Human Rights

Human Rights are commonly understood as inalienable fundamental rights “to which a person is inherently entitled simply because she or he is a human being,” and which are “inherent in all human beings” regardless of their nation, location, language, religion, ethnic origin or any other status. The history of human rights can be traced to past documents, … Read more

Current Social Challenges, Issues related to Youth, Women, Children, Old Age People, Minority, Weaker Sections, Tribal, Farmers, Labourers and Professionals in India

Table of Content Caste System Issues Related to Women Gender Discrimination Low status of women Dowry System Sati practice Issues related to Youth Issues related to Minority Issues related to Weaker Sections Issues related to Tribal Issues related to Farmers Issues related to Labourers Issues related to Professionals Issues related to Person with Disablity Substance … Read more

Tax Reforms in India, Direct & Indirect Tax Reforms. Subsidies- Cash Transfer of Subsidy Issue.

Sience 1990 ie the liberalization of Indian economy saw the beginning of Taxation reforms in the nation. The taxation system in the nation has been subjected to consistent and comprehensive reform. Following factors arise the need for tax reforms in India:- Tax resources must be maximized for increased social sector investment in the economy. International competitiveness … Read more

Concept of Money Supply and High Powered Money

Money supply is the entire stock of currency and other liquid instruments in a country’s economy as of a particular time. The money supply can include cash, coins and balances held in checking and savings accounts. Money Supply can be estimated as narrow or broad money. There are four measures of money supply in India … Read more

Food Security & Public Distribution System(PDS)

WHO Defines Food security to exists when all people, at all times, have physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food which meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life. Food security has three interlinked contents such as :- Availability of food, Access to food and absorption of food. Food … Read more

Food Security & Public Distribution System(PDS)

WHO Defines Food security to exists when all people, at all times, have physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food which meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life. Food security has three interlinked contents such as :- Availability of food, Access to food and absorption of food. Food … Read more

Budgeting- Different types of Budgeting, Budgetary Control, Responsibility Accounting, Social Accounting, Different types of Deficits- Budgetary, Fiscal & Revenue Deficit.

    Table of Content:- Budgeting- Different types of Budgeting Budgetary Control Responsibility Accounting Social Accounting Different types of Deficits- Budgetary Fiscal Revenue Deficit   Budgeting is the process of estimating the availability of resources and then allocating them to various activities of an organization according to a pre-determined priority. In most cases, approval of … Read more

Banking- Role of Commercial Banks, Issue of NPA, Financial Inclusion:-

Table of Content:- Role of Commercial Banks Issue of NPA Financial Inclusion A Commercial bank is a type of financial institution that provides services such as accepting deposits, making business loans, and offering basic investment products There is acute shortage of capital. People lack initiative and enterprise. Means of transport are undeveloped. Industry is depressed. The commercial … Read more

Banking- Role of Commercial Banks, Issue of NPA, Financial Inclusion

Table of Content:- Role of Commercial Banks Issue of NPA Financial Inclusion A Commercial bank is a type of financial institution that provides services such as accepting deposits, making business loans, and offering basic investment products There is acute shortage of capital. People lack initiative and enterprise. Means of transport are undeveloped. Industry is depressed. The commercial … Read more

Various National Missions and Programmes:-

MNREGA Jan Dhan Yojna Atal Pension Yojna Skill India Mission Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Gram Jyoti Yojana Pradhan Mantri Suraksha Bima Yojana Pradhan Mantri Jeevan Jyoti Bima Yojana Sukanya Samridhi Yojana Pradhan Mantri  Garib Kalyan Yojana Jan Aushadhi Yojana (JAY) Nai Manzil Scheme for minority students The Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana (PMAY) or Housing for all … Read more

Sustainable and Inclusive Growth

The term Sustainable growth became prominent after the World Conservation Strategy Presented in 1980 by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Brundland Report(1987) define sustainable development as the a process which seek to meet the needs and aspirations of the present generation without compromising the ability of the future generation … Read more

Issues related to National Integrity and Security :

Table of contents:- Potential areas of Socio-political conflicts between and within Indian States, Traditional, Contemporary and Emerging Threats Internal and External Threats; Threats of Conflicts, Naxal Problems, Terrorism, Trans-border Infiltration and Insurgency Issues, Communalism, Organised crimes, Cyber issues, Drug trafficking and other such issues. Various disputes amongst the Indian states are :- 1-Inter State River … Read more

Geo–Political and Strategic Developments in India’s Neighborhood and their Impact on India.

