Functioning under a Coalition Government

Coalition government is a cabinet of a parliamentary government in which several parties cooperate. Coalition governments are usually formed as no party can individually achieve a majority in the parliament. However, a coalition government may also be created in a time of national difficulty or crisis. If a coalition collapses, a confidence vote is held … Read more

Principles of Natural justice & Rule of Law

  Rule of Law may be defined as a principle of governance in which all persons, institutions and entities, public and private, including the State itself, are accountable to laws that are publicly promulgated, equally enforced and independently adjudicated, and which are consistent with international human rights norms and standards. It requires, as well, measures … Read more

Provisions relating to Administration of Scheduled Areas and Scheduled Tribal Areas.

“The Scheduled Areas” are those tribal inhabited areas which are located in other parts of the country than the North-East India. These areas are located in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand, Maharashtra, Orissa and Rajasthan. Besides these areas, some other regions of the country also are governed … Read more

Political Parties and Pressure Groups.

Political Parties and Elections Political parties are an established part of modern mass democracy, and the conduct of elections in India is largely dependent on the behaviour of political parties. Although many candidates for Indian elections are independent, the winning candidates for Lok Sabha and Vidhan Sabha elections usually stand as members of political parties, … Read more

State Legislature : Organization, Powers and functions, with special reference to Jharkhand

Articles 168 to 212 in Part VI of the Constitution deal with the organisation, composition, duration, officers, procedures, privileges, powers and so on of the state legislature.In most of the States, the Legislature consists of the Governor and the Legislative Assembly (Vidhan Sabha). This means that these State have unicameral Legislature. In a Six States( … Read more

Subordinate Judiciary

Articles 233 to 237 in Part VI of the Constitution make the following provisions to regulate the organization of subordinate courts and to ensure their independence from the executive . Articles 233 to 237 in Part VI of the Constitution make the following provisions to regulate the organization of subordinate courts and to ensure their … Read more

Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers

The executive powers of the President are exercised by the Council of Ministers. The Constitution provides that “there shall be a Council of Ministers with the Prime Minister at the head to aid and advise the President in the excercise of his functions”. Here the word “shall” indicates that the President cannot function without the … Read more

Powers and functions of The Vice President

Vice-President performs a dual role : (1) as Vice-President (2) as the Chairman of Rajya Sabha. The Vice-President is the ex-officio Chairman of Rajya Sabha which means that whosoever is the Vice-President, he/she presides over the Rajya Sabha and performs normal duties of a presiding officer. These include maintenance of order in the House, allowing … Read more

Functions and Role of NDC, Planning Commission.

The principal function of planning, especially in a federal system, is to evolve a shared vision of and commitment to the national objectives and development strategy not only in the government at all levels, but also among all other economic agents. NITI Aayog acts as the quintessential platform of the Government of India to bring … Read more

Decentralized Planning : Meaning and importance; and decentralised planning; major initiatives in India

Decentralized Planning is a type of planning where local organisations and institutions formulate, adopt, execute actions and supervise the plan without interference by the central body. Decentralized planning in the State operated mainly through the following institutions and instruments; Grama Sabha (GS): People’s participation in decentralization was sought to be ensured mainly through meetings of … Read more

Delegation, Centralization and decentrailzation of authority

Delegation The active process of entrustment of a part of work or responsibility and authority to another and the creation of accountability for performance is known as delegation. Thus, there are three elements of delegation as follows- Assignment of Responsibility: This is also known as entrustment of duties. Duties can be divided into two parts: … Read more

Union Judiciary : The Supreme Court ; its role and powers

The Supreme Court is the highest court of The Indian Republic.  Judiciary, the third organ of the government, has an important role to play in the governance. It settles the disputes, interprets laws, protects fundamental rights and acts as guardian of the Constitution. India has a single unified and integrated judicial system and that the … Read more

Development status and Issues pertaining to socially and economically marginalised sections, like STs, SCs, religious minorities,backward castes and women; schemes launched for their development by Central/State Governments, including TSP, SC,ST and minorities

The founding fathers of our Constitution desired to secure justice, social, economic and political for all citizens. They realized that the inequitable forces embedded in the socio-economic system and also political organizations, had resulted in deprivation and disadvantages for the poor and the weaker sections of the society. They, therefore, considered it necessary to provide … Read more

International financial institutions IMF, World Bank. WTO, their role and impact on Indian economy

The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), commonly referred to as the World Bank, is an international financial institution whose purposes include assisting the development of its member nation’s territories, promoting and supplementing private foreign investment and promoting long-range balance growth in international trade. The World Bank was established in December 1945 at the … Read more

Economic, social and environmental sustainability; concept of Green GDP; Strategy and policy for sustainable development in India

Economic, social and environmental sustainability The United Nations General Assembly adopted the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) as a universal and transformative development strategy. The 2030 Agenda commits the global community to “achieving sustainable development in its three dimensions—economic, social and environmental—in a balanced and integrated manner”. Bruntland Report … Read more

Meaning of Inclusive growth and development policy and strategy during 11th and 12th Five Year Plans.

