Role of Public Sector enterprises in India’s industrialization in post reforms period; Disinvestment and Privatisation of Pubiic Enterprises

Public sector has played an important role in achieving industrial self reliance. Iron and steel, railway equipment, petroleum, coal and fertilizer industries, have been developed in this sector. These industries were established in industrially backward regions. During the seventh five year plan an emphasis was laid on high technology, high value addition and knowledge based … Read more

Problems of SMEs

MSMEs not only play crucial role in providing large employment opportunities at comparatively lower capital cost than large industries but also help in industrialization of rural & backward areas, thereby, reducing regional imbalances, assuring more equitable distribution of national income and wealth. MSMEs are complementary to large industries as ancillary units and this sector contributes … Read more

Industrial development and Economic reforms in India : Major changes in industrial policy, its impact on industrial growth

The Indian Government had undertaken industrial policy reforms since 1980, but the most radical reforms have occurred since 1991, after the severe economic crisis in fiscal year 1990-91. These reforms mainly aim  at enhancing the efficiency and international competitiveness in Indian industry. India’s industrial policy of 1991 towards liberalisation, deregulation, market orientation has been hailed … Read more

Agricultural sector reforms and its impact on growth; issues of subsidies and public investment on agriculture, reforms and agrarian crisis

Indian Agriculture is the Mainstay of Indian Economy.Since independence, undergone a change from being the sector contributing the highest share to the GDP to one contributing the lowest share.Agriculture is a state subject. GDP contribution (Agriculture and allied sector) 5 pc in 1950-51 7 pc in 2008-09 and 14.6 pc in 2009-10. It was 19 pc … Read more

Scheduled Commercial Banks

Table of Content:- Role of Commercial Banks Issue of NPA Financial Inclusion A Commercial bank is a type of financial institution that provides services such as accepting deposits, making business loans, and offering basic investment products There is acute shortage of capital. People lack initiative and enterprise. Means of transport are undeveloped. Industry is depressed. The commercial … Read more

rural banking impact on rural credit:sources and problems of rural credit, institutional credit,SHG, micro finance, NABARD, RRBs

68.84% of the population in India is rural based and majority of them depends on agriculture for a living. Enhanced and stable growth of the agriculture sector is important as it plays a vital role not only in generating purchasing power among the rural population by creating on-farm and off-farm employment opportunities but also through … Read more

Financial and Banking sector reforms

The Banking System at the time of independence was largely urban oriented and remained out of reach of rural population. Commercial Banks mostly confined their lending to trade, commerce and industry and treated agriculture as a non priority. Security- oriented lending was the order of the day. Banks did not pay any attention to the … Read more

Functions and Role of NDC, Planning Commission.

The principal function of planning, especially in a federal system, is to evolve a shared vision of and commitment to the national objectives and development strategy not only in the government at all levels, but also among all other economic agents. NITI Aayog acts as the quintessential platform of the Government of India to bring … Read more

Decentralized Planning : Meaning and importance; and decentralised planning; major initiatives in India

Decentralized Planning is a type of planning where local organisations and institutions formulate, adopt, execute actions and supervise the plan without interference by the central body. Decentralized planning in the State operated mainly through the following institutions and instruments; Grama Sabha (GS): People’s participation in decentralization was sought to be ensured mainly through meetings of … Read more

Development status and Issues pertaining to socially and economically marginalised sections, like STs, SCs, religious minorities,backward castes and women; schemes launched for their development by Central/State Governments, including TSP, SC,ST and minorities

The founding fathers of our Constitution desired to secure justice, social, economic and political for all citizens. They realized that the inequitable forces embedded in the socio-economic system and also political organizations, had resulted in deprivation and disadvantages for the poor and the weaker sections of the society. They, therefore, considered it necessary to provide … Read more

International financial institutions IMF, World Bank. WTO, their role and impact on Indian economy

The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), commonly referred to as the World Bank, is an international financial institution whose purposes include assisting the development of its member nation’s territories, promoting and supplementing private foreign investment and promoting long-range balance growth in international trade. The World Bank was established in December 1945 at the … Read more

Human Poverty Index (HPI), Multi Dimensional Indian poverty index.

