. Photonics is the science of light. It is the technology of generating, controlling, and detecting light waves and photons, which are particles of light. The characteristics of the waves and photons can be used to explore the universe, cure diseases, and even to solve crimes. Scientists have been studying light for hundreds of years. … Read more DMPQ-Briefly describe photonics. Also mention the need of photonics.
As genetic research becomes more sophisticated, so does our ability to use plants and animals to develop new drugs or modify crops to meet food security needs. Often, in the search for new bio resources, researchers draw on local people’s traditional knowledge about the properties of a particular plant, animal or chemical compound. When researchers … Read more DMPQ-. Give a brief description about Bio-piracy with examples.
Hydroponics, or growing plants in a nutrient solution root medium, is a growing area of commercial food production and also is used for home food production by hobbyists. Learn about the state-of-the-art techniques for producing food in a controlled, soilless setting. Major factors to ensure the successful hydroponics practice are as follows: Ensuring water quality … Read more DMPQ-What is hydroponics? Mention the important factors necessary for successful practice of hydroponics.
Cloning is the process of generating a genetically identical copy of a cell or an organism. Cloning happens often in nature—for example, when a cell replicates itself asexually without any genetic alteration or recombination. Prokaryotic organisms (organisms lacking a cell nucleus) such as bacteria create genetically identical duplicates of themselves using binary fission or budding. … Read more DMPQ-. Describe the basic concept of Cloning. Also mention the potential drawbacks of applications of Cloning.
A biometric system is a technology which takes an individual’s physiological, behavioral, or both traits as input, analyzes it, and identifies the individual as a genuine or malicious user. Basic Components of a Biometric System Input Interface (Sensors) It is the sensing component of a biometrics system that converts human biological data into digital form. … Read more DMPQ- Point out the major components and applications of biometric system.
Stem cells are a group of cells in our bodies, with capacity to self-renew and differentiate to various types of cells, thus to construct tissues and organs. In science, it is still a challenge to understand how a fertilized egg to develop germ layers and various types of cells, which further develop to multiple tissues … Read more DMPQ- Briefly describe the stem cell. Mention the characteristics of Stem cells.
A concern about what affect genetically modified material could have on human health. For example, transgenic crops have been suggested to cause allergies in some people, although it is uncertain whether transgenic crops are the source of this reaction. Furthermore the antibiotic resistance genes placed in these crops has been suggested to cause resistance to … Read more DMPQ- Explain the potential disadvantages of Transgenic crops.
A transgenic crop is a genetically modified organism (GMO). Transgenic indicates that a transfer of genes has occurred using recombinant DNA technology. Generally a transgenic crop contains one or more genes that have been inserted artificially either from an unrelated plant or from different species altogether. Plants have been modified for many reasons over the … Read more DMPQ- What are Transgenic crops ? Explain how transgenic crops have the potential to end the food security crisis.
. In India, Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC) introduced the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 as an umbrella legislation to provide a holistic framework for the protection and improvement to the environment. In connection with the use of micro-organisms and application of gene technology, the MoEFCC notified the “Rules for manufacture, use/import/export & … Read more DMPQ- Discuss the process of regulation of Genetically modified (GM) foods in India.
Biotechnology is being harnessed in various aspects of the livestock industry to hasten breed development for improved animal health and welfare, enhanced reproduction, and improved nutritional quality and safety of animal-derived foods. Artificial Insemination One of the earliest perfected technology is artificial insemination (AI) where new breeds of animals are produced through the introduction of … Read more DMPQ- . Discuss the Applications of Biotechnology in live stock and animal husbandry.
At present, loss of specific species, groups of species (extinction) or decrease in number of particular organisms (endangerment) are taking place in different parts of the world at a rapid pace. These losses are often manifestations of degradation or destruction in the ecosystem or habitat. DNA Banks More plant conservationists are turning to DNA technologies … Read more DMPQ- . Explain how Biotechnology can play significant role in the conservation of Bio diversity and environment.
. Bioremediation is a branch of biotechnology that employs the use of living organisms, like microbes and bacteria, in the removal of contaminants, pollutants, and toxins from soil, water, and other environments. Bioremediation may be used to clean up contaminated groundwater or environmental problems, such as oil spills. Bioremediation relies on stimulating the growth of … Read more DMPQ- Explain the role of Bioremediation in environment friendly waste disposal process.
DNA fingerprinting is a laboratory technique used to establish a link between biological evidence and a suspect in a criminal investigation. A DNA sample taken from a crime scene is compared with a DNA sample from a suspect. If the two DNA profiles are a match, then the evidence came from that suspect. Conversely, if … Read more DMPQ- Briefly describe the DNA Fingerprinting. Discuss the important sectors where DNA fingerprinting is being applied.
