more

Defluoridation And Other Techniques Of Water Purification

? Defluoridation and other Techniques of water purification Defluoridation Defluoridation is the downward adjustment of the level of fluoride in drinking water. Worldwide, fluoride is one of the most abundant anions present in groundwater. Fluoride is more present in groundwater than surface water mainly due to the leaching of minerals. Groundwater accounts for 98 … Read more

Types Of Asexual Reproduction

? Types of Asexual Reproduction Spores Some protozoans and many bacteria, plants and fungi reproduce via spores. Spores are structures naturally grown as part of an organism’s life cycle and designed for separation from the organism and dispersal via a medium such as air or water. When conditions are correct, the organism will release … Read more

TRENDS IN NUCLEAR POLICY

? TRENDS IN NUCLEAR POLICY, NPT AND CTBT Nuclear policy of india Important points of india’s nuclear policy are as follows: Building and maintaining a credible minimum deterrent. nuclear weapons will only be used in retaliation against a nuclear attack on Indian Territory or on Indian forces elsewhere. Nuclear retaliation to a first strike … Read more

Universalizing Science And Technology Literacy (2)

? Universalizing Science and Technology literacy Scientific and technological literacy, in its broadest sense, means much more than simply being able to read, understand and write about science and technology, however important these are.  STL also includes the ability to apply scientific and technological concepts and process skills to the life, work and culture of … Read more

Elementary Idea Of LASER

? Elementary idea of LASER Laser, a device that stimulates atoms or molecules to emit light at particular wavelengths and amplifies that light, typically producing a very narrow beam of radiation. The emission generally covers an extremely limited range of visible, infrared, or ultraviolet wavelengths. Many different types of lasers have been developed, with … Read more

Safe Drinking And Supply

? Safe Drinking and Supply Safe drinking water is the birthright of all humankind – as much a birthright as clean air. The majority of the world’s population, however, does not have access to safe drinking water. This is certainly true in most parts of Africa and Asia. Even in relatively advanced countries such … Read more

Food Processing, And Food Packaging And Marketing

? Food Processing, and Food Packaging & Marketing Food Processing Industry (FPI) in India is a sunrise sector that has gained prominence in the recent years. Easy availability of raw materials, changing lifestyles and favourable fiscal policies has given a considerable push to the industry’s growth. FPI serves as a vital link between the … Read more

CREDA.

?   CREDA – Chhattisgarh State Renewable Energy Development Agency   CREDA – Chhattisgarh State Renewable Energy Development Agency, has been constituted on 25th May 2001 under the Department of Energy, Government of Chhattisgarh for implementation of various schemes pertaining to Renewable Energy sources and Energy Conservation activities. It is registered under Society Act … Read more

Type Of Nuclear Reactors

?   QUICK REVISION ( ARTICLE:3, SCIENCE): TYPE OF NUCLEAR REACTORS   COMPONENTS OF NUCLEAR REACTOR:   Fuel: Usually pellets of uranium oxide (UO2) arranged in tubes to form fuel rods. The rods are arranged into fuel assemblies in the reactor core   • Moderator: This is material which slows down the neutrons released … Read more

Fast And Slow Chemical Reactions

? Slow reactions Chemical reactions that occur very slowly and can take a long time for completion are called slow reactions.  Usually covalent compounds are involved in slow reactions.Some reactions can take days, weeks and months to complete; they are called very slow reactions.For example, Milk may take several hours or a day to convert to curd, while it … Read more

Properties And Applications Of Petroleum Products

? Properties and applications of petroleum products Gases Gaseous refinery products include hydrogen, fuel gas, ethane, propane, and butane. Most of the hydrogen is consumed in refinery desulfurization facilities, which remove hydrogen sulfide from the gas stream and then separate that compound into elemental hydrogen and sulfur; small quantities of the hydrogen may be … Read more

Yoga Philosophy

? Yoga Philosophy (Yog Darshan), Astang Yoga Yoga An AYUSH system of medicine includes Indian systems of medicine and Homeopathy. AYUSH is an acronym for Ayurveda, Yoga & Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha & Sowa Rigpa, and Homoeopathy. Yoga is essentially spiritual and it is an art and science of healthy living which focuses on bringing … Read more

Respiratory System

? Respiratory System Introduction Red blood cells are like trucks that transport cargo on a highway system. Their cargo is oxygen, and the highways are blood vessels. Where do red blood cells pick up their cargo of oxygen? The answer is the lungs. The lungs are organs of the respiratory system. The respiratory system … Read more