Human Poverty Index (HPI) The Human Poverty Index (HPI) was first introduced into the Human Development Report by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) in 1997 in an attempt to bring together in a composite index the different features of deprivation in the quality of life to arrive at an aggregate judgement on the extent … Read more

Economic, social and environmental sustainability; concept of Green GDP; Strategy and policy for sustainable development in India

Economic, social and environmental sustainability The United Nations General Assembly adopted the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) as a universal and transformative development strategy. The 2030 Agenda commits the global community to “achieving sustainable development in its three dimensions—economic, social and environmental—in a balanced and integrated manner”. Bruntland Report … Read more

Meaning of Inclusive growth and development policy and strategy during 11th and 12th Five Year Plans.

Inclusive Growth is economic growth that creates opportunity for all segments of the population and distributes the dividends of increased prosperity, both in monetary and non-monetary terms, fairly across society.Indian Plans after the independence were based on the downward infiltration theory, which failed to bring equitable growth to all the sections of the Indian society. … Read more

Characteristics of Under Development

The term underdevelopment refers to that state of an economy where levels of living of masses are extremely low due to very low levels of per capita income resulting from low levels of productivity and high growth rates of population. Underdeveloped countries are now known as ‘developing countries’ signifying that such nations are capable of … Read more

Indicators of development: HDI,India’s HDI progress

Human development is a process of enlarging people’s choices. The most critical ones are to lead a long and healthy life, to be educated and to enjoy a decent standard of living. Additional choices include political freedom, guaranteed human rights and self-respect.Human development has to be development of the people, by the people, for the … Read more

Governmental policies for food and nutritional security

According to the 1996 World Food Summit, food security exists “when every person has physical and economic access at all times to healthy and nutritious food in sufficient quantity to cover the needs of their daily ration and food preferences, in order to live a healthy and active life.”   The nutritional dimension is an integral … Read more

Problems and issues of storage,procurement distribution,import and export: Government policies,schemes and programmes such as, PDS, ICDS and Mid-day Meal etc.

WHO Defines Food security to exists when all people, at all times, have physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food which meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life. Food security has three interlinked contents such as :- Availability of food, Access to food and absorption of food. Food … Read more

Financial inclusion

Financial inclusion or inclusive financing is the delivery of financial services at affordable costs to sections of disadvantaged and low-income segments of society, in contrast to financial exclusion where those services are not available or affordable. Government of India has launched an innovative scheme of Jan Dhan Yojna for Financial Inclusion to provide the financial … Read more

Meaning and Measurement of Economic Development

Economic Growth Economic growth means an increase in real GDP. This increase in real GDP means there is an increase in the value of national output / national expenditure. Economic growth is an important macro-economic objective because it enables increased living standards and helps create new jobs. Measurement of Economic Growth Economic growth is measured … Read more

Globalization of Indian economy ; its positive and negative impacts on different sectors, issues of FDI and FII in India.

Globalization essentially means integration of the national economy with the world economy. It implies a free flow of information, ideas, technology, goods and services, capital and even people across different countries and societies. It increases connectivity between different markets in the form of trade, investments and cultural exchanges. The concept of globalization has been explained … Read more

Structure of Indian monetary and banking system in India

Indian Money Market and Banking system is regulated by Reserve Bank of India.The Reserve Bank of India was established on April 1, 1935 in accordance with the provisions of the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934. Main Functions of RBI are as follows:- Monetary Authority: Formulates, implements and monitors the monetary policy. Objective: maintaining price … Read more

concept of VAT

VAT is a multi-stage tax levied at each stage of the value addition chain, with a provision to allow input tax credit (ITC) on tax paid at an earlier stage, which can be appropriated against the VAT liability on subsequent sale. VAT is intended to tax every stage of sale where some value is added … Read more

Public Expenditure : Theories of public expenditure; causes of growth of public expenditure and its impact on economy; internal and external borrowings.

