3.1 Aptitude

? Aptitude An aptitude is a component of a competence to do a certain kind of work at a certain level. Outstanding aptitude can be considered “talent”. An aptitude may be physical or mental. Aptitude is inborn potential to do certain kinds of work whether developed or undeveloped. Ability is developed knowledge, understanding, learned … Read more

Utilization Of Public Fund (1)

? Utilization of public fund Intergovernmental transfers from the centre to the states takes place through three channels: statutory and other transfers mandated by the Finance Commission, formula-based transfers for State Plan Schemes through the Planning Commission, and other discretionary transfers by the Planning Commission/ various central Ministries. The entire tax sharing is a … Read more

Quality Of Service Delivery

? Quality of service delivery After over a decade of rapid economic growth in India, the biggest challenge facing policymakers at both central and state levels is to ensure ‘inclusive’ growth so that the gains from increased national income are shared by all sections of society. In particular, it is imperative that a high … Read more

Ethics In Private And Public Relationships (1)

? Ethics in private and public relationships An inadequate way of resolving the problem consists in thinking that public ethics should be an exact equivalent of personal ethics. This is the type of solution that Aristotle gives to our problem. For Aristotle, the ethical perfection of man is developed and expressed completely and thoroughly … Read more

2.3 Objectivity (1)

? Objectivity: Meaning as a Philosophical concept   Objectivity, as a method of philosophy, is dependent upon the presupposition distinguishing references in the field of epistemology regarding the ontological status of a possible objective reality, and the state of being objective in regard to references towards whatever is considered as objective reality. In other … Read more

2.5 Empathy (1)

? Empathy: Definition The term “empathy” is used to describe a wide range of experiences. Emotion researchers generally define empathy as the ability to sense other people’s emotions, coupled with the ability to imagine what someone else might be thinking or feeling. Contemporary researchers often differentiate between two types of empathy: “Affective empathy” refers to … Read more

Human Values Lessons

? Human values :Lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers, administrators Mahatma Gandhi Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, or Mahatma Gandhi as he is fondly called, was the greatest political figure in India’s history. Hailed as the Father of the Nation, Gandhi inspired Indians with his non-violent movements for civil rights and freedom … Read more

Code Of Ethics (2)

? Code of ethics Ethics codes are as old as antiquity. Religious traditions and civic cultures have codes as their foundations. The Mosaic Decalogue (Ten Commandments) is the keystone for Judaism, Islam and Christianity. Pericles made the Athenian code the underpinning of ancient Greek politics and culture. In each case codes carry general obligations … Read more

Role Of Family

? Role of family, society, and educational institutions in inculcating values Family Family is the most important platform for a child to learn, especially during the early stages on one’s life. Many of beliefs and opinion are directly imbibed by an individual, from his family. We learn about the different social relations, responsibilities, religious … Read more

Foundational Values

? Foundational values for civil services.. Impartiality and Non-partisanship Impartiality and Non-partisanship Impartiality is a norm of justice holding that decisions should be based on objective standards, instead of on the basis of bias, prejudice, or preferring the advantage to one person over another for unsuitable reasons. Impartiality is acting solely according to the … Read more

Quality Of Life

? Quality of life, life expectancy, literacy, standard of living and migration in India Human development—a comprehensive approach Human development is a process of enlarging people’s choices. But human development is also the objective, so it is both a process and an outcome. Human development implies that people must influence the processes that shape … Read more

Political Attitude (1)

? Political attitude Political Attitude means the beliefs and values which underpin the operation of a particular political system. These attitudes were seen as including knowledge and skills about the operation of the political system positive and negative judgments about the system. These attitudes determine how people participate, whom they vote for and which … Read more

India Cultural Contribution To The Outside Wrold

? India’s cultural contributions to the outside world: Central Asia, China, Japan, South-East Asia and Sri Lanka India had commercial and cultural relations with her neighbours since an early time. Resulting from this, was on the one hand the introduction of foreign elements into the art and culture of India and on the other … Read more

Preservation & Promotion Of Culture And Indigenous Knowledge Use Of Regional Language In ICT (1)

? Preservation & promotion of culture and indigenous knowledge- Use of Regional Language in ICT “A nation’s culture resides in the hearts and in the soul of its people.” -Mahatma Gandhi Indigenous Knowledge (IK) refers to the knowledge, innovations, and practices of indigenous groups in matters related to agriculture and environmental management, medicine and … Read more

2.6 Tolerance (1)

? Tolerance: Definition Tolerance is the willingness to accept actions we believe to be inappropriate or even wrong because it would be worse to take action against them. Tolerance is community-oriented. Ideally, all bad behavior should cease, but it is unrealistic to think that society could succeed in enforcing this ideal. Tolerance understands this. … Read more

Psychology Stress Management

? Psychology stress management Stress arises when individuals perceive a discrepancy between the physical or psychological demands of a situation and the resources of his or her biological, psychological or social systems. There are many ways of coping with stress. Their effectiveness depends on the type of stressor, the particular individual, and the circumstances. … Read more

Citizen Charter (1)