. The primary intended purpose of “The DNA Technology (Use and Application) Regulation Bill, 2019” is for expanding the application of DNA-based forensic technologies to support and strengthen the justice delivery system of the country. The utility of DNA based technologies for solving crimes, and to identify missing persons, is well recognized across the world. … Read more DMPQ- What is the purpose of DNA technology (Use and Application) regulation bill, 2018 ? Throw light on the salient features of the bill.
. Gene therapy is the treatment of disease by replacing, altering, or supplementing a gene that is absent or abnormal and whose absence or abnormality is responsible for the disease. Gene therapy may use the genetic material, DNA, itself as the means of treatment. Most, if not all, diseases have a genetic factor. The genetic … Read more DMPQ- Explain how gene therapy can impact the future of humans.
. Important tools which come under Biotechnology are as follows: Genetic engineering Genetic engineering is the process of using recombinant DNA (rDNA) technology to alter the genetic makeup of an organism. Traditionally, humans have manipulated genomes indirectly by controlling breeding and selecting offspring with desired traits. Genetic engineering involves the direct manipulation of one or … Read more DMPQ-. Discuss some of the important tools and technologies of biotechnology.
A glaring and current problem is the pollution plaguing the entire north Indian plains. The short-term solution for this issue exists in the quick and scaled-out expansion of biofuel-powered public transport across the country. Imagine bringing down pollution levels by up to 90% in carbon emissions by public transport vehicles, eliminating stubble burning by farmers, … Read more DMPQ-How bio-diesel can solve India’s problems of energy and pollution.
. India’s three-stage nuclear power programme was formulated by Homi Bhabha in the 1950s to secure the country’s long term energy independence, through the use of uranium and thorium reserves found in the monazite sands of coastal regions of South India. The ultimate focus of the programme is on enabling the thorium reserves of India … Read more DMPQ-Briefly discuss all three stages of India’s Nuclear power program.
. A new technological study reveals that by the year 2050, there will be need a for three times as much primary power and it will have to be three times as clean. There is no earthly technology now available, or capable of becoming available by the year 2050, that can solve the energy problem. … Read more DMPQ-Discuss how space can solve world’s energy problems.
. As of August 2019, India is the third-largest producer and fourth-largest consumer of electricity in the world with an installed capacity of about 350 GW. This power is generated from both traditional and renewable sources. The advent of newer models such as microgrids, the influx of renewables, and the revised target of having 227 … Read more DMPQ-. What is the concept of smart grid in power sector ? Why it is important for India?
. Here are just seven examples of how nuclear technology is improving agriculture: Improved soil and water balance Nuclear techniques are now used in many countries to help maintain healthy soil and water systems, which are paramount in ensuring food security for the growing global population. For instance, in Benin, a scheme involving 5 000 … Read more DMPQ- . How does nuclear agriculture benefits different aspects of Agriculture?
. Radioisotopes are radioactive isotopes of an element. They can also be defined as atoms that contain an unstable combination of neutrons and protons, or excess energy in their nucleus. The unstable nucleus of a radioisotope can occur naturally, or as a result of artificially altering the atom. In some cases a nuclear reactor is … Read more DMPQ- What are Radioisotopes? Point out their industrial applications.
The ‘Make in India’ programme is primarily being impelled by the imperative to reduce arms import bills and ‘optimise’ defence expenditure – India’s FY2019 defence budget of USD 71.1 billion was the highest in South Asia and the third-highest in the world, and for the past five years, it has been the world’s second largest … Read more DMPQ- . Discuss the significance of India’s ‘Make in India’ Programme in defence sector. Also mention the challenges In Indigenous Defence Manufacturing.
. Established in April 1987, the voluntary Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) aims to limit the spread of ballistic missiles and other unmanned delivery systems that could be used for chemical, biological, and nuclear attacks. The regime urges its 35 members, which include most of the world’s key missile manufacturers, to restrict their exports of … Read more DMPQ- What is MTCR (Missile technology control regime) ? What advantages India have after becoming it’s member ?
Ayurveda ‘ Ayurveda’ literally means “Science of Life”. Ayurveda is evolved from the various Vedic hymns rooted in the fundamental philosophies about life, disease and health. The Charak Samhita and Sushruta Samhita developed around 2500 BC are the main treaties of Ayurveda fully available today. Yoga Yoga is essentially spiritual and it is an art … Read more DMPQ- Briefly describe the Ayush systems of Healthcare.