Public expenditure is spending made by the government of a country on collective needs and wants such as pension, provision, infrastructure, etc. Until the 19th century, public expenditure was limited as laissez faire philosophies believed that money left in private hands could bring better returns. In democracy, public expenditure is an expression of people’s will, … Read more

Industrial Economy: Policy Initiative & charges

The Indian Government had undertaken industrial policy reforms since 1980, but the most radical reforms have occurred since 1991, after the severe economic crisis in fiscal year 1990-91. These reforms mainly aimed at enhancing the efficiency and international competitiveness in Indian industry. Growth in the industrial sector is one of the vital figures that affect … Read more

Ever Green Revolution and Rainbow revolution

Evergreen Revolution was a term coined by M.S. Swaminathan to indicate the development of  technologies that can help in increasing productivity in perpetuity without causing an associated ecological harm.He also stated that to achieve the goal of food security by ending hunger and to promote sustainable agriculture, it is important that in the field of social … Read more

WTO and agriculture

The World Trade Organization came into being in 1995 as the successor organization to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) established in the wake of the Second World War. It  is a multilateral framework (an agreement among governments) for conduct of international trade in goods and services and also for protection of intellectual … Read more

Pricing of agricultural inputs and outputs.

Agricultural prices cover prices of agricultural products (output prices) and prices of requisites for agricultural production (input prices) at various stages of marketing. The structure of Indian agricultural marketing system consists of: Agricultural Co-operative Marketing Societies; Regulated Markets; Public Trading and Futures Trading. Commission for Agricultural Costs and Prices (CACP)  while recommending the minimum support prices … Read more

Agricultural Marketing

Agricultural marketing is the study of all the activities, agencies and policies involved in the procurement of farm inputs by the farmers and the movement of agricultural products from the farms to the consumers. The agricultural marketing system is a link between the farm and the non-farm sectors. It includes the organization of agricultural raw … Read more

National Population Policy

India was the first nation to launched a family planning programme in 1952. Though the birth rate started decreasing, it was accompanied by a sharp decrease in death rate, leading to an overall increase in population.The early concept of population policy covered both mortality and fertility and did not exclusively focus on fertility. There was … Read more

Demographic dividend with special reference to census of 2011

Demographic dividend occurs when the proportion of working people in the total population is high because this indicates that more people have the potential to be productive and contribute to growth of the economy.An increase in the working age ratio can raise the rate of economic growth, and hence confer a “demographic dividend.” People of … Read more

Demographic features : Work force composition

Overall, labour-force to population ratio (in the age group 15 years and above) at 56 per cent is low in India compared to nearly 64 per cent for the rest of the world. The low participation in India is largely because the female labour force participation rate (LFPR) is dismally low at 31 per cent, … Read more

Sustainable development : concept and indicators of sustainable development

Mahatma Gandhi’s principle of “enoughness” in his saying “the earth provides enough to satisfy every persons need but not for every person’s greed” According to World Commission on Environment and Development, Our Common Future (1987) , Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to … Read more

Centre-State fiscal relationship,role of Finance Commission; Financial aspects of 73rd and 74th Constitutional amendments.

Under the Constitution the financial resources of the State are very limited though they have to do many works of social uplift under directive principles. In order to cope with their ever-expanding needs, the Central Government makes grants-in-aid to the States. Grant- in-aid to States , through it Central Government exercises a strict control over … Read more

Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM)

Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM) seeks to measure relative female representation in economic and political power. It considers gender gaps in political representation, in professional and management positions in the economy, as well as gender gaps in incomes .GEM is a measure of inequalities between men’s and women’s opportunities in a country. It gives indicators to … Read more

NATIONAL INCOME

National Income The study of National Income is important because of the following reasons: To see the economic development of the country. To assess the developmental objectives. To know the contribution of the various sectors to National Income. Internationally some countries are wealthy, some countries are not wealthy and some countries are in-between. Under such … Read more

Paper VI- GENERAL SCIENCE, ENVIRONMENT & TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT

JPSC Mains Notes for Paper VI- General Science, Environment & Technology Development With Seperate section for Physical Science, Life Science, Agriculture Science, Environmental Science and Science & Technology Development The question paper of General Science, Environment & Technology Development shall have six sections. Section – shall have 20 objective type of questions, each of 2 marks (20 « 40 Questions … Read more

Paper V- INDIAN ECONOMY, GLOBALIZATION AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

  Group (A) – Basic Features of Indian Economy (I) National Income ; Elementary concepts of national Income and methods of its calculation e-g,GDP, GNP, NDP, NNP, CSDP. NSDP, DDP at constant and current prices, at factor cost etc; (II) Inflation : Concept control of inflation : monetary, fiscal and direct measures. (III)Demographic features : … Read more

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