Table of Content:- Indo- Afganistan Indo- Pakistan Indo- China Indo-Nepal Indo- Bhutan Indo-Myanmar Indo-Bangladesh Indo- Srilanka Republic of India was the only South Asian country to recognise the Soviet-backed Democratic Republic of Afghanistan in the 1980s, its relations were diminished during the Afghan civil wars and the rule of the Islamist Taliban in the 1990s.[1] … Read more

India’s Look East Policy

Background Launched in 1991 Why? In the wake of the collapse of Soviet Union India wanted to improve its relations with all major powers of the world India focused on South-East Asia as it was a growing market India wanted to go beyond the confines of SAARC to reap the benefits out of the economic … Read more

International Affair and Indian Foreign Policy.

What is Foriegn Policy FP refers to the sum total of the principles, interests and objectives which a country formulates in conducting its relations with other countries Serves to further the country’s interests beyond its frontiers It is dynamic Historical, geographical, political economic, cultural, ideological and other factors influence the formulation of nation’s FP Aims … Read more

Impact of Liberalisation

  The leading economists of the country differ in their opinion about the socioeconomic and ecological consequences of the policy of liberalisation.Liberalization has led to several positive and negative effects on Indian economy and society. Some of the consequences of liberalisation have been briefly described here: 1. Increase in the Direct Foreign Investment: The policy of … Read more

Impacts of Privatization

Privatization in generic terms refers to the process of transfer of ownership, can be of both permanent or long term lease in nature, of a once upon a time state-owned or public owned property to individuals or groups that intend to utilize it for private benefits and run the entity with the aim of profit maximization. ADVANTAGES … Read more

Impacts of Globalisation:-

Definition of Globalization :- Its a process(not an outcome) characterized by increasing global Interconnections by gradual removal of barriers to trade and investment between nation and higher economic efficiency through competitiveness. Various economic, political, social and cultural effects of globalization are as follows:- Breaking down of national economic barriers International spread of Trade, Financial and … Read more

Role of World Bank, IMF WTO & other Important International Organisations in world Economy:-

The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), commonly referred to as the World Bank, is an international financial institution whose purposes include assisting the development of its member nation’s territories, promoting and supplementing private foreign investment and promoting long-range balance growth in international trade. The World Bank was established in December 1945 at the … Read more

Comparative status of Developing, Emerging and Developed Countries,Problems of Developing Countries.

Various problems of developing countries are as follows:- The Uneven Pattern of Development:-The development gap has been widening for the very poorest countries. Lack of Resources for developement Inefficiency in resource use Inadequate Skilled human resources Stagnation in agricultural development Population growth is one of the central problems of economic development. Some developing countries have … Read more

Role and Impact of UNO and different world Organisations.

The United Nations Organisation (UNO) is the global international organisation of sovereign independent states. It was established on 24 October 1945. The destruction caused by the Second World War and failure of the League of nations compelled the people to establish an international organisation for keeping the world away from war and in favour of … Read more

Emerging World Order in the Post Cold War Era

The end of the Cold War in the early 1990s has had a dual impact on international relations. On the one hand, the Soviet military withdrawal from Eastern Europe and the Third World brought an end to the Cold War, allowed democratization to proceed in many states previously ruled by Marxist dictatorships, and led to … Read more

