Development Administration

Development is the end result of Public Administration. The paradigm of development is depending on the nature of government and its policies. It may be ideologically driven or ethically motivated. It strips off the orthodox structuralism of public administration as put forward by classical Administrative theorists and attempts to cater the emerging need of a … Read more

 Climatic changes

    It is the long term change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns over periods of time Though it has been happening naturally for millions of years, in recent years it has accelerated due to anthropogenic causes and has been causing global warming. UNFCCC defines climate change as – “a change of climate … Read more

 Global warming

An increase in the average temperature of Earth’s near surface air and oceans since the mid-20th century 4th assessment report of IPCC: global temperature increased 74+0.18 degree C during the 20th century. Caused by greenhouse gases Water vapour, Co2, Methane, Nitrous Oxide, Ozone, CFCs (in order of abundance) Since the industrial revolution, the burning of fossil fuels has increased the … Read more

Greenhouse effect

  The greenhouse effect is a natural process that warms the Earth’s surface. When the Sun’s energy reaches the Earth’s atmosphere, some of it is reflected back to space and the rest is absorbed and re-radiated by greenhouse gases. It is the process by which radiation from a planet’s atmosphere warms the planet’s surface to a … Read more

Classification of climates, (Koppen and Thornthwaite)

  Climatic Regions of India : Koeppen’s Classification Climate Type Climatic Region Annual Rainfall in the Region Amw (Monsoon type with shorter dry winter season) Western coastal region, south of Mumbai over 300 cm As (Monsoon type with dry season in high sun period) Coromandel coast = Coastal Tamil Nadu and adjoining areas of Andhra Pradesh … Read more

Tropical and temperate cyclones

    The atmospheric disturbances which involve a closed circulation about a low pressure centre, anticlockwise in the northern atmosphere and clockwise in the southern hemisphere are called cyclones. They fall into the following two broad categories: (a) Extra-tropical or Temperate and (b) tropical cyclones. (a) Temperate Cyclones Temperate cyclones are formed along a front … Read more

 Air masses and fronts

  Airmasses   An airmass is a large body of air with relatively uniform thermal and moisture characteristics. Airmasses cover large regions of the earth, typically several hundred thousand square kilometers. Airmasses can be as deep as the depth of the troposphere or as shallow as 1 to 2 km. Airmasses form when air remains … Read more

 Horizontal and vertical distribution of temperature, inversion of temperature

  The temperature is the measurement in degrees of how hot (or cold) a thing (or a place) is. The temperature of the atmosphere is not same across the Earth. It varies in spatial and temporal dimensions. The temperature of a place depends largely on the insolation received by that place. The interaction of insolation … Read more

 Insolation,heat budget of the earth

    The ultimate source of atmospheric energy is in fact heat and light received through space from the Sun. This energy is known as solar insolation. The Earth receives only a tiny fraction of the total amount of Sun’s radiations. Only two billionths or two units of energy out of 1,00,00,00,000 units of energy … Read more

Composition, Structure and Stratification of the atmosphere

  An atmosphere is a layer of gases surrounding a planet or other material body, that is held in place by the gravity of that body. Many of the planets in this solar system have atmospheres, but none that we know of have an atmosphere quite like ours – one that can support life. The … Read more

 Geomorphic processes; Weathering, mass wasting, erosion and deposition,soil formation,Landscape cycles, ideas of Davis and Penck

  Table of content Weathering Mass Wasting Erosion and Deposition Soil Formation Landscape (Geological) Cycles Davis Cycle Penck Cycle Weathering   Weathering is the general term applied to the combined action of all processes that cause rock to disintegrate physically and decompose chemically because of ex- posure near the Earth’s surface through the elements of … Read more

Evolution and characteristics of landforms in the Fluvial, Glacial, Arid and Karst regions  

  Landform Each landform has its unique physical shape, size, materials and is a result of the action of certain geomorphic processes and agent(s). Every landform has a beginning. Landforms once formed may change in their shape, size and nature slowly or fast due to continued action of geomorphic processes and agents. Due to changes … Read more

Major types of rocks and their characteristics

    They are aggregates or physical mixture of one or more minerals. Minerals on the other hand are made up of two or more elements in a definite ratio. They have a definite chemical composition. Crust is made up of more than 2000 minerals, but out of these, 6 are the most abundant and … Read more


      A tsunami is a very long-wavelength wave of water that is generated by sudden displacement of the seafloor or disruption of any body of standing water. Tsunami are sometimes called “seismic sea waves”, although they can be generated by mechanisms other than earthquakes. Tsunami have also been called “tidal waves”, but this … Read more


  Earthquakes occur when energy stored in elastically strained rocks is suddenly released. This release of energy causes intense ground shaking in the area near the source of the earthquake and sends waves of elastic energy, called seismic waves, throughout the Earth. Earthquakes can be generated by bomb blasts, volcanic eruptions, sudden volume changes in … Read more

Plate tectonics

  The uppermost outer solid and rigid layer of the earth is called crust. Its thickness varies considerably. It is as little as 5 km thick beneath the oceans at some places but under some mountain ranges it extends upto a depth of 700km. Below the crust denser rocks are found, known as mantle crust. … Read more

Wegner’s Continental Drift Theory

    Alfred Wegner was a German Meteorologist in the early 1900s who studied ancient climates. Like most people, the jigsaw puzzle appearance of the Atlantic continental margins caught his attention. He put together the evidence of ancient glaciations and the distribution of fossil to formulate a theory that the continents have moved over the … Read more

Interior of earth,

  Most of the knowledge we have about Earth’s deep interior comes from the fact that seismic waves penetrate the Earth and are recorded on the other side.  Earthquake ray paths and arrival times are more complex than illustrated in the animations, because velocity in the Earth does not simply increase with depth. Velocities generally … Read more

Origin and evolution of earth

    Beginning of the Universe started about 13.6 billion years ago,when the Big Bang created the universe from a point source. During this process, light elements, like H, He, Li, B, and Be formed. From this point in time, the universe began to expand and has been expanding ever since. Concentrations of gas and … Read more

JPSC Mains Paper 3:SOCIAL SCIENCES (History and Geography) Notes

Detailed Notes for JPSC Mains Paper III Notes- Detailed topicwise Jharkhand Mains GK Notes for JPSC Mains Exam are provided for free browsing. Jharkhand (JPSC) Mains Notes are designed by JPSC Toppers and other civil servants. Detail Notes can be browsed at the following links. Section (A) – History: 100 Marks Section (B) – Geography: … Read more

 Metallic Minerals of Rajsthan:- For Ras RTS Mains Examination and Ras Rts Prelims Examination

Rajasthan ranks second only to Jharkhand in the availability of minerals and is blessed with 79 different minerals. Rajasthan has a monopoly in Non-Metallic Minerals ,while Rajasthan is not so rich in metallic minerals but the quality of metallic minerals available in the state is high.   Although Rajasthan is not rich in Iron ore … Read more