HUMAN EVOLUTION Human evolution is the lengthy process of change by which people originated from apelike ancestors. Scientific evidence shows that the physical and behavioral traits shared by all people originated from apelike ancestors and evolved over a period of approximately six million years.  One of the earliest defining human traits, bipedalism — the ability … Read more


MOLECULAR BASIS OF DIFFERENTIATION Whenever growth occurs, increase in mass, weight etc. takes place. Number of cells increases due to cell division. Sometimes, cells grow in size and they do not divide and lead to growth. The simple multiplication of cells would produce masses of cells but not an organism.   Knowledge of developmental processes as … Read more

Gene Regulation

GENE REGULATION Gene regulation is the informal term used to describe any mechanism used by a cell to increase or decrease the production of specific gene products (protein or RNA). Cells can modify their gene expression patterns to trigger developmental pathways, respond to environmental stimuli, or adapt to new food sources. All points of gene … Read more

Protein Synthesis

PROTEIN SYNTHESIS Proteins are the end product of many metabolic processes. A typical cell requires thousands of different protein molecules at any given moment. So, the protein requirements of a particular cell has to be satisfied by synthesizing them at site or has to be transferred from where it is being synthesized. This is in … Read more

DNA Structure & Function, DNAReplication,

DNA: STRUCTURE   DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is the hereditary material in humans and almost all other organisms. Nearly every cell in a person’s body has the same DNA. Most DNA is located in the cell nucleus (where it is called nuclear DNA), but a small amount of DNA can also be found in the … Read more


  Whether an animal will become a male, a female, or a hermaphrodite is determined very early in development. Scientists have worked for hundreds of years to understand the sex-determination system. The first major breakthrough in understanding sex determination was the discovery of sex chromosomes in the early 1900s. From meticulous analyses of male and … Read more


  The chromosomes present in the diploid cells of the majority of the sexually reproducing animals are of two types: autosomes bearing genes for somatic characters and sex chromosomes bearing genes for sex.  Sex chromosomes also carry some genes for non-sexual characters such as colour blindness and haemophilia.  Such genes which are always associated with … Read more

Medallion Inheritance – Monohybrid and Dihybrid cross

MENDELIAN INHERITENCE Mendelian inheritance is a type of biological inheritance that follows the laws originally proposed by Gregor Mendel in 1865 and 1866 and re-discovered in 1900. These laws were initially very controversial. When Mendel’s theories were integrated with the Boveri–Sutton chromosome theory of inheritance by Thomas Hunt Morgan in 1915, they became the core … Read more

Hormones – Plant hormones and growth regulation.Animal hormones and their functions.

HORMONES Hormones are chemical messengers that are secreted directly into the blood, which carries them to organs and tissues of the body to exert their functions. There are many types of hormones that act on different aspects of bodily functions and processes. Some of these include: Development and growth Metabolism of food items Sexual function … Read more


ENZYMES Enzyme, a substance that acts as a catalyst in living organisms, regulating the rate at which chemical reactions proceed without itself being altered in the process. The biological processes that occur within all living organisms are chemical reactions, and most are regulated by enzymes. Without enzymes, many of these reactions would not take place … Read more


VITAMINS Vitamins are organic compounds which are needed in small quantities to sustain life. We need to take vitamins from food because the human body either does not produce enough of them or none at all. There are two types of vitamins: Fat-soluble vitamins: Fat-soluble vitamins are stored in the fatty tissues of the body … Read more

Theories of Evolution of Life on earth, including Human Evolution

THEORIES OF EVOLUTION Evolution, simply put, is descent with modification. This definition encompasses small-scale evolution (changes in gene frequency in a population from one generation to the next) and large-scale evolution (the descent of different species from a common ancestor over many generations). Evolution helps us to understand the history of life. Evolution is not … Read more

Bio molecules – structure and function of carbohydrates, proteins and fats.Vitamins and deficiency diseases, Enzymes, Hormones – Plant hormones and growth regulation.Animal hormones and their functions.

BIOMOLECULES There is vast diversity of living organisms. The chemical compositon and metabolic reactions of the organisms appear to be similar. The composition of living tissues and non-living matter also appear to be similar in qualitative analysis.Closer analysis reveals that the relative abundance of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen is higher in living system.  All forms … Read more

Diversity of organism

  Each organism is different from other organisms. The total number of species living on the planet is imprecisely known and published estimates vary from 12 million to over 100 million. This is because there are large numbers of species yet undiscovered and undescribed, and there is not always agreement on whether certain organisms should … Read more

Different agro-climatic zones of Jharkhand, rain fall pattern and known abiotic stresses in each zone

ADifferent agro-climatic zones of Jharkhand, rain fall pattern and known abiotic stresses in each zone. Three Agro-Climatic zones of Jharkhand are: Western Plateau Zone Central and North Eastern Plateau Zone South Eastern Plateau Zone Agro-Climatic Zone of Jharkhand Region Name Districts Name  Western Plateau Zone Bokaro Latehar Lohardanga Gumla Hazaribagh   Palamau   Ranchi Simdega Chatara … Read more

The living world, Cell-Structure and its functions, Diversity of organism

The living world Objects having characteristics of cellular organization, growth, reproduction, ability to sense environment and give response are living organisms. There are some important features of living organisms: It should grow, which means its structure changes as time goes by in an advantageous manner. It should show adaptation to the environment. It should maintain … Read more


JPSC Mains Notes for Paper VI- General Science, Environment & Technology Development With Seperate section for Physical Science, Life Science, Agriculture Science, Environmental Science and Science & Technology Development The question paper of General Science, Environment & Technology Development shall have six sections. Section – shall have 20 objective type of questions, each of 2 marks (20 « 40 Questions … Read more

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