Structure And Function Of Human Brain And Spinal Cord

? Structure and function of human Brain and spinal cord The brain is a complex organ made up of specialized nerve and supportive tissues. It’s surrounded by many bones that together form the skull. The part of the skull where the brain sits is called the cranium. The base, or lower part, of the … Read more

Factors Affecting Photosynthesis (2)

? Factors affecting photosynthesis Light  Without light, a plant cannot photosynthesize very quickly, regardless of whether there are water and CO2 or not. But overdoing light is also not a good idea. In nature, balance is crucial. But increasing the intensity of light to a prudent limit will speed up the process. Carbon Dioxide … Read more

Transgenic Plants

? Transgenic Plants Transgenic plants are plants that have been genetically modified by inserting genes directly into a single plant cell. Transgenic crop plants modified for improved flavor, pest resistance, or some other useful property are being used increasingly.   Transgenic plants are unique in that they develop from only one plant cell. In … Read more

Composition And Function Of Blood

?   Blood: Composition and Function   Blood has many functions including transportation of nutrients round the body, maintaining homeostasis and the immune system. It is made up of plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets.     Function of blood   Transportation: The blood carries other substances … Read more

Reproductive Systems

? Reproductive systems The reproductive system in both males and females consists of structures that produce reproductive cells, or gametes, and secrete sex hormones. A gamete is a haploid cell that combines with another haploid gamete during fertilization. Sex hormones are chemical messengers that control sexual development and reproduction. The male reproductive system consists … Read more

Molecular Breeding And Marker Assisted Selection

? Molecular breeding and marker assisted selection Molecular breeding Molecular Breeding or Marker assisted breeding (MAB) is the process of using the results of DNA tests to assist in the selection of individuals to become the parents in the next generation of a genetic improvement program. The choice among various methods of MAB depends … Read more

Contribution Of Prominent Indian Scientists

? Contribution of Prominent Indian Scientists   Ever since Vedic times, science and scientific inquiry have been integral to Indian intellectual endeavors. It is widely known that Indian mathematicians invented the concept of zero and the decimal system of numbers. It is perhaps not as well known that the Pythagorean theorem was known in India many centuries before … Read more

Methods Of Production And Manufacturing

? Methods of production and manufacturing Washing soda The chemical name of washing soda is sodium carbonate decahydrate, and its chemical formula is Na2CO3.10H2O. So washing soda is hydrated salt of sodium carbonate containing 10 molecules of water of crystallization. Sodium carbonate is manufactured by Solvay process. The manufacture of sodium carbonate by Solvay … Read more

Microscope

? Microscope Microscope, instrument that produces enlarged images of small objects, allowing the observer an exceedingly close view of minute structures at a scale convenient for examination and analysis. Although optical microscopes are the subject of this article, an image may also be enlarged by many other wave forms, including acoustic, X-ray, or electron … Read more

Indian Telecom Industry With Brief History

? Indian telecom industry with brief history India’s telecommunication network is the second largest in the world by number of telephone users (both fixed and mobile phone) with 1.153 billion subscribers as on 31 May 2018. It has one of the lowest call tariffs in the world enabled by mega telecom operators and hyper-competition … Read more

Important Organic Compounds

? Some Important Organic Compounds   The chemical compounds of living things are known as organic compounds because of their association with organisms and because they are carbon-containing compounds. Organic compounds, which are the compounds associated with life processes, are the subject matter of organic chemistry. Among the numerous types of organic compounds, four major categories … Read more

Management Of Land And Water Resources (2)

? Management of land and water resources LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN INDIA Land and water have been the basic elements of life support system on our planet since the dawn of civilization. All great civilizations, flourished where these resources were available in plenty and they declined or perished with the depletion of these resources. … Read more

Scientific Water Harvasting

? Scientific Water Harvesting What is Water Harvesting It means capturing rain where it falls or capturing the run off in your own village or town. And taking measures to keep that water clean by not allowing polluting activities to take place in the catchment. Therefore, water harvesting can be undertaken through a variety … Read more

Respiratory Quotien1

? Respiratory quotient: Carbohydrates, fats and protein The respiratory quotient (or RQ or respiratory coefficient), is a dimensionless number used in calculations of basal metabolic rate (BMR) when estimated from carbon dioxide production. It is calculated from the ratio of carbon dioxide produced by the body to oxygen consumed by the body. Such measurements, … Read more

Facing Global Competition

? Facing Global Competition Globalisation means gradual integration of economies through free movement of goods, services and capital which has significant impact on the economies of both developed and developing countries. Globalisation refers to a process of growing economic interdependence among different countries of the world. Thus, in the globalised era, the whole world … Read more