The Asiatic Society of bengal

? founded in 1784, by Sir William Jones, a British lawyer and Orientalist, to encourage Oriental studies. ? it was the vehicle for his ideas about the importance of Hindu culture and learning and about the vital role of Sanskrit in the Aryan languages. ? Headquarters are in Kolkata. ? The society owns an art collection … Read more

Famous Personalities of Fredom Struggle of India

Keshab Chander Sen :- ? was an Indian Bengali Hindu philosopher and social reformer who attempted to incorporate Christian theology within the framework of Hindu thought.He was born on 19th November 1838 in Kolkata. He was a descendant of the medieval Sena kings of Bengal. ? He was so influenced by the ideas of Brahmo … Read more

The Indian National Army or Azad Hind Fauj

  ? was an armed force formed by Indian nationalists in 1942 in Southeast Asia during World War II. The aim of the army was to liberate India from the British occupation with Japanese assistance. Initially composed of Indian prisoners of war captured by Japan in the Malayan campaign and at Singapore, it later drew … Read more

Features, Amendments and Significant provisions of Indian Constitution

Amendments Amendments to the Constitution are made by the Parliament, the procedure for which is laid out in Article 368. An amendment bill must be passed by both the Houses of the Parliament by a two-thirds majority and voting. In addition to this, certain amendments which pertain to the federal nature of the Constitution must … Read more

Basic Structure of Indian Constitution

Basic Structure The basic structure doctrine is an Indian judicial principle that the Constitution of India has certain basic features that cannot be altered or destroyed through amendments by the parliament. Key among these “basic features”, are the fundamental rights granted to individuals by the constitution. The doctrine thus forms the basis of a limited … Read more

Indian Constitution : historical underpinnings

Constitution Constitution is the fundamental law of a country which ordains the fundamental principles on which the government (or the governance) of that country is based. It lays down the framework and principal functions of various organs of the government as well as the modalities of interaction between the government and its citizens. With the … Read more

French Revolution:-

It gave birth to ideas of liberty, freedom and equality It led to the end of monarchy in France A society based on privileges gave way to a new system of governance The Declarations of the Rights of Man during the revolution, announced the coming of a new time. The idea that all individuals had … Read more

American War of Independence.

Philosophes such as Voltaire considered England’s government the most progressive in Europe. England’s ruler was no despot, not even an enlightened one. His power had been limited by law. The Glorious Revolution of 1688 had given England a constitutional monarchy. However, while the English monarch’s power was being limited at home, the power of the … Read more

Coastal Regulation Zone

 Act of 1991 To regulate development activity on India’s coastline The approach adopted by the first notification was to define the ‘High Tide Line’ and ‘Coastal Regulation Zone’ and thereafter specify the activities permitted and restricted in the vicinity of the CRZ This regulated zone was further divided into four categories (CRZ 1-4) as per permitted … Read more

Wetland Conservation Programme, Ramsar Convention and The Montreux Record.

Wetland Conservation Programme Wetlands are lands transitional between terrestrial and aquatic system where the water table is usually near the water surface and land is covered by shallow water. Essential as: control floods, water treatment, recharging of water sources, reduce sediments, check soil erosion, bulwark against encroachment by the sea, winter resort for birds and … Read more

Sustainable Development

Bruntland Report (1983) was the first publication and recognition of the term ‘Sustainable Development’ “meeting the needs of the present generation without compromising the needs of the future generation” Three pillars of sustainable development (Bruntland) Care and respect for People, Planet and Prosperity (Commercial Activities) <hence poverty alleviation, conservation and business development> These three pillars … Read more

CoP15 (Copenhagen Summit)

Main aim was to establish a global climate agreement for the period from 2012 when the first commitment period under the Kyoto Protocol expires The conference did not achieve any binding agreement for long term action A ‘political accord’ was negotiated by approximately 25 parties Collective commitment by developed countries for new and additional resources … Read more

Kyoto Protocol

The Kyoto Protocol has put in place three flexibility mechanisms to reduce emission of Green House Gases. Although the Protocol places maximum responsibility of reducing emissions on the developed countries by committing them to specific emission targets, the three mechanisms are based on the premise that reduction of emissions in any part of the globe … Read more