? Citizen charter The Citizens’ Charter is an instrument which seeks to make an organization transparent, accountable and citizen friendly. A Citizens’ Charter is basically a set of commitments made by an organization regarding the standards of service which it delivers. Every citizens’ charter has several essential components to make it meaningful; the first … Read more

Functions Of Attitude (1)

? Functions of attitude Attitudes serve four major functions for the individual: The adjustments function, The ego defensive function, The value expressive function The knowledge function. Ultimately these functions serve people’s need to protect and enhance the image they hold of themselves. In more general terms, these functions are the motivational bases which shape … Read more

2.1 Integrity And Impartiality (1)

? Integrity   Integrity means that the moral agent acts according to the inner convictions of a person. His conducts should be free from hypocrisy and deception. His actions should be in conformity with his stated values. But it is hard to follow high morals which one proclaims. The British historian GM Trevelyan has … Read more

Socrates (1)

? Socrates Socrates believed the best way for people to live was to focus on the pursuit of virtue rather than the pursuit, for instance, of material wealth. He always invited others to try to concentrate more on friendships and a sense of true community, for Socrates felt this was the best way for … Read more

Aristotle (1)

? Aristotle Aristotle is one of the greatest thinkers in the history of western science and philosophy, making contributions to logic, metaphysics, mathematics, physics, biology, botany, ethics, politics, agriculture, medicine, dance and theatre. He was a student of Plato who in turn studied under Socrates. Although we do not actually possess any of Aristotle’s … Read more

Emotional Intelligence (2)

? Emotional intelligence: Applications in governance and administration Work rules are in a constant state of flux with new yardsticks by which workers are being evaluated. In today’s corporate world it is increasingly being recognised that an impressive curriculum vitae, good credentials and technical expertise does not have the desired impact in someone with … Read more

Challenges Of Corruption (1)

? Challenges of corruption Corruption is an age old phenomenon and can be seen everywhere now a days. It is like a cancer in public life, which has not become to rampant and perpetuated overnight, but is course of time. The word corruption means destruction, ruining or spoiling a society or nation. A corrupt … Read more

Corporate Governance

? Corporate governance Need of corporate governance Over the last two decades, corporate governance has attracted a great deal of public interest because of its apparent importance for the economic health of corporations and society in general. The headlines of the previous two years in particular portrayed a sad story of corporate ethics (or … Read more

Ethical Dilemmas In Government And Private Institutes (1)

? Ethical dilemmas in government and private institutes The reputation and success of governance depends upon the conduct of public functionaries and what the public believe about their conduct. It is therefore of fundamental importance that public functionaries act justly and fairly to all, not only paying lip service to ethical conduct but also … Read more

Stereotypes In Indian Context

? Stereotypes in Indian context A stereotype is a fixed, over generalized belief about a particular group or class of people. The use of stereotypes is a major way in which we simplify our social world; since they reduce the amount of processing (i.e. thinking) we have to do when we meet a new … Read more

Comparative Study Of Indian And Western Philosophy (4)

? Comparative Study of Indian and Western Philosophy Philosophy is the root of all knowledge. It is considered as mother of all sciences. Philosophy has interpreted man and his various activities in a comprehensive manner. It helps to coordinate the various activities of the individuals and the society. It helps us to understand the … Read more

3.8 Social Influence

? Social influence Social influence occurs when a person’s emotions, opinions, or behaviors are affected by others. Social influence takes many forms and can be seen in conformity, socialization, peer pressure, obedience, leadership, persuasion, sales, and marketing. In 1958, Harvard psychologist Herbert Kelman identified three broad varieties of social influence. Compliance is when people … Read more

Code Of Conduct

? Code of conduct Civil servants have special obligations because they are responsible for managing resources entrusted to them by the community, because they provide and deliver services to the community and because they take important decisions that aff ect all aspects of a community’s life. Th ecommunity has a right to expect that … Read more

Basics Of Recruitment

? Basics of recruitment, selection, induction, training & development Recruitment (hiring) refers to the overall process of attracting, shortlisting, selecting and appointing suitable candidates for jobs (either permanent or temporary) within an organization. Recruitment can also refer to processes involved in choosing individuals for unpaid roles. Managers, human resource generalists and recruitment specialists may … Read more

Immanuel Kant (1)

? Immanuel Kant Towards the end of his most influential work, Critique of Pure Reason(1781/1787), Kant argues that all philosophy ultimately aims at answering these three questions: “What can I know? What should I do? What may I hope?” The book appeared at the beginning of the most productive period of his career, and … Read more

3.15 Raja Ram Mohan Roy

? Raja ram mohan roy During the late 18th century (what was known as the Dark Age), the society in Bengal was burdened with a host of evil customs and regulations. Elaborate rituals and strict moral codes were enforced which were largely modified, and badly interpreted ancient traditions. Practices like child marriage (Gouridaan), polygamy … Read more

Philosophical Basis Of Governance (1)

? Philosophical basis of governance Governance is the exercise of economic, political, and administrative authority to manage a country’s affairs at all levels. It comprises mechanisms, processes, and institutions through which citizens and groups articulate their interests, exercise their legal rights, meet their obligations, and mediate their differences. The challenge for all societies is … Read more