. India is at the learning stage for many of the complex technologies required to create a BMD system. DRDO’s record in producing weapon systems has not been encouraging as exemplified by the delayed induction of the LCA, the failure of the Arjun MBT and the virtual rejection of the INSAS rifle by the Indian … Read more DMPQ- . Give a brief description of Indian ballistic missile defense system.
. The Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme (IGMDP) was an Indian Ministry of Defence programme for the research and development of the comprehensive range of missiles. The programme was managed by the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) and Ordnance Factories Board in partnership with other Indian government political organisations. The project started in 1982–83 … Read more DMPQ- . Explain Integrated guided missile development programme ( IGMDP). How it has played an important role in India’s defence
Ballistic Missiles Ballistic missiles are powered by rockets initially but then follow an unpowered, parabolic, free-falling trajectory toward their targets. They are classified by the maximum distance that they can travel, which is a function of how powerful the missile’s engines (rockets) are and the weight of the missile’s payload, or warhead. To add more … Read more DMPQ- . Describe the different types of missile systems on the basis of their delivery.
Space technology is not just about space exploration but it has huge role to play in socio-economic field. Socio-Economic development through application of space technology: Survey of various mineral and natural resources have been made possible through remote sensing. Management of these resources, their development conservation and formulation of various policies are affectively done with … Read more DMPQ- .How space technology is playing important role in India’s socio-economic development.
Answer. Moon exploration has many possibilities: We could make use of lunar resources to facilitate scientific and economic activity in the vicinity of both Earth and Moon (so-called cis-lunar space) as well as future exploration deeper into the Solar System. We can consider the importation of lunar resources to the Earth’s surface where they would … Read more DMPQ- . What are the future economic implications of moon missions.
. AVATAR is a single-stage reusable spaceplane capable of horizontal takeoff and landing, being developed by India’s Defense Research and Development Organization along with Indian Space Research Organization and other research institutions; it could be used for cheaper military and civilian satellite launches. According to the Designers, Hyperplane projects of the 1980’s – the X-30, … Read more DMPQ- What is AVATAR (Aerobic vehicle for hypersonic aerospace transportation) ? Discuss it’s signicance in boosting India’s defence.
GSAT-30 is aimed at providing high-quality television, telecommunications and broadcasting services. The 3,357-kg GSAT-30 derives its heritage from ISRO’s earlier INSAT/GSAT satellite series, and is equipped with 12 C and 12 Ku band transponders. GSAT-30 will serve as replacement to the aging INSAT-4A spacecraft services with enhanced coverage. The satellite will provide Indian mainland and … Read more DMPQ- Point out the important socio-economic applications of recently launched GSAT-30 satellite.
. The Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) has proved itself to be a versatile vehicle for diverse missions and is now the workhorse of ISRO. It was the first launcher to gain operational status. PSLV is meeting the national requirements as well as the launch requirements for international customers. The long string of consecutive successes … Read more DMPQ- Describe the different variants of PSLV (Polar satellite launch vehicle).
The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a satellite-based navigation system made up of at least 24 satellites. GPS works in any weather conditions, anywhere in the world, 24 hours a day, with no subscription fees or setup charges. The U.S. Department of Defense (USDOD) originally put the satellites into orbit for military use, but they … Read more DMPQ- What is GPS (Global positioning system)? How is India’s IRNSS ( Indian regional navigational satellite system is different from GPS?
Rocket engine needs enormous amount of thrust to escape Earth’s gravitational pull. However the chemicals used for engines are Hydrogen and Oxygen (Hydrogen used as a fuel, while Oxygen as a oxidiser) that produces a good thrust, found in Earth in the form of gas. Carrying hydrogen and oxygen in their gaseous form will require … Read more DMPQ- . Point out the differences between cryogenic engine and semi-cryogenic engine.
The objective of the policy is, to quote, “at meeting the growing demands on satellite communication requirements, promotion of space based communication activities by industry, advancements in the relevant indigenous technologies for self-sustenance and protection of space assets needed for the country”. The norms classify upstream SATCOM activities viz., launch and operation of Satellite communication … Read more DMPQ- . Discuss the changes brought by new space com policy 2020 .
3D printing or additive manufacturing is a process of making three dimensional solid objects from a digital file. The creation of a 3D printed object is achieved using additive processes. In an additive process an object is created by laying down successive layers of material until the object is created. Each of these layers can … Read more DMPQ- What is 3D printing ? Explain the need of the government policy for 3D printing.
Insat (Indian National Satellite System) was a multipurpose satellite system for telecommunications, broadcasting, meteorology and search and rescue services. Commissioned in 1983, Insat was the largest domestic communication system in the Asia-Pacific Region, and was a joint venture of the Indian Department of Space (DOS), Department of Telecommunications, India Meteorological Department, All India Radio and … Read more DMPQ- Give the brief description of India’s INSAT (Indian national satellite system) Program.