Inter-governmental action

IPCC UN Conference on Environment and Development (Earth Summit), 1992 Agenda 21 An action plan of UN relating to sustainable development adopted at the Earth Summit, 1992 UNFCCC Kyoto Protocol IPCC 1988 by World Meteorological Organisation and UNEP tasked with reviewing and assessing the most recent scientific, technical and socio-economic information produced worldwide relevant to … Read more

Climate Change Mitigation

Alternative Energy sources Renewable energy Nuclear Power Reduce the carbon intensity of fossil fuels Energy efficiency and conservation Transport and urban planning Building design Reforestation and avoid deforestation Eliminating waste methane Geoengineering Greenhouse gas remediation Biomass Carbon air capture Carbon capture and storage Societal control Population Sustainable life-style

Global Warming

An increase in the average temperature of Earth’s near surface air and oceans since the mid-20th century 4th assessment report of IPCC: global temperature increased 74+0.18 degree C during the 20th century. Caused by greenhouse gases Water vapour, Co2, Methane, Nitrous Oxide, Ozone, CFCs (in order of abundance) Since the industrial revolution, the burning of … Read more

Climate Change

It is the long term change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns over periods of time Though it has been happening naturally for millions of years, in recent years it has accelerated due to anthropogenic causes and has been causing global warming. UNFCCC defines climate change as – “a change of climate which is … Read more

BT Brinjal & Risk assessment

BT Brinjal In 2006, Maharashtra Hybird Seeds Company submitted biosafety and efficacy data to the GEAC and applied for permission to conduct large-scale trials At the same time SC imposed a ban on the on-going field trials An expert committee was constituted by GEAC to look into the concerns raised by several civil society actors … Read more

The Freedom Struggle & Indian National Movement- its various stages and important contributors /contributions from different parts of the country.

  Revolt of 1857 Rise of National Movement and Indian National Congress Moderator Phase in National Movement Freedom of Press Swadesi Movement The Split in the Congress Morley-Minto Reforms, 1909 Growth of Communalism World War I and Indian Nationalism The Home Rule Movement Lucknow Pact (1916) Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms and Rowalt act Gandhi’s early career and activism … Read more

Wavell Plan & Shimla Conference-

In May 1945, Lord Wavell, the Viceroy of India, went to London and discussed his ideas about the future of India with the British administration. The talks resulted in the formulation of a plan of action that was made public in June 1945. The plan is known as Wavell Plan. The Plan suggested reconstitution of … Read more

CR Formula

C. Rajagopalachari’s formula (or C. R. formula or Rajaji formula) was a proposal formulated by Chakravarthi Rajagopalachari to solve the political deadlock between the All India Muslim League and Indian National Congress on independence of India from the British. C. Rajagopalachari, a Congress leader from Madras, devised a proposal for the Congress to offer the … Read more

August Offer (1940)

After the WWII began, British sought cooperation from India. August Offer offered three proposals. Firstly, it called for an immediate expansion of Viceroy’s Executive Council with the inclusion of India representatives; secondly, an advisory body with the members from British India and Indian princely states which were supposed to meet at consequent intervals was established … Read more

Civil Disobedience Movement and Gandhi-Irwin Pact, 1931

Started by Gandhi on 12th March 1930 with the Dandi March. Reached Dandi on April 6. Defiance of forest laws in Maharashtra, Central Province and Karnataka. Refusal to pay chaukidari tax in Eastern India. Wide participation of women Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan organized Khudai Khidmatgars (aka Red Shirts) Nagaland: Rani Gaidilieu First RTC, 1930 Congress … Read more

Simon Commission (1927)

Indian Statutory Commission chaired by Simon to go into the question of further constitutional reform All its seven members were Englishmen. Clement Attlee was one of the members. Lord Birkinhead was the secretary of state at that time At its Madras session in 1927 INC decided to boycott the commission “at every stage and in … Read more

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