Global warming

An increase in the average temperature of Earth’s near surface air and oceans since the mid-20th century 4th assessment report of IPCC: global temperature increased 74+0.18 degree C during the 20th century. Caused by greenhouse gases Water vapour, Co2, Methane, Nitrous Oxide, Ozone, CFCs (in order of abundance) Since the industrial revolution, the burning of fossil fuels has increased the … Read more

Greenhouse effect

  The greenhouse effect is a natural process that warms the Earth’s surface. When the Sun’s energy reaches the Earth’s atmosphere, some of it is reflected back to space and the rest is absorbed and re-radiated by greenhouse gases. It is the process by which radiation from a planet’s atmosphere warms the planet’s surface to a … Read more

Tropical and temperate cyclones

    The atmospheric disturbances which involve a closed circulation about a low pressure centre, anticlockwise in the northern atmosphere and clockwise in the southern hemisphere are called cyclones. They fall into the following two broad categories: (a) Extra-tropical or Temperate and (b) tropical cyclones. (a) Temperate Cyclones Temperate cyclones are formed along a front … Read more

 Air masses and fronts

  Airmasses   An airmass is a large body of air with relatively uniform thermal and moisture characteristics. Airmasses cover large regions of the earth, typically several hundred thousand square kilometers. Airmasses can be as deep as the depth of the troposphere or as shallow as 1 to 2 km. Airmasses form when air remains … Read more

 Geomorphic processes; Weathering, mass wasting, erosion and deposition,soil formation,Landscape cycles, ideas of Davis and Penck

  Table of content Weathering Mass Wasting Erosion and Deposition Soil Formation Landscape (Geological) Cycles Davis Cycle Penck Cycle Weathering   Weathering is the general term applied to the combined action of all processes that cause rock to disintegrate physically and decompose chemically because of ex- posure near the Earth’s surface through the elements of … Read more

Evolution and characteristics of landforms in the Fluvial, Glacial, Arid and Karst regions  

  Landform Each landform has its unique physical shape, size, materials and is a result of the action of certain geomorphic processes and agent(s). Every landform has a beginning. Landforms once formed may change in their shape, size and nature slowly or fast due to continued action of geomorphic processes and agents. Due to changes … Read more

Tsunamis

      A tsunami is a very long-wavelength wave of water that is generated by sudden displacement of the seafloor or disruption of any body of standing water. Tsunami are sometimes called “seismic sea waves”, although they can be generated by mechanisms other than earthquakes. Tsunami have also been called “tidal waves”, but this … Read more

Earthquakes

  Earthquakes occur when energy stored in elastically strained rocks is suddenly released. This release of energy causes intense ground shaking in the area near the source of the earthquake and sends waves of elastic energy, called seismic waves, throughout the Earth. Earthquakes can be generated by bomb blasts, volcanic eruptions, sudden volume changes in … Read more

Plate tectonics

  The uppermost outer solid and rigid layer of the earth is called crust. Its thickness varies considerably. It is as little as 5 km thick beneath the oceans at some places but under some mountain ranges it extends upto a depth of 700km. Below the crust denser rocks are found, known as mantle crust. … Read more

Wegner’s Continental Drift Theory

    Alfred Wegner was a German Meteorologist in the early 1900s who studied ancient climates. Like most people, the jigsaw puzzle appearance of the Atlantic continental margins caught his attention. He put together the evidence of ancient glaciations and the distribution of fossil to formulate a theory that the continents have moved over the … Read more

Interior of earth,

  Most of the knowledge we have about Earth’s deep interior comes from the fact that seismic waves penetrate the Earth and are recorded on the other side.  Earthquake ray paths and arrival times are more complex than illustrated in the animations, because velocity in the Earth does not simply increase with depth. Velocities generally … Read more

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