IRS-1A, the first of the series of indigenous state-of-art operating remote sensing satellites, was successfully launched into a polar sun-synchronous orbit on March 17, 1988 from the Soviet Cosmodrome at Baikonur. The successful launch of IRS-1A was one of the proudest moments for the entire country, which depicted the maturity of satellite to address the … Read more DMPQ- “India’s remote sensing satellite system has important role in it’s development.” Elucidate.
. Today, satellites are launched into orbit by multi-staged satellite launch vehicles that can be used only once (expendable). These launch vehicles carry oxidiser along with the fuel for combustion to produce thrust. Launch vehicles designed for one time use are expensive and their efficiency is low because they can carry only 2-4% of their … Read more DMPQ- Bring out the significance of ISRO’s successful launch of scramjet technology.
The cost of access to space is the major deterrent in space exploration and space utilization. A reusable launch vehicle is the unanimous solution to achieve low cost, reliable and on-demand space access. Reusable Launch Vehicle-Technology Demonstration Program or RLV-TD is a series of technology demonstration missions that have been considered as a first step … Read more DMPQ- What is Reusable launch vehicle ? Trace the development of India’s reusable launch technology .
GSLV-D5 is the eighth flight of India’s Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV). It is also the fourth developmental flight of GSLV. GSLV-D5 vehicle is configured with its first and second stages similar to the ones flown during earlier GSLV missions. The third stage is the Indigenous Cryogenic Stage. The metallic payload fairing with a diameter … Read more DMPQ- What is GSLV-5 rocket ? point out it’s significance for India’s Space missions.
Chandrayaan-2 mission was a highly complex mission, which represents a significant technological leap compared to the previous missions of ISRO. It comprised an Orbiter, Lander and Rover to explore the unexplored South Pole of the Moon. The mission was designed to expand the lunar scientific knowledge through detailed study of topography, seismography, mineral identification and … Read more DMPQ- Give a brief description of Chandrayan-2 mission. Mention why it did not complete it’s goal.
. Ayushman Bharat is a National Health Protection Mission (AB-NHPM) a new centrally sponsored scheme was launched in 2018. This comes under Ayushman Bharat Mission anchored in the MoHFW. The Scheme has the benefit cover of ? 5 lakh per family per year. The target beneficiaries are to be more than 10 crore families belonging … Read more DMPQ-What is Ayushman Bharatyojna ? Discuss how it can change India’s health sector.
With varying income groups in India, not everyone can afford expensive phones. In the US, Apple has over 44% market share. However, in India the iPhones with their higher security norms are used by less than 1% of mobile users. The widening gap between the security offered by the high-end iPhone and lower cost mobiles … Read more DMPQ- Discuss the major cyber security challenges of India.
The phenomenon of technology transfer has existed ever since the beginning of technological progress. Having significantly increased in recent years, it will probably attract the world’s attention for many years to come. Many developing countries now appear to be seeking technological progress through technology transfer to realize development in a much shorter time than that … Read more DMPQ- How India’s technological dependence on foreign countries pose a serious challenge for India security.
. A Blockchain is a digital, immutable, distributed ledger that chronologically records transactions in near real time. The prerequisite for each subsequent transaction to be added to the ledger is the respective consensus of the network participants (called nodes), thereby creating a continuous mechanism of control regarding manipulation, errors, and data quality.” Simply put, Blockchain … Read more DMPQ- . Discuss the status of Block Chain Technology in India.
. NATGRID plays following important roles in India’s security: National Intelligence Grid or NATGRID is an intelligence grid connecting the databases of 21 core security agencies to collect comprehensive patterns of intelligence. These databases include railway and air travel, income tax, bank account details, credit card transactions, etc. Despite prone to such terror attacks, we … Read more DMPQ- Discuss the importance of NATGRID and the areas where it needs improvements.
National Cybersecurity Coordination Centre (NCCC) It is India’s cyberspace intelligence agency which will conduct security and electronic surveillance. It aims to screen communications metadata and work in close coordination with various law-enforcement agencies for intelligence gathering. The body, functioning under the IT ministry, would strengthen the country’s cybersecurity posture. Some have expressed concern that the … Read more DMPQ- Describe India’s institutional framework for cybersecurity.
The process of protecting communication networks has many challenges; some of them are discussed below: External sourcing of equipment and technology Much of the software and hardware that makes up communication system are imported from other countries (Chinese devices account for more than 60% of total telecom equipment imports). These devices may contain back-window for … Read more DMPQ- Discuss the major challenges in securing communication networks.