Nervous System Of Human Being

? Nervous system of human being The nervous system is a complex collection of nerves and specialized cells known as neurons that transmit signals between different parts of the body. It is essentially the body’s electrical wiring. Structurally, the nervous system has two components: the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. According … Read more

Introduction To Alkaloids

? Introduction to alkaloids (nicotine and cocaine) Alkaloids, any of a class of naturally occurring organic nitrogen-containing bases. Alkaloids have diverse and important physiological effects on humans and other animals. Well-known alkaloids include morphine, strychnine, quinine, ephedrine, and nicotine. Alkaloids are found primarily in plants and are especially common in certain families of flowering … Read more

Synthetic Fibers

? Synthetic fibers (nylon and rayon),, polystyrene Synthetic fibers are made from raw materials such as petroleum, based on chemicals or petrochemicals. These materials are polymerized into a long, linear chemical with different chemical compounds and are used to produce various types of fibers. Synthetic fibers account for about half of all fiber usage, … Read more

Tissues

? Tissues Tissue, in physiology, a level of organization in multicellular organisms; it consists of a group of structurally and functionally similar cells and their intercellular material. Tissues are absent from unicellular organisms. Even among the simplest multicellular species, such as sponges, tissues are lacking or are poorly differentiated. But multicellular animals and plants … Read more

Diseases Related To Heart

? Diseases related to heart There are many types of heart disease that affect different parts of the organ and occur in different ways. Congenital heart disease   This is a general term for some deformities of the heart that have been present since birth. Examples include:   Septal defects: There is a hole … Read more

Determinants Of Nuclear Tests

? Determinants of Nuclear Tests: Pokhran I (1974) and Pokhran II (1998) Pokhran 1 test The emergence of China as fifth nuclear power in October 1964 constituted a significant threat to India’s territorial integrity and sovereignty. The strained relations between the two countries after the 1962 aggression sparked off an acrimonious debate on defence … Read more

Simple Telescope And Astronomical Telescope

? Simple telescope and astronomical telescope, Construction working, uses, ray diagram Simple telescope A simple working telescope requires nothing more than a pair of lenses mounted in a tube. The lens in front, known as the objective, focuses an image; the lens in back, known as the eyepiece, magnifies the image. Although it may … Read more

Blood Group

? Blood group Blood group is an inherited feature on the surface of the red blood cells. A series of related blood types constitutes a blood group system, such as the Rh or ABO system. The frequencies of the ABO and Rh blood types vary from population to population. In the US, the most … Read more

Blood Bank

? Blood bank Blood bank is a place where blood is collected from donors, typed, separated into components, stored, and prepared for transfusion to recipients. A blood bank may be a separate free-standing facility or part of a larger laboratory in a hospital. Separation of blood Typically, each donated unit of blood (whole blood) … Read more

Total Internal Reflection

? Total internal reflection Total internal reflection, in physics, complete reflection of a ray of light within a medium such as water or glass from the surrounding surfaces back into the medium. The phenomenon occurs if the angle of incidence is greater than a certain limiting angle, called the critical angle. In general, total … Read more

Agricultural Credit Policy

? Agricultural Credit Policy Rural indebtedness is an age-old problem in India. In the nineteenth century, commercial banking was non-existent in rural areas, and farmers were completely in the hands of usurious moneylenders. Starting from the days of British rule, the central government has been striving to expand institutional lending to the rural agricultural … Read more

Light

? Ray optics Nature of light Light is a transverse, electromagnetic wave that can be seen by humans. The wave nature of light was first illustrated through experiments on diffraction and interference. Like all electromagnetic waves, light can travel through a vacuum. The transverse nature of light can be demonstrated through polarization. Light is … Read more

Biotechnology In Agriculture

? Biotechnology in agriculture For about 10,000 years , farmers have been improving wild plants and animals through the selection and breeding of desirable characteristics. This breeding has resulted in the domesticated plants and animals that are commonly used in crop and livestock agriculture. In the twentieth century, breeding became more sophisticated, as the … Read more

Nuclear Reactors

? Nuclear reactors A nuclear reactor, formerly known as an atomic pile, is a device used to initiate and control a self-sustained nuclear chain reaction. Nuclear reactors are used at nuclear power plants for electricity generation and in propulsion of ships. Heat from nuclear fission is passed to a working fluid (water or gas), … Read more

Electric Transformers

? Electric transformers Electrical transformers are machines that transfer electricity from one circuit to another with changing voltage level but no frequency change. Today, they are designed to use AC supply, which means that fluctuation in supply voltage is impacted by the fluctuation in the current. So, an increase in current will bring about … Read more

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