Ethics In International Relations

? Ethics in international relations What role do moral principles play in the conduct of foreign relations? First, morality helps define the goals and purposes of states and other actors. Moral norms do not provide policy directives, but they can offer a general vision and broad direction and provide the moral norms by which … Read more

Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam

? Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam The three keys to a corruption-free country must play their part: Showing his faith in three key societal members, Dr Kalam firmly believed that the father, the mother and the teacher have a humungous role to play in making a difference to the nation. He taught us that a … Read more

3.2 Foundational Values For Civil Services

? Foundational values for civil services Values are the standards on which, we evaluate things. For every situation we don’t have time to ‘test’ the case on ethics theories such as utilitarianism. Values provide time saving short-cut in such situation. Under New public management (NPM), the concept of public services is fast changing. Bureaucrat … Read more

Accountability And Ethical Governance

? Accountability and ethical governance Accountability means being answerable for the performance of tasks assigned to a person; if task assigned is selection of beneficiaries for a scheme, then accountability will imply whether the selection has been carried out by applying the criteria, and following the procedures laid down, in the timely manner within … Read more

2.7 Compassion Towards Weaker Section

? Compassion: Definition Compassion literally means “to suffer together.” Among emotion researchers, it is defined as the feeling that arises when you are confronted with another’s suffering and feel motivated to relieve that suffering. Compassion is not the same as empathy or altruism, though the concepts are related. While empathy refers more generally to our ability to take … Read more

Laws (1)

? Laws, rules, regulations and conscience as source of ethical guidance High ethical standards for the provision of services and the exercise of authority are a prerequisite if the citizenry is to trust the public service. The goal of these general ethical guidelines is to ensure that all State employees are aware of this. … Read more

2.4 Dedication To Public Service (2)

? Dedication: Definition   Dedication suggests voluntary commitment rather than rigidity.  Dedication is calm and measured. There is no element of harshness or punishment in dedication. If discipline is the stick, then dedication is a voluntary willingness and desire to reach for the carrot without the threat of that stick. Dedication implies a level … Read more

Universal Human Values

? Universal human values Truth Truth is considered as the highest human value connected with the intellectual domain of personality. We accord highest value among the five human values to truth. Because in our firm faith resides its infallibility. Truth is the essence of all world religion and the distinguished hallmark of glory and … Read more

Work Culture

? Work culture An organization is formed to achieve certain goals and objectives by bringing individuals together on a common platform and motivating them to deliver their level best. It is essential for the employees to enjoy at the workplace for them to develop a sense of loyalty towards it. Work culture plays an … Read more

Ethical Teachings

? Ethical teachings Maulana Abul Kalam Azad Maulana Azad was not only this century’s most articulate votary of Hindu-Muslim unity but also the only one erudite aalim (Islamic scholar) who claimed Quranic sanction for his faith in that unity and the freedom of the nation. Maulana Abul Kalam Azad is, by any reckoning, a … Read more

Persuasion (1)

? Persuasion Persuasion is an umbrella term of influence. Persuasion can attempt to influence a person’s beliefs, attitudes, intentions, motivations, or behaviors. In business, persuasion is a process aimed at changing a person’s (or a group’s) attitude or behavior toward some event, idea, object, or other person(s), by using written or spoken words to … Read more

Ethical Teachings4

? Ethical teachings Ravindra Nath Tagore An open vision of Tagore In a society, an individual can develop skill and knowledge through rigorous attempts to cope with the challenges of the environment. With this conscious attempt of survival in a given society, an individual shapes his/her own personality. This ever-evolving process of personality, corresponds … Read more

Ethics In International Funding

? Ethics in international funding Historically speaking, internationalisation has been linked to commerce, but the advent of trade predates international trade, as we know it today. To this end, it is interesting to note how, right from the very beginning, the spread of rules and customs often took on a near sacred character in … Read more

Social Influence (1)

? Social influence Social influence occurs when a person’s emotions, opinions, or behaviors are affected by others. Social influence takes many forms and can be seen in conformity, socialization, peer pressure, obedience, leadership, persuasion, sales, and marketing. In 1958, Harvard psychologist Herbert Kelman identified three broad varieties of social influence. Compliance is when people … Read more

Attitude

? Attitude Should abortion be illegal? Should we cancel third world debt? How quickly should we reduce carbon emissions? Should there ever be a death penalty for any crime? Are you liberal or conservative? A soccer fan? A music lover? An optimist? The answers to all these questions depend upon psychological characteristics that define … Read more

3.4 Functions Of Attitude

? Functions of attitude Attitudes serve four major functions for the individual: The adjustments function, The ego defensive function, The value expressive function The knowledge function. Ultimately these functions serve people’s need to protect and enhance the image they hold of themselves. In more general terms, these functions are the motivational bases which shape … Read more

Aptitude (1)

? Aptitude An aptitude is a component of a competence to do a certain kind of work at a certain level. Outstanding aptitude can be considered “talent”. An aptitude may be physical or mental. Aptitude is inborn potential to do certain kinds of work whether developed or undeveloped. Ability is developed knowledge, understanding, learned … Read more

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