Inclusive Growth is economic growth that creates opportunity for all segments of the population and distributes the dividends of increased prosperity, both in monetary and non-monetary terms, fairly across society.Indian Plans after the independence were based on the downward infiltration theory, which failed to bring equitable growth to all the sections of the Indian society. … Read more

Characteristics of Under Development

The term underdevelopment refers to that state of an economy where levels of living of masses are extremely low due to very low levels of per capita income resulting from low levels of productivity and high growth rates of population. Underdeveloped countries are now known as ‘developing countries’ signifying that such nations are capable of … Read more

Gender Development Index (GDI)

The GDI measures gender gaps in human development achievements by accounting for disparities between women and men in three basic dimensions of human development—health, knowledge and living standards using the same component indicators as in the HDI. The GDI is the ratio of the HDIs calculated separately for females and males using the same methodology … Read more

Indicators of development: HDI,India’s HDI progress

Human development is a process of enlarging people’s choices. The most critical ones are to lead a long and healthy life, to be educated and to enjoy a decent standard of living. Additional choices include political freedom, guaranteed human rights and self-respect.Human development has to be development of the people, by the people, for the … Read more

Governmental policies for food and nutritional security

According to the 1996 World Food Summit, food security exists “when every person has physical and economic access at all times to healthy and nutritious food in sufficient quantity to cover the needs of their daily ration and food preferences, in order to live a healthy and active life.”   The nutritional dimension is an integral … Read more

Concept of Agro-forestry, Waste lands and means to reclaim them

Agroforestry: Agroforestry is a land-use system in which trees/shrubs are grown in association with agricultural crops, pastures or livestock. This integration of trees and shrubs in the land-use system can be either a spatial arrangement, e.g. trees growing in a field at the same time as the crop, or in a time sequence, e.g. shrubs … Read more

Government schemes for the benefit of the farmers of the Jharkhand

Some of the government schemes for the benefits of the farmers in Jharkhand are: Single Window Platform-> Jharkhand has become the first state in India to launch a single-window facility for farmers. Kisan Suvidha App-> It is a free mobile application that provides weather forecasts for the next five days, besides information on prices of … Read more

Problems and issues of storage,procurement distribution,import and export: Government policies,schemes and programmes such as, PDS, ICDS and Mid-day Meal etc.

WHO Defines Food security to exists when all people, at all times, have physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food which meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life. Food security has three interlinked contents such as :- Availability of food, Access to food and absorption of food. Food … Read more

Financial inclusion

Financial inclusion or inclusive financing is the delivery of financial services at affordable costs to sections of disadvantaged and low-income segments of society, in contrast to financial exclusion where those services are not available or affordable. Government of India has launched an innovative scheme of Jan Dhan Yojna for Financial Inclusion to provide the financial … Read more

New economic Reforms-Liberalization, Privatization and Globalization, rationale and need for reforms

Impacts of Privatization Privatization in generic terms refers to the process of transfer of ownership, can be of both permanent or long term lease in nature, of a once upon a time state-owned or public owned property to individuals or groups that intend to utilize it for private benefits and run the entity with the aim of … Read more

Meaning and Measurement of Economic Development

Economic Growth Economic growth means an increase in real GDP. This increase in real GDP means there is an increase in the value of national output / national expenditure. Economic growth is an important macro-economic objective because it enables increased living standards and helps create new jobs. Measurement of Economic Growth Economic growth is measured … Read more

Globalization of Indian economy ; its positive and negative impacts on different sectors, issues of FDI and FII in India.

Globalization essentially means integration of the national economy with the world economy. It implies a free flow of information, ideas, technology, goods and services, capital and even people across different countries and societies. It increases connectivity between different markets in the form of trade, investments and cultural exchanges. The concept of globalization has been explained … Read more

Structure of Indian monetary and banking system in India

Indian Money Market and Banking system is regulated by Reserve Bank of India.The Reserve Bank of India was established on April 1, 1935 in accordance with the provisions of the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934. Main Functions of RBI are as follows:- Monetary Authority: Formulates, implements and monitors the monetary policy. Objective: maintaining price … Read more

concept of VAT

VAT is a multi-stage tax levied at each stage of the value addition chain, with a provision to allow input tax credit (ITC) on tax paid at an earlier stage, which can be appropriated against the VAT liability on subsequent sale. VAT is intended to tax every stage of sale where some value is added … Read more

Composition and direction of India’s trade; Balance of payment problem

Balance of Payments is a systematic record of all economic transactions undertaken by residents of one country i.e. households, firms and the government with their counterparts in rest of the world. It consists of: 1. Current Account, 2. Capital Account and 3. Reserve Account. The Current Account covers transactions in goods and services and transfers … Read more

Fiscal Policy : Concept and role of fiscal policy in achieving employment, stability and economic development.

Fiscal policy is that part of Government policy which is concerned with raising revenues through taxation and other means along with deciding on the level and pattern of expenditure it operates through budget. However, generally the expenditure exceeds the revenue income of the Government. In order to meet this situation, the Government imposes new taxes … Read more

Public Expenditure : Theories of public expenditure; causes of growth of public expenditure and its impact on economy; internal and external borrowings.

Public expenditure is spending made by the government of a country on collective needs and wants such as pension, provision, infrastructure, etc. Until the 19th century, public expenditure was limited as laissez faire philosophies believed that money left in private hands could bring better returns. In democracy, public expenditure is an expression of people’s will, … Read more

Public Revenue-Principles and types of taxation; direct, indirect, progressive and proportional

India has a well developed taxation structure. The tax system in India is mainly a three tier system which is based between the Central, State Governments and the local government organizations. In most cases, these local bodies include the local councils and the municipalities. According to the Constitution of India, the government has the right … Read more