Employment

?   Employment and Development: Human Resource Management and Human Resource Development and its indicators in India. Nature, types and Problems of Unemployment in India. Employment Schemes and Programmes both of Union Government and Uttarakhand Government. Rural Development and Community Development Programmes- Role of related Institutions and Organizations including all centrally and State sponsored … Read more

Principles Of Natural Justice

? Principles of Natural Justice The term “Principles of Natural Justice”, derived from the expression „Jus Natural” of the Roman Law, does not have force of law as they may or may not form part of statute but they are necessarily to be followed. The adherence to principles of natural justice as recognized by … Read more

Provisions Of SC (1)

? Provisions of SC/ST Atricities act, The Scheduled Castes and Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989 is an Act of the Parliament of India enacted to prevent atrocities against scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. The Act is popularly known as POA, the SC/ST Act, the Prevention of Atrocities Act, or simply the Atrocities Act. … Read more

Planning Commission And National Development Council (1)

? Planning commission and national development council Planning commission The Planning Commission was an institution in the Government of India, which formulated India’s Five-Year Plans, among other functions. Background Rudimentary economic planning, deriving from the sovereign authority of the state, was first initiated in India in 1938 by Congress President and Indian National Army … Read more

Philosophical Basis Of Governance

? Philosophical basis of governance Governance is the exercise of economic, political, and administrative authority to manage a country’s affairs at all levels. It comprises mechanisms, processes, and institutions through which citizens and groups articulate their interests, exercise their legal rights, meet their obligations, and mediate their differences. The challenge for all societies is … Read more

Fundamentalism And Terrorism

? fundamentalism and terrorism Citizens worldwide are becoming all too familiar with the accelerated frequency of terrorist attacks in the 21st century, particularly with those involving a religious underpinning. Why, though, have religiously-affiliated acts of terrorism become such a common occurrence? By examining how religious fundamentalism has accelerated and intensified terrorism within the modern … Read more

Right To Constitutional Remedies (1)

? Right to constitutional Remedies( writs) Writs under Article 32 of the Constitution A declaration of fundamental rights is meaningless unless there are effective judicial remedies for their enforcement. Article 32 for the enforcement of the Fundamental Rights by means of the specified writ of writs of the same nature. The purpose is to … Read more

Basic Knowledge Of Laws In India

? Basic Knowledge of Laws in India The law is an amorphous set of rules govern individuals and group behavior. We don’t even know about many of these rules or we understand them only generally. For example, you don’t need to see a written law to know that it’s a crime to steal or … Read more

Naxalism

? Naxalism Naxalism is considered to be one of the biggest internal security threats India faces at the moment, then Prime Minister Manmohan Singh said in 2008. Every year, many security personnel are killed in various attacks perpetrated by naxalites. Although the forces are trying hard to root the red menace out of the … Read more

Community Based Organizations

? Community Based Organizations (CBOs) Community based organizations (CBO’s) are nonprofit groups that work at a local level to improve life for residents. The focus is to build equality across society in all streams – health care, environment, quality of education, access to technology, access to spaces and information for the disabled, to name … Read more

Attorney General

? Attorney General of India Constitutional of Attorney General Article 76 The President shall appoint a person who is qualified to be appointed a Judge of the Supreme Court to be Attorney-General for India. It shall be the duty of the Attorney-General to give advice to the Government of India upon such legal matters, … Read more

Class And Caste In Indian Politics

? Class and caste in Indian politics Caste in Indian society refers to a social group where membership is largely decided by birth. Each such local group avoids entering into marital relationship with outsiders. Originally, this group was associated with a specific profession. The mutual relationship of one caste with the other is established … Read more

Citizen Charter

? Citizen charter The Citizens’ Charter is an instrument which seeks to make an organization transparent, accountable and citizen friendly. A Citizens’ Charter is basically a set of commitments made by an organization regarding the standards of service which it delivers. Every citizens’ charter has several essential components to make it meaningful; the first … Read more

Labour Welfare

? Labour Welfare – problems and issues Land is an indispensable but a passive factor production in economics. No production is possible without the use of labour. We cannot expect any production without labour i.e., why it is said to be an indispensable and active factor of production. Labour is one of the main … Read more

Welfare Of Disabled

?     Welfare of Disabled, Aged and Others: Enactments, Policies, Institutions and Schemes   Vulnerable groups are those groups of society which would be susceptible under any unfavourable situations such as where the adults are not capable to provide a satisfactory living for the household due to health issues like disability, illness, age … Read more

Measuring Corruption

?                      MEASURING CORRUPTION Due to its nature, the scale of corruption is impossible to measure with complete accuracy. But there are informed estimates available, and Transparency International regularly publishes a number of assessments, surveys and indices which measure corruption:   CORRUPTION PERCEPTIONS INDEX TI’s Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) is the best known of … Read more

Union, State And Territory

? Union, state and territory India, a union of states, is a Sovereign, Secular, Democratic Republic with a Parliamentary system of Government. The President is the constitutional head of Executive of the Union. In the states, the Governor, as the representative of the President, is the head of Executive. The system of government in … Read more

Difference Between Substantial And Procedural Laws

? Difference between substantial and procedural laws Procedural laws Procedural law provides the process that a case will go through (whether it goes to trial or not). The procedural law determines how a proceeding concerning the enforcement of substantive law will occur. Substantive law defines how the facts in the case will be handled, … Read more

Formation Of Linguistic States

? Formation of Linguistic States:–  India is a land of many languages, each with its distinct script, grammar, vocabulary and literary tradition. In 1917, the Congress Party had committed itself to the creation of linguistic provinces in a Free India. After Congress’s Nagpur Session in 1920, the principle was extended and formalized with the … Read more

Democracy

? Democracy: Direct and Indirect Democracy in modern usage, is a system of government in which the citizens exercise power directly or elect representatives from among themselves to form a governing body, such as a parliament. Democracy is sometimes referred to as “rule of the majority”. Democracy is a system of processing conflicts in … Read more

Ethics In Public Administration (1)

? Ethics in public administration In the public sector, ethics addresses the fundamental premise of a public administrator’s duty as a “steward” to the public. In other words, it is the moral justification and consideration for decisions and actions made during the completion of daily duties when working to provide the general services of … Read more

Unicameral And Bicameral Legislations

? Unicameral and Bicameral legislations– Functions and crisis of accountability, delegated legislation, Legislative procedure and committees of legislature Bicameral Legislatures A bicameral legislature is comprised of two chambers, often described as the lower house and the upper house. Usually, the composition of the lower chamber (with such names as the House of Representatives, House … Read more

Money Laundering And Black Money

? Money Laundering And Black Money Money Laundering Money laundering is the process of making large amounts of money generated by a criminal activity, such as drug trafficking or terrorist funding, appear to have come from a legitimate source. The money from the criminal activity is considered dirty, and the process “launders” it to … Read more

LEGISLATIVE ACCOUNTABILTY

? LEGISLATIVE, EXECUTIVE AND JUDICIAL CONTROL OVER ADMINISTRATION The need for effective control over administration is, thus, obvious. Public opinion, professional standards and ethics, and the nature of the society-all influence administration in varying ways and capacities and exercise control over it. A study of this problem may, however, be made here … Read more

National Law University

? National Law University National Law University, Delhi (NLUD) is a prestigious law university in India, offering courses at the undergraduate and postgraduate levels. It is situated in Sector-14, Dwarka, New Delhi, India. NLUD is one of the national law schools in India built on the five-year law degree model proposed and implemented by … Read more

All India Services

? All India Services The Design of the Civil Service at Independence While designing a successor civil service, the Indian political leaders chose to retain elements of the British structure of a unified administrative system such as an open-entry system based on academic achievements, elaborate training arrangements, permanency of tenure, important posts at Union, … Read more

Uniform Civil Code

? Uniform civil code A uniform civil code administers the same set of secular civil laws to govern all people irrespective of their religion, caste and tribe. The need for such a code takes in to account the constitutional mandate of securing justice and equality for all citizens. A uniform criminal code is applicable … Read more

Regulatory Governance

? REGULATORY GOVERNANCE       Regulation refers to “controlling human or societal behaviour by rules or regulations or alternatively a rule or order issued by an executive authority or regulatory agency of a government and having the force of law”. Regulation covers all activities of private or public behaviour that may be detrimental … Read more

Provisions For Scheduled Castes, Tribes And Minorities (1)

? Provisions for scheduled castes, Tribes and Minorities CONSITITONAL PROVISIONS FOR SC & ST Constitutional History In the original Constitution, Article 338 provided for a special officer (the Commissioner for SCs and STs) responsible for monitoring the implementation of constitutional and legislative safeguards for SCs and STs and reporting to the president. Seventeen regional … Read more

Human Rights Commission

? Human Rights Commission Establishment of Human Right Commission The National Human Rights Commission is a statutory (and not a constitutional) body. It was established in 1993 under a legislation enacted by the Parliament, namely, the Protection of Human Rights Act, 1993. This Act was amended in 2006. The commission is the watchdog of … Read more

Union Public Service Commissions

? Union Public Service Commissions Public Service Commissions for the Union as per Article-315 Subject to the provisions of this article, there shall be a Public Service Commission for the Union Any such law as aforesaid may contain such incidental and consequential provisions as may be necessary or desirable for giving effect to the … Read more

LABOUR LAW REFORMS

?     Definition: Industrial legalizations are the laws enacted by the Government to provide economic and social justice to the workers in industries. Generally these laws provide guidelines to the employers/industrialists in dealing with the matters of wages, wage incentives, facilitates for workers and the working conditions of labour. Necessity: … Read more

CAG

? The Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG) promotes accountability, transparency and good governance through high quality auditing and accounting.The Comptroller and auditor general (CAG) of India is empower to audit all expenses from the combine Fund of the union or state governments, whether incurred within India or outside. The Comptroller and Auditor General of … Read more

The Protection Of Human Rights Act

? The Protection of Human Rights Act, 1993 The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) mooted the idea 01 the creation of an impartial institution for the protection of human rigfits in the States as early as 1946. In pursuance of the resolution of the General Assembly adopted in 1966,’ the Economic … Read more

Ethics In Administration (1)

? Ethics in administration: Status and problem The Historical Context India has witnessed a long history of unethical practices in the governance system. Kautilya’s Arthashastra mentions a variety of corrupt practices in which the administrators of those times indulged themselves. The Mughal Empire and the Indian princely rule were also afflicted with the corrupt … Read more

Educational For Marginalised Section

? Measures Adopted for Educational Development of socio-economic disadvantaged groups: Our Constitution has directed the states to promote the educational interests of the weaker sections of the people, particularly of SCs and STs in terms of establishment of and admission to educational institutions and grant from state funds for scholarships, etc. It has thus … Read more

Govt Employment

? Govt. employment policy Analysing and Improving Labour Market Data      Availability of detailed, reliable, and comprehensive information on the labour market is critical to meet the employment challenge through well-targeted policies and programmes. At present, the dearth of statistical data on the labour market in India poses serious constraints to employment planning and … Read more

Development Of Hindi And Urdu Language

?     Development of Hindi and Urdu Language   Hindi and Urdu are two Hindustani Languages; spoken mostly in the northern and Central India and in Pakistan. Hindi and Urdu are two different languages but these languages have many common things. Both Hindi and Urdu are developed in a similar phase and adopted … Read more

Salient Features Of The Representation Of Peoples Act 1951

? Salient features of the Representation of Peoples Act 1951 People are the supreme power in the democratic country. Accordingly the People of India solemnly resolved that India is a democratic country. As we know that the India is a largest democracy in the world. The term Democracy mentioned in the Preamble of the … Read more

Panchayat Financing And Devolution

? Panchayat: Financing, Resource mobilization and devolution Sources of Funds The Amendments left important matters such as implementation, service delivery (including local capacity building) and transfer of responsibilities and powers to rural local bodies at the discretion of the state legislatures. Consequently, while expenditure responsibilities of local bodies are extensively enhanced, there is no … Read more

The Protection Of Civil Rights Act

? The Protection of Civil Rights Act, 1955 (No. 22 of 1955) The practice of untouchability in Indian society is an attribute of the hierarchical stratification of society into castes. On the one hand, the Vedic use the term “varna” (colour) to denote caste seems to indicate that the caste system began as a … Read more

Role Of Non Government Organizations (NGOs)

? Role of Non-Government Organizations (NGOs) NGOs are voluntary organization’s. These are popularly known as NGOs because they are free from governmental control in their functioning. They are democratic and open to all those wishing to become member of the organization voluntarily and serve the society. NGO have a long history in India. In … Read more

Advance Infrastructure In Rural Areas

? Advance Infrastructure in Rural Areas Good quality infrastructure is critical to sustainable growth, especially for rural areas. As over 60 per cent of the population lives in rural areas, with low levels of per capital income, there is need to impart greater attention in improving rural infrastructure. Currently the rural infrastructure is inadequate … Read more

Citizenship

? Citizenship Relationship between an individual and a state to which the individual owes allegiance and in turn is entitled to its protection. Citizenship implies the status of freedom with accompanying responsibilities. Citizens have certain rights, duties, and responsibilities that are denied or only partially extended to aliens and other noncitizens residing in a … Read more

Bodies Constituted

? Bodies constituted, Policies, Programmes and Schemes for welfare of Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment The Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment is the nodal Ministry to oversee the interests of the Scheduled Castes. Though the primary responsibility for promotion of interests of the Scheduled Castes rests with all … Read more

Role Of Non

? Role of Non-Government Organizations (NGOs) NGOs are voluntary organization’s. These are popularly known as NGOs because they are free from governmental control in their functioning. They are democratic and open to all those wishing to become member of the organization voluntarily and serve the society. NGO have a long history in India. In